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or for a partial interest, its operation is surely no possible right to be consulted, in the disposal determinable, where its delegation ends.

The constitution of England, I revere to a degree of idolatry; but my attachment is to the common weal: The magistrate will ever command my respect, by the integrity and wisdom of his administrations.

of his property: when a lordly, though unlettered British elector, possessed of a turnip garden, with great propriety may appoint a legislature, to assess the ample domains of the most sensible, opulent American planter.

But remember, my brethren, when a people have

Junius well observes, "when the constitution is once sold their liberties, it is no act of extraordi nary generosity, to throw their lives and properties into the bargain, for they are poor indeed when enjoyed at the mercy of a master.

openly invaded, when the first original right of the people, from which all laws derive their au thority, is directly attacked, inferlor grievances naturally lose their force, and are suffered to pass by without punishment or observation."

Numberless have been the attacks made upon our free constitution; numberless the grievances we now resent: but the Hydra mischief, is the

violation of my right, as a BRITISH AMERICAN free. holder, in not being consulted in framing those statutes I am required to obey.

The late conduct of Great Britain, so inconsistent with the practice of former times, so subversive of the first principles of government, is suffi cient to excite the discontent of the subject: the Americans justly and decently urged an exclusive right of taxing themselves; was it indulgent, conciliating, or parental conduct in that state, to exaggerate such a claim, as a concerted plan of rebellion in the wanton Americans? and by a rigorous and cruel exercise of power to enforce submission, excite such animosities, as at some future period, may produce a bitter repentance?

Can such be called a legal tax or free gift? it is rather levying contributions on grudging enslaved Americans, by virtue of an act framed and enforced, not only without, but against their consent; thereby rendering the provincial assemblies an useless

The authority of the BRITISH monarch over this colony was established, and his power derived from the province CHARTER; by that we are entitled to a distinct legislation. As in every government there must exist a power superior to the laws, viz. the the power that makes those laws, and from which they derive their authority:" therefore the liberty of the people is exactly proportioned to the share the body of the people have in the legislature; and the check placed in the constitution, on the part of the constitution. executive power. That state only is free, where the Where laws are framed and assessments laid with. people are governed by laws which they have a share out a legal representation, and obedience to such in making; and that country is totally enslaved, acts urged by force, the despairing people robbed where one single law can be made or repealed, of every constitutional means of redress, and that without the interposition or consent of the people. people, brave and virtuous, must become the

That the members of the British parliament are the representatives of the whole British empire, expressly militates with their avowed principles: property and residence within the island, alone constituting the right of election; and surely he is not my delegate in whose nomination or appoint ment I have no choice: but however the futile and absurd claim of a virtual representation, may comport with the idea of a political visionary, he must | (if possible) heighten the indignation, or excite the ridicule of a freeborn American, who by such a fallacious pretext would despoil him of his pro perty.

admiration of ages, should they not appeal to those lent to all mankind. Fear is a slender tie of subpowers, which the immutable laws of nature have jection; we detest those whom we fear, and wish destruction to those we detest; but humanity, watchfulness for the welfare of the people, conuprightness, and good faith, with an apparant stitute the permanency, and are the firmest support of the sovereign's authority; for when violence is opposed to reason and justice, courage never wan's an arm for its defence.

What dignity, what respect, what authority, can Britain derive from her obstinate adherence to error? she stands convicted of violating her own

An American freeholder, according to the just principles, but perseveres with unrelenting severity;

and judicious conduct of the present ministry, has

Nothing, continued the corporal, can be so sweet,
An' please your honor, as liberty:
Nothing, Trim, said my unele Toby, musing-
Whilst a man is free-cried the corporal, giving a flourish with
bis stick thus: 07
Tristram Shandy.

we implore for rights as a grace-she aggravates our distress, by lopping away another and another darling privilege; we ask for freedom and she sends the sword!

To the wisdom, to the justice, to the piety of brethren and grinning furies, glotting o'er their his most sacred majesty, I unite in my appeal with carnage, the hostile attitude of the miscreant this unbounded empire; Gon grant he may attend murderers, redoubles our resentment, and makes to the reiterated prayer, instead of the murmur of revenge a virtue.

discontent, and the frown of louring disaffection; we would universally hail him with those effusions of genuine joy, and duteous veneration, which the proudest DESPOT will vainly look for, from forced respect or ceremonial homage.

