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squaw, whose walnut-shell face and general decrepitude would class her as somewhere about one hundred and fifty; she had evidently been abandoned by the tribe as a piece of worthless bric-a-brac, whose only claim to consideration was because of her mummified condition. She was instantaneously dubbed the Witch of Endor, and various sketches made of her exemplary ugliness by the artists among the soldiers. Also in her vicinity was found a small, tailless dog, whose lack of caudal ornament was ascribed to the butcher knife of some Indian; she also was adopted by one of the soldiers and subsequently was accouched of a litter of four puppies, and, marvelous to relate, these also were devoid of any means of expressing their sentiments by wagging their tails—for they, also, had no tails. The Witch of Endor was about scared to death, but speedily realized that her capture by the troops was a piece of paradisaical fortune, for she received consideration and care that she had never known in the heyday of her youth and comeliness (if she ever had any of the

Lieutenant-Colonel George Armstrong latter quality, which was stretching the Custer, Seventh U. S. Cavalry, Brevet imagination to the breaking point), and

Major-General U. S. A. from an abject, despondent hag she be- From photograph in the War Department came quite chipper and bossy; so readily

Collection does the feminine character adapt itself to a fortunate environment. One of the jugation of Black Kettle,” and of which soldiers became a sort of foster-father to contest some of the principal participants the ancient lady, and proclaimed that he are illustrated in this article, many of could converse with her. As she was ig- the Indians of the Washita turmoil also norant of English, and he was obtuse of being the objective of the Miles' expediCheyenne, this statement aroused inter- tion, known in War Department annals est, which was further added to by his as the Indian Territory Expedition. assertion that he talked with her in the Many skirmishes

skirmishes and engagements Gipsy, or Romany, dialect. This could were had with desultory bodies of Innot be disproved, and much linguistic dis- dians, Cheyennes, Kiowas, Arapahoes and

, cussion among the ethnologists ensued, Quahadas, or Staked Plain Comanches, and many learned investigations resulted, the most notable culmination of these bewith the result, after some time, that the ing on August 30, 1874, when some six soldier was declared an unmitigated fraud hundred warriors were energetically enand a would-be bunko steering philologist countered at a point some twelve miles —but he had a soft time pottering around north of Red River (that after pursuing the ancient vestal while his fraud lasted. its tortuous course ultimately empties into And she was old, but not senile.

the Mississippi near Marysville, La.), and The route pursued was much in the opposite the mouth of the Tule. General same general direction as that of General George W. Baird (a most estimable officer Custer in 1868, that culminated in the and magnificent gentleman, now debattle of the Washita on November 28th, ceased), thus tersely described the action : an account whereof was published in this "August 30th was the day, and the magazine under the title of “The Sub- “breaks” of the Red River, some thirteen

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Reading from left to right, the first picture is Major Albert Barritz, U. S. d. (retired), But. Col. U. S. A., Captain Seventh U. S. Cavalry in the "Black Kettle Fight," brevetted Colonel for gallantry on recommendation of Colonel Custer and General Sheridan. SecondBrigadier General Geo. W. Baird, U. S. A. (de

ceased.) Third---General James Biddle


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miles from its bed, the place where the R. Chaffee, U. S. Army, retired, resident fight opened. Suddenly, from behind


at Los Angeles) with his troop as skirbluff and bush, as if they sprang from mishers, who there made his famous batthe bosom of the earth fully armed, the tle-speech : 'Forward! and if any man is hostiles came tearing down upon Bald- killed, I'll make him a corporal ! win's scouts and Indians, with the 'crack, “Down through the jagged ravines the crack' of their rifles and the whoop of troops pursued across a half mile of sand, their war-cries. But Baldwin

the where at times (during the winter rains) man for the place, and Miles knew it; his a river flows, up the right bank and into sufficient discretion never had a touch of the Valley of the Tule, a branch of the hesitancy or timidity, and he was fitly Red River where a burning camp, abanseconded by brave old Fall Leaf, of the doned utensils, and a trail leading up a Delawares. Meantime, Colonel Biddle, precipitous cliff, told of the hasty flight under the immediate command of General of the Indians. The long chase before the Miles, deployed his battalion of cavalry fight, the rapid pursuit after through the forward at the run; Colonel Compton, intolerable heat of sun and earth, and the giving rein to his horses, swung his bat- absence of water, made it necessary to call talion out on the right. Lieutenant Pope's

a halt. Men and animals were famishing artillery, with infantry support,

some men drank the blood of a buffalo, rapidly up in the center, and there began and all the water found in Red River'was a running fight over thirteen miles of a small pool of saturated gypsum