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ord of having "perjured himself like a gentleman" when occasion seemed to demand! So it has ever been with the patriarchs and prophets, the makers of history, the shapers of destiny, the men and women who made puppets out of popes and kings, and all the host of the Immortals. They reveled in large, lusty and exuberant vices-proportioned exactly to the virtues and the powers that made them great. David, the sweet singer of Israel, would not have been one-half so interesting a personality had he not loved the wife of Uriah, and his tuneful psalms would be unsung. True, it was a little rough on the unlucky Hittite, but he was a victim of circumstances that the amorous King controlled only in seeming. Solomon no doubt owed the larger part of his wisdom to his many wives and concubines; Sampson might have lived and died a commonplace and unheroic slugger had he not yielded to the wiles of the deceitful Delilah. She cut his hair and robbed him of his strength-but she gave him immortality! Surely the price he paid was none too high.

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the grateful nicotine. If we enjoy a cocktail or a generous stein of pale lager, why should we sneak in at the side door of a saloon as if we were trying to dodge a bill collector or process server, or going to commit a felony? "Drink hearty," as men enjoying clear consciences and a sound digestion! Were not the good things of life created that they might be enjoyed? If you feel that you must swear, cuss the office boy, the gas company, the street car conductor, the policeman, the city administration or the Japs; but as you hope for salvation, don't let your lips drip the honey of Hymettus all day long among your casual acquaintances and business associates, and then go home to vent your spleen upon your wife, children and servants, who can't get back at you, and who are ashamed to tell the neighbors. If you enjoy vaudeville, sit in the front row with the other baldheads, and study pink tights, shapely limbs and alabaster shoulders till custom breeds satiety. It will swell box-office receipts, encourage profession, and harm no one but the misguided busybodies who think every one else as prurient and evil-minded as themselves. There are people who find evil in Shakespeare, who cry "unclean" at the sight of a piece of statuary, whose moral (or immoral) sensibilities are shattered beyond repair at the suggestion of female grace and beauty on a bill-board or calendar. These uncomfortable individuals, with pink tea consciences and saffron souls will doubtless some day demand an expurIf gated Bible, and ask the banishment of the Madonna and the unclothed Christchild. They are the vandals who have torn Ovid into tatters, mutilated Horace beyond recognition, banished Boccacio from the shelves of public libraries, and condemned Congreve, Webster, Prior, Sheridan and Beaumont and Fletcher to the limbo of the bibliomaniac's collection. The purists in morals who cannot enter the studio of an artist without offense, who cannot read the Decameron without outrage to their tender sensibilities, who can see nothing but the nudity of the Apollo Belvidere and no more than an unclothed woman in the Winged Victory, to whom Cupid spells lust and Aphrodite. means lechery, to whom cards are an abomination, the theatre a place accursed,

It is not the object of this sermonette to encourage license, nor yet to discourage those who honestly strive after righteousness; but to induce those who turn the spotlight upon the flaws in the conduct of others to retire to some secret place and there, by the feeble flicker of a tallow dip, take a look at the rottenness in their own souls. It is a puny and inadequate protest against the hypocrisy, sham, cant, deceit and self-righteousness of the hour. If the devil ever goes to bed happy, it is after a chance meeting with one of those smooth, smug, sleek, slick and sanctimonious sinners who make parade of their own spotlessness. Whoso cherishes the delusion that he is better than his neighbors or seeks to spread the heresy that holiness is either possible or desirable in the children of the flesh, is lost beyond hope of redemption. Let us hold fast to our vices as the badge of our brotherhood in the great lodge of humanity. So long as they are ours, our hope of the Kingdom of Heaven (which is within us) is sure. It is not until we become theirs that the call to repentance becomes imperative. If we happen to smoke or chew, let us do so in the fear of God, and give thanks for

and a billiard room the antechamber to Hades these are the devil's own busy and tireless agents, disguised in the shining robes of righteousness. In their acidulated breasts the milk of human kindness has long ago turned into unwholesome curds and whey.

It is notorious that those whose gorge rises at the remotest suggestion of immorality in fiction, scent it like sleuths in real life, gloat over it in the columns of the newspapers, and roll it like a sweet morsel under their tongues when served with it in the form of salacious tid-bits of personal gossip. They are too holy to attend the theatre, because, forsooth, the actors belong to an immoral class, and the plays are, or may be, suggestive; but they shrink not from the bald and hideous realism of a divorce suit in "High Life" or of an "unwritten law" murder trial. They are the scavengers of society: like jackals and buzzards they demand that the rottenness upon which they feed and fatten be real. True swine that they are, they crowd around the swill trough; but shun the stage, because they want the real thing. The sewing society ghouls and after dinner scandal-mongers who dissect the quivering souls of their acquaintances with the merciless scalpel of criticism and gossip in search of the unclean, just as a pathologist might examine the corpse of a victim of the plague searching for the microscopic bacilli of disease, are more dangerous and depraved than the worst and lowest of social outcasts. In fact, they may never have transgressed the law or the gospel, but they are farther from the Throne of Grace than any unrepentant Magdalene.