By heaven they die! thus nature spoke, and the swoln heart leap'd to execute the dreadful purpose; dire was the interval of rage, fierce was the conflict of the soul. In that important hour, did not the stalking ghosts of our stern forefathers, Parties and factions, since the days of the detest point us to bloody deeds of vengeance? did not the ed Andross, have been strangers to this land; no consideration of our expiring LIBERTIES, impel us distinctions of heart felt animosity, disturbed the to remorseless havoc? but hark! the guardian God peace and order of society till the malignant folly of New England issues his awful mandate, “PEACE, of a late rancorous commander in chief, corjured BE STILL;" hush'd was the bursting war, the them from the dead: when shall this unhappy clime louring tempest frowned its rage away. Confidence be purged of its numerous plagues? when will our in that God, beneath whose wing we shelter all troubles, our feuds, our struggles cease? when will our cares, that blessed confidence released the the locusts leave the land? then, and not till then, dastard, the cowering prey: with haughty scorn peace and plenty shall smile around us; the hus. we refused to become their executioners, and bandman will labor with pleasure; and honest in-nobly gave them to the wrath of heaven: but words dustry reap the reward of its toil. can poorly paint the horrid scene*-defenceless,


But let us not forget the distressing occasion of prostrate, bleeding countrymen-the piercing, this anniversary; the sullen ghosts of murdered agonizing groans-the mingled moan of weeping fellow-citizens haunt my imagination "and harrow relatives and friends-these best can speak, to up my soul;” methinks the tainted air is hung with rouse the luke-warm into noble zeal; to fire the the dews of death, while Ate, hot from hell, cries zealous into manly rage, against the foul oppression, havock; and lets slip the dogs of war, Hark! the of quartering troops, in populous cities, in times of van tenants of the grave still shriek for vengeance on their remorseless butchers: forgive us heaven! should we mingle involuntary execrations, while hovering in idea over the guiltless dead. Where is the amiable, the graceful Maverick? the opening blossom is now withered in his cheek, the sprightly fire that once lightened in his eye is quenched in death; the savage hands of brutal ruffians have crushed the unsuspecting victim, and in an evil hour snatched away his gentle soul.

Thou who yon bloody walk shalt traverse, there
Where troops of Britain's king, on Britain's sons,
Discharg'd the leaden vengeance; pass not on
E'er thou hast blest their memory, and paid
Those hallowed tears, which sooth the virtuous dead
O stranger! stay thee, and the scene around
Contemplate well; and if perchance thy home
Salute thee with a father's honor'd name,
Go call thy sons-instruct them what a debt
They owe their ancestors, and make them swear
To pay it, by transmitting down entire,
Those sacred rights, to which themselves were born.

Vendidit bic auro patriam, dominumque potentem
Imposuit: fixit leges pretio atque refixit.
Non, mibi si linguæ centum sint, oraque centum,
Ferrea vox, omnes scelerun: comprendere formas,


Where is the friendly, the industrious Caldwell? he paced innoxious through the theatre of death, inconscious of design or danger, when the winged fate gored his bosom, and stript his startled soul for the world of spirits. Where are the residue of Men, brethren, fathers and fellow-countrymen!—The active citizens that were wont to tread these sacred attentive gravity, the venerable appearance of this floors? falien by the hands of the vindictive assassins crowded audience; the dignity which I behold in they swell the horrors of the sanguinary scene. the countenances of so many in this great assemLoyalty stands on tiptoe at the shocking recollec-bly; the solemnity of the occasion upon which we tion, while justice, virtue, honor, patriotism become have met together, joined to a consideration of the suppliants for immoderate vengeance: the whole part I am to take in the important business of this soul clamors for arms, and is on fire to attack day, fill me with an awe hitherto unknown; and the brutal banditti; we fly agonizing to the horrid heighten the sense which I have ever had, of my aceldamu; we gaze on the mangled corses of our unworthiness to fill this sacred desk; but, allured by the call of some of my respected fellow-citizens, *The Nettleham Baronet.

-Hic ubi barbarus hostis, Ut fera plus valeant legibus arma facit.-Ovid de Ponte.

