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that of the Portuguese and the Japanese has been the most satisfactory.

Many of the Portuguese have become very wealthy citizens, and have known how to take advantage of formative periods, and, by small beginnings, have gradually amassed small fortunes-and so it has been with the Japanese. Each successive nationality that has invaded the labor field has, of course, brought with it its turbulent and revolutionary spirits, and, at times, there has been a considerable difficulty in restraining the element, but all in all, the labor element of Hawaii has been a most orderly citizenship, and it is safe to say that they are probably a more contented lot than any like number of laborers in any land on earth.

It is undeniable that the Japanese, from the laborer to the merchant, has done more than any other element except the American to bring about the commercial and the agricultural development of the Islands. The Japanese is an orderly, frugal, moral citizen, and Hawaii could give the mainland lessons in how to treat the Oriental. It is because of the intelligence displayed and the lack of intolerance, the thorough spirit of live and let live, the

kindness and patience with which they have always been treated, that the Japanese, once domiciled upon its shores, look upon Hawaii as a second home land. Japan is represented in the higher classes by intelligent men, the official representatives of the empire are men of equal mental calibre with any of the foreign representatives, and the editors of the many newspapers, the teachers in the schools, and the merchants are all of them of gentlemanly bearing and splendid attainment.

The Chinese merchants of Honolulu are the best example of commercial honesty that I have ever encountered. They are conservative to a degree, and, in their dealings, display an integrity that the white man might copy with profit to himself and satisfaction to his neighbor. For a long time the Chinese have held the bulk of the trade of the islands in a retail way, but recently the aggressive competition of the Japanese has made great inroads in their business, but the Chinaman may still be called the retail merchant prince in the islands, and ranks next to his American brother in volume of trade transactions. In conclusion, in regard to Orientals in


Nahiku, Maui. Rubber trees three years and six months old

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the Hawaiian Islands, the impartial observer must admit that the Oriental has been a blessing instead of a curse to the isles of the Mid-Pacific. Without him there had been no great works in irrigation and in agriculture, and the blessing had been greater had the numbers of him been larger.

The tourist who goes to Hawaii, the globe-trotter and traveler and the man of family desiring to make his home in Honolulu, need never suffer from ennui. The amusements furnished are as varied as they are excellent in character, and besides all of the out-door sport incidental to sea and land and enjoyable through an unequaled climate, we have the very best of theatrical entertainments.

The management of the Hawaiian Opera House is energetic and capable, and is constantly bringing standard attractions to Honolulu. The Opera House building is a modern and well designed amusement house, and is practical in all its details.

Mr. H. M. Lawson, the proprietor of the Art Theatre and Auditorium, strictly a moving picture house of the first class, has invested twenty-five thousand dollars

in the enterprise. It is now in process of construction, and is an invaluable addition to the amusement features of Honolulu. The San Francisco Theatre is an open-air moving picture show, and is one of the most beautiful of the amusement houses in Honolulu. Here the Hawaiian singers hold forth. On Saturday nights there is a band concert given here regularly.

Besides these there are minor theatres, among them a house given over to vaudeville entertainment.

H. R. T. & L. Co.

The service afforded by the Honolulu Rapid Transit and Land Company is equal to the best the great continental centers have to offer. The company operates on twenty miles of trackage, which is continually being extended to anticipate the demands of traffic. The overhead trolley system is in vogue, with power supplied from a modern generating plant operated by oil fuel. The entire equipment conforms to the latest offered by modern invention, providing for safety, durability and comfort. The cars are of large capacity, having signal buttons at each seat.


The Honolulu Rapid Transit and Land Company's power house and car barn

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Honolulu Electric Street Car Power Co.'s car barn. The Honolulu Rapid Transit

and Land Company

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L. A. Thurston, first vice-president; Jas. B. Castle, second vice-president; George P. Thielen, secretary; C. H. Atherton, treasurer; F. W. Klebahn, auditor; C. G. Ballentyne, manager and director, and W. R. Castle, director.



What gold was to California in '49 and wheat became in the latter era, sugar is to Hawaii. Its products are the varied fruits of the tropics, but it is the cane that weighs more heavily in the balance of its trade. From the earliest times of its history the cane grew in the islands, but it was the late Claus Spreckels of San Francisco who opened the highwav. to its profitable exploitation, and which has made it the richest section of the globe. Spreckels first gained a foothold on the islands in promoting this great industry by the payment of a small annual license, and upon the sugar development that he initiated was reared the colossal fortune that he amassed. He demonstrated that climate, soil and transportation advantages combined to make these islands in the sugar trade an empire of themselves. Claus Spreckels saw far into the future as to the needs of man, and the importance of the group in supplying this particular want to the great populous nations that lined the shores of the Pacific. From his demonstrations in sugar growing the industry has grown into commanding importance; it has eclipsed every other interest and brought the islands into world notice. Millions of dollars of capital are invested in sugar growing, mills, railroads, irrigation reservoirs and canals, shipping and a score of other activities have been called into being by its development. And the future is beyond picturing in figures or statements for practically but a fraction of the possible area has been taken up for cultivation to the cane, and as the wants of mankind press in this particular direction Hawaii offers limitless allurements in the development of this particular industry which is so essential on the dietary of man.


Alexander Young. Alexander Young, once of San Francisco, is among those who are foremost in

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Hilo. The Volcano Stables. The commodious four-horse stage starts from here

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that were formed were extensive. For many years he was vice-president of the Pepekeo Sugar Company, also of the Waiakea Mill Company, and a big factor in the Kahului Plantation Company. Under the royal regime he was a member of the House of Nobles, and a 'delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was a staunch supporter of the provisional Government, and a member of its Advisory Council. Under the Republic he was appointed Minister of the Interior, and continued in office under President Dole until Hawaii passed under the American flag. Mr. Young's energies have been directed to the benefit of the territory, and his name and personality are of commanding interest in the story of the islands. F. A. Shaefer.

"Rosebank," the county-seat of Mr. F. A. Shaefer, in the beautiful Nuuanu Valley, the subject of Robert Louis Stevenson's idyll, holds place as one of the sanctuaries of hospitality in hospitable Honolulu. The famous home is of historic value, and its fame goes back to the days of the monarchy, when Robert Creighton Wyllie, the then Minister of Foreign Affairs, lived there. It has sheltered many of world fame in the past, and its present owner, Mr. F. A. Shaefer, the Italian Consul, maintains the unstinting glories of its past. Mr. Shaefer is dean of the diplomatic corps, and one of the most popular

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