Vice and virtue, after all, are highly elastic and purely relative terms. There are fads and fashions in morals as well as in clothes, so that the purist of one age might pass for the libertine of another. There is but one real standard of morality -and that is but rarely applied by the mass of humanity in the formation of judgment concerning individual conduct. That standard is the good of the community. In past ages, the welfare of society has justified polygamy, polyandry, concubinage, suicide, the exposure of infants and crimes that may not now be even named. The man whose acts in no respect

injure or menace others can never be an immoral man, no matter how far he wanders from the straight line of accepted conventions. The man whose acts and conduct operate to the injury of his fellows is never a moral man, even though he be an extremist in the practice of all the common household virtues of civilization-which we so habitually and so grossly exaggerate. These are all necessary and laudable in their own time and place, but their possession is not conclusive proof of moral excellence, nor is indulgence in the milder vices even presumptive proof of depravity. The one, no less than the other, is necessary to lift man above the level of the brutes. A photograph must have deep shadows and half-tones, as well as high-lights, else it will be of little merit as a work of art and of less value as a record. So it is with character. Light and shadow and a debatable middle ground are all essential to completeness. A perfect man should mean a complete man, not an angel of light. An angelic man could have no sympathy with the rest of humanity. Of all men he would be the least fit for preaching, because the hidden mainsprings of human conduct would be to him unknowable and inconceivable. This is why so much of the preaching of to-day is flat, stale and unprofitable, falling vainly upon ears that hear not. Not that the preachers are strangers to the human vices, failings, follies and foibles; but that they hypocritically shut their eyes, hearts and understandings. One might listen to one of these wooden expounders of a cut, dried and fossilized morality for ages, and never have reason to suspect him of being human. If he ever lived, loved, hated, feared, rejoiced, sorrowed or experienced. any of the emotions that are the bane and blessing of humankind, he gives no sign. This is the difference between the great preacher and the little parson: the former is first of all a MAN. He draws crowds of eager listeners because those who hear him recognize a great and sympathetic soul that has sounded the depths as well as scaled the heights. The latter declaims. to empty pews because men have little relish for dead platitudes, even though they be true, falling from the lips of an

automaton.

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE AND PROGRESS

BY OLCOTT HASKELL

Assistant Christian Science Committee on Publication

CRITICISM recently published in the Overland Monthly opens with the statement: "If Christian Science means anything, it means that by taking an attitude of faith toward God we will be cured of our sins and bodily diseases." Doubtless this statement represents what is by some supposed to be a doctrine of this Science, but it is not correct. What Christian Science does teach is that by an attitude of understanding "toward God we will be cured of our sins and diseases." The difference between faith and understanding is in this instance vital, for blind belief or credulous trust can have no place in science, while the principles of a true science can only be comprehended and used through the attainment of understanding. Any one who has studied Christian Science sufficiently to apply it even in the least degree, must recognize the distinction here drawn, for however fully a man may believe a principle to be true, his ability to practically conform to its laws will only be in proportion to his understanding. No teaching could more faithfully inculcate respect for and understanding of law. No such doctrine as that of the "irregular intervention of the supernatural" could find a place in the science which takes as its fundamental postulates the all-embracing power and eternal continuity of divine law. Were it otherwise, Christian Science would indeed be a "movement backward."

Because a science deals with laws which are such as are not evident to the material senses, it is none the less true; and because it discerns the principle governing life it is none the less scientific. In Mr. Medina's article, to which we refer, it is admitted that without "the idea of mind,"

matter and its relations cannot be correctly explained. To this statement we agree, but Christian Science pursues the question further, and holds that without the recognition of Divine Mind, or God, no consciousness can be explained. Either matter rules all or Divine Mind rules all. If mind is necessary to explain even the evanescent substance of dreams, how much more is it necessary to admit a primal Intelligence in order that we may interpret the phenomena discerned by waking thought? To those who claim that to admit God, or a Supreme Intelligence, is to make an unwarranted assumption, we may point out that while Life is too deep, too wonderful and too eternal for human thought to comprehend its full significance, yet we may even now grasp enough to lead us harmoniously on from one experience to another in an ever broadening consciousness of the perfection, continunity and grandeur of the laws of being.