Multaque rubentia cœde
Lubrica saxa madent, nulli sua profuit ætas.-Lucan, Lib. 2-

with whose request it is always my greatest plea-are sent to enforce their mad pretensions. The sure to comply, I almost forgot my want of ability town of Boston, ever faithful to the British crown, to perform what they required. In this situation has been invested by a British fleet: the troops of I find my only support, in assuring myself that a George the III. have crossed the wide Atlantic, not generous people will not severely censure what to engage an enemy, but to assist a band of TRAITORS they know was well intended, though its want of in trampling on the rights and liberties of his most merit, should prevent their being able to applaud loyal subjects in America-those rights and liber it. And I pray, that my sincere attachment to the ties which, as a father, he ought ever to regard, interest of my country, and hearty detestation of and as a king, he is bound, in honor, to defend every design formed against her liberties, may be from violations, éven at the risque of his own life. admitted as some apology for my appearance in this place.

Let not the history of the illustrious house of Brunswick inform posterity, that a king, descendI have always, from my earliest youth, rejoiced ed from that glorious monarch, George the II. once in the felicity of my fellow-men; and have ever sent his British subjects to conquer and enslave considered it as the indispensable duty of every bis subjects in America, but be perpetual infamy member of society to promote, as far as in him entailed upon that villain who dared to advise his lies, the prosperity of every individual, but more master to such execrable measures; for it was easy especially of the community to which he belongs; to foresee the consequences which so naturally and also, as a faithful subject of the state, to use his followed upon sending troops into America, to enutmost endeavors to detect, and having detected, force obedience to acts of the British parliament, strenuously to oppose every traitorous plot which which neither Gon nor man ever empowered them its enemies may devise for its destruction. Security to make. It was reasonable to expect that troops, to the persons and properties of the governed, is who knew the errand they were sent upon, would so obviously the design and end of civil govern-treat the people whom they were to subjugate, ment, that to attempt a logical proof of it, would with a cruelty and haughtiness, which too often be like burning tapers at noonday, to assist the sun buries the honorable character of a soldier, in the dis in enlightening the world; and it cannot be either graceful name of an unfeeling ruffian. The troops, upvirtuous or honorable, to attempt to support a go- on their first arrival, took possession of our senatevernment, of which this is not the great and princi-house, and pointed their cannon against the judgpal basis; and it is to the last degree vicious and ment-hall, and even continued them there whilst infamous to attempt to support a government, the supreme court of judicature for this province which manifestly tends to render the persons and was actually sitting to decide upon the lives and properties of the governed insecure. Some boast fortunes of the king's subjects. Our streets nightly of being friends to government; I am a friend to resounded with the noise of riot and debauchery. righteous government, to a government founded our peaceful citizens were hourly exposed to upon the principles of reason and justice; but I shameful insuits, and often felt the effects of their glory in publicly avowing my eternal enmity to violence and outrage. But this was not all: as tyranny. Is the present system, which the British though they thought it not enough to violate our administration have adopted for the government civil rights, they endeavored to deprive us of the of the colonies, a righteous government? or is it enjoyment of our religious privileges; to viciate tyranny?-Here suffer me to ask (and would to our morals, and thereby render us deserving of Heaven there could be an answer) what tenderness, destruction. Hence the rude din of arms which what regard, respect or consideration has Great broke in upon your solemn devotions in your temBritain shewn, in their late transactions, for the ples, on that day hallowed by heaven, and set security of the persons or properties of the in- apart by God himself for his peculiar worship. habitants of the colonies? or rather, what have Hence, impious oaths and blasphemies so often they omitted doing to destroy that security? they tortured your unaccustomed ear. Hence, all the have declared that they have, ever had, and of arts which idleness and luxury could invent, were right ought ever to have, full power to make laws used to betray our youth of one sex into extravaof sufficient validity to bind the colonies in all gance and effeminacy, and of the other to infamy and cases whatever: they have exercised this pretended ruin; and did they not succeed but too well? did right by imposing a tax upon us without our con- not a reverence for religion sensibly decay? did sent; and lest we should shew some reluctance at not our infants almost learn to lisp out curses be. parting with our property, her fleets and armies fore they knew their horrid import? did not our