From a purely material standpoint, however, how far can progress be made toward an understanding of life? Matter is not conscious, and mind must be admitted even before the simplest sensation can be explained. Taking God as the starting point (as does the Bible), and reasoning deductively from this perfect premise, the Christian Scientist has to assume no more, and puts less strain on credulity than the man who predicates matter as the basis of all reality; for the materialist is at once confronted with the astonishing hypothesis that the stream shall rise higher than its source that matter shall evolve mind, and that this mind shall reach up toward the moral and spiritual. Where do the mental and spiritual come from if matter is assumed to be the only creator? The philosophy Christian Science leads to no such dilemma as that suggested by this question. It never "mixes the natural with

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the supernatural," but clearly defines the good and the real as expressions of principle, and therefore eternal, but the evil and the unreal as failures to express principle, and therefore powerless and transient. It should be noted that the Christian Scientist seeks no abrogation of law for the healing of sickness, but on the contrary holds that it is a failure to recognize moral and spiritual law which induces a sense of sin and suffering, and that this sense can be healed only through regeneration and obedience. From this standpoint, one sees, in what have been called the "miracles" of Jesus, no setting aside of law, but a masterly recognition of and obedience to, law more powerful, because more truly expressive of principle, than that which men had supposed to be law. Likewise with the healing of sin and sickness today, this work is founded. upon a clear recognition of the Principle of man's being, which we call God. Many try to explain the beneficial results of Christian Science treatment by assuming that they are due to human suggestion or will-power, acting independently of the Divine Mind or Divine Law. But since human thought did not create itself, and cannot explain even its own intelligence except by reference to a higher, why not at once acknowledge this higher Intelligence as the only and universal power?

As regarding sin, we agree with our critic that the world would be better off without it. He defines sin as "immorality," and states that "it is a creation of man, not of the Creator." Can man create what God cannot? And does not the answer to this query suggest the Christian

Science teaching that sin is a mistake of human thought, not a real or eternal thing of God's creating, and that it is merely a terrible mistake on the part of the erring human mind, from which mortals suffer so long as they believe and practice it, but which may be corrected and destroyed through a right understanding of God and man's real relation to Him and His universe?

Again we desire to explain that "calling for the intervention of the supernatural" is not the Christian Science conception of prayer, which is clearly defined in the opening chapter of Mrs. Eddy's work, Science and Health, as bringing man into harmony with God, not God into harmony with man.

Hence the natural deduction that the only practical pathway for human progress lies through active exercise in thought and deed of all that is moral and true, and the elimination of all that tends to cloud one's vision of the ideal.

In conclusion, since it has been shown that Christian Science is not the superstitious belief it was supposed to be, and since it brings man into conformity to the Principle of good, is not this quite in harmony with what our critic means when he says, "the world is to be saved morally by exercising the higher feelings?" for how can we judge feelings to be "higher" or lower except by admitting that there is an ideal standard or principle of good? Since Christian Science shows a logical and practical means by which to reach this standard, should it not, from our critic's own reasoning, be accounted in the forefront of progress?

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A UNIQUE
UNIQUE PRISON CELL

BY MILLARD F. HUDSON

T IS CUSTOMARY,

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among the and a few other peoples, to make a spectacle of persons undergoing punishment for crimes, but the more advanced nations abandoned the practice many years ago. At the famous summer resort of Coronado, in Southern California, there is still in use a cell or "calaboose" which is strongly suggestive of the methods of primitive nations. It is made of boileriron, securely riveted, with wooden floor and roof, and an open front strongly front strongly grated with massive iron bars. Here the corporation of Coronado confines those who disturb its peace, chiefly "drunk and disorderly" visitors from the near-by cities.

The term of imprisonment is usually only one night, and next morning the inmates are released and gladly bid adieu to its hospitable but inflexible walls.

This unique prison cell was built by a blacksmith for the old town of San Diego almost exactly fifty years ago, at a cost of three hundred dollars. California had not long been a part of the United States, and being a small frontier town near the international boundary, rough characters from both countries gave the San Diego. authorities much trouble. The country was undeveloped, and there was much difficulty in arranging a suitable place of confinement for prisoners. After spending After spending a large sum for a cement-and-cobblestone jail, which proved worthless, and resorting to various other expedients, the San Diegans planned and built this cell, and

never had any more trouble with escaping prisoners. It gave good service for thirteen years or more, keeping many desperate men safe behind its bars, and was then removed, with other appurtenances of the county seat, to the new town of San Diego, three miles farther south, where the present city had begun to grow up. There it stood for several years in the court-house yard behind the brick jail, and was then acquired by the town of Coronado, moved across the bay, and put to its present use. Today it stands in the back yard of the Coronado Beach Company's warehouse, in the midst of the "Tent City," where thousands of pleasure seekers come each summer to camp on the sandy shore of the bay and ocean. It is hidden by a high board fence and probably few of these summer visitors ever saw it, or, if they did, knew its history.

This cell is 7 feet 714 inches long, 6 feet wide, and 7 feet 3 inches high. Prisoners are given a cot and a chair; the cell is light, dry and airy, and they have room enough and are perfectly comfortable. In the mild, dry climate of San Diego, the open grating is conducive to comfort, rather than a source of hardship. The pains with which they have hidden it away leads to the inference that possibly the Coronado authorities desire to avoid sentimental accusations of inhumanity to prisoners. But the woodwork is rotting, the rust-eaten iron plates giving way, and the usefulness of the old. cell almost at an end; and the question will soon be eliminated from the field of all except historical discussion. Perhaps at Coronado when a prison cell is not a modern need?

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