youth forget they were Americans, and regardless from ruin, even a guilty villian, forever actuate the of the admonitions of the wise and aged, servilely noble bosoms of Americans! But let not the miscopy from their tyrants those vices which finally creant host vainly imagine that we feared their must overthrow the empire of Great Britain? and arms. No; them we despised; we dread nothing must I be compelled to acknowledge, that even but slavery. Death is the creature of a poltroon's the noblest, fairest part of all the lower creation brains; 'tis immortality to sacrifice ourselves for did not entirely escape the cursed snare? when the salvation of our country. We fear not death. virtue has once erected her throne within the That gloomy night, the pale faced moon, and the female breast, it is upon so soiid a basis that nothaffrighted stars that hurried through the sky, can ing is able to expel the heavenly inhabitant. But witness that we fear not death. Our hearts which, have there not been some, few indeed, I hope, at the recollection, glow with rage that four revolv. whose youth and inexperience have rendered them ing years have scarcely taught us to restrain, can a prey to wretches, whom, upon the least reflec-witness that we fear not death; and happy it is for tion, they would have despised and hated as foes those who dared to insult us, that their naked bones. to God and their country? I fear there have been are not now piled up an everlasting monument of some such unhappy instances; or why have I seen Massachusetts' bravery. But they retired, they an honest father cloathed with shame; or why a fled, and in that flight they found their only safety. virtuous mother drowned in tears? We then expected that the hand of public justice would soon inflict that punishment upon the mur. But I forbear, and come reluctantly to the transderers, which, by the laws of God and man, they had actions of that dismal night, when in such quick incurred. But let the unbiassed pen of a Robert. succession we felt the extremes of grief, astonish-son, or perhaps of some equally famed American, ment and rage; when Heaven in anger, for a dread-conduct this trial before the great tribunal of sucful moment suffered hell to take the reins; when ceeding generations. And though the murderers Satan with his chosen band opened the sluices of may escape the just resentment of an enraged peoNew England's blood, and sacrilegiously polluted ple; though drowsy justice, intoxicated by the our land with the dead bodies of her guiltless poisonous draught prepared for her cup, still nods Let this sad tale of death never be told upon her rotten seat, yet be assured, such compli without a tear: let not the heaving bosom cease cated crimes will meet their due reward. Tell to burn with a manly indignation at the barbarous me, ye bloody butchers! ye villians high and low! story, through the long tracts of future time: let ye wretches who contrived, as well as you who exevery parent tell the shameful story to his listening ecuted the inhuman deed! do you not feel the children 'til tears of pity glisten in their eyes, goads and stings of conscious guilt pierce through and boiling passions shakes their tender frames; your savage bosoms? though some of you may think and whilst the anniversary of that ill-fated night is yourselves exalted to a height that bids defiance kept a jubilee in the grim court of pandemonium, to human justice, and others shroud yourselves belet all America join in one common prayer to hea-neath the mask of hypocrisy, and build your hopes ven, that the inhuman, unprovoked murders of the of safety on the low arts of cunning, chicanery and fifth of March, 1770, planned by Hillsborough, and falsehood; yet do you not sometimes feel the knawa knot of treacherous knaves in Boston, and execu-ings of that worm which never dies? do not the inted by the cruel hand of Preston and his sangui nary coadjutors, may ever stand on history without a parallel. But what, my countrymen, with held the ready arm of vengeance from executing instant justice on the vile assassins? perhaps you feared promiscuous carnage mignt ensue, and that the innocent might share the fate of those who had performed the infernal deed. But were not all guilty? where you not too tender of the lives of those who came to fix a yoke on your necks? but I must not too severely blame a fault, which great souls only can commit. May that magnificence of spirit which scorns the low pursuits of malice, may that generous compassion which often preserves


jured shades of Maverick, Gray, Caldwell, Attucks and Carr, attend you in your solitary walks, arrest you even in the midst of your debaucheries, and fill even your dreams with terror? but if the unappeased manes of the dead should not disturb their murderers, yet surely even your obdurate hearts must shrink, and your guilty blood must chill within your rigid veins, when you behold the miserable Monk, the wretched victim of your savage cruelty. Observe his tottering knees, which scarce sustain his wasted body; look on his haggard eyes; mark well the death-like paleness on his fallen cheek, and tell me, does not the sight plant daggers in your souls? unhappy Monk! cut off in the gay morn


Nor can her lenient hand forbear to pour

of manhood, from all the joys which sweeten life, means say generally, much less universally) comdoomed to drag on a pitiful existence, without even posed of persons who have rendered themselves a hope to taste the pleasures of returning health! unfit to live in civil society; who have no other yet Monk, thou livest not in vain; thou livest a motives of conduct than those which a desire of warning to thy country, which sympathizes with the present gratification of their passions suggests; the in thy sufferings; thou livest an affecting, an who have no property in any country; men who alarming instance of the unbounded violence which have given up their own liberties, and envy those lust of power, assisted by a standing army, can lead who enjoy liberty; who are equally indifferent to the a traitor to commit. glory of a George or a Louis; who for the addition For us he bled, and now languishes. The wounds of one penny a day to their wages, would desert from the Christian cross, and fight under the creby which he is tortured to a lingering death, were aimed at our country! surely the meek-eyed chari. scent of the Turkish sultan; from such men as these, ty can never behold such sufferings with indiffer. what has not a state to fear? with such as these, usurping Cæsar passed the Rubicon; with such as these he humbled mighty Rome, and forced the mistress of the world to own a master in a traitor. These are the men whom sceptered robbers now employ to frustrate the designs of God, and render vain the bounties which his gracious hand pours indiscriminately upon his creatures. By these the miserable slaves in Turkey, Persia, and many other extensive countries, are rendered truly wretched, though their air is salubrious, and their soil luxuriously fertile. By these, France and Spain, though blessed by nature with all that administers to the convenience of life, have been reduced to that contemptible state in which they now appear; and by these Britain-but if I was possessed

oil and wine into these wounds, and to assuage at

least, what it cannot heal.

Patriotism is ever united with humanity and compassion. This noble affection which impels us to sacrifice every thing dear, even life itself, to our country, involves in it a common sympathy and tenderness for every citizen, and must ever have a particular feeling for one who suffers in a public cause. Thoroughly persuaded of this, I need not add a word to engage your compassion and bounty towards a fellow citizen, who, with long protracted anguish, falls a victim to the relentless rage of our common enemies.

Ye dark designing knaves, ye murderers, parri of the gift of prophecy, I dare not, except by divine cides! how dare you tread upon the earth, which command, unfold the leaves on which the destiny has drank in the blood of slaughtered innocents, of that once powerful kingdom is inscribed. shed by your wicked hands? how dare you breathe that air which wafted to the ear of heaven, the groans of those who fell a sacrifice to your accursed

But since standing armies are so hurtful to a state, perhaps my countrymen may demand some substitute, some other means of rendering us seambition? but if the laboring earth doth not ex cure against the incursions of a foreign enemy. But pand her jaws; if the air you breathe is not comcan you be one moment at a loss? will not a well dismissioned to be the minister of death; yet, hear it, ciplined milizia afford you ample security against and tremble! the eye of heaven penetrates the dark-foreign foes? we want not courage; it is discipline est chambers of the soul, traces the leading clue alone in which we are exceeded by the most formidthrough all the labyrinths which your industrious able troops that ever trod the earth. Surely our folly has devised; and you, however you may have hearts flutter no more at the sound of war, than screened yourselves from human eyes, must be ar- did those of the immortal band of Persia, the Ma raigned, must lift your hands, red with the blood cedonian phalanx, the invincible Roman legions, of those whose death you have procured, at the tre the Turkish Janissaries, the Gens des Armes of France, or the well known grenadiers of Britain. A But I gladly quit the gloomy theme of death, well disciplined militia is a safe, an honorable and leave you to improve the thought of that im-guard to a community like this, whose inhabitants portant day, when our naked souls must stand be-Jare by nature brave, and are laudably tenacious of fore that being, from whom nothing can be hid. I that freedom in which they were born. From a would not dwell too long upon the horrid effects well regulated militia we have nothing to fear; their which have already followed from quartering regu-interest is the same with that of the state. When. lar troops in this town: let our misfortunes teach a country is invaded, the militia are ready to apposterity to guard against such evils for the future. pear in its defence; they march into the field with Standing armies are sometimes (I would by no that fortitude which a consciousness of the justice

mendous bar of God.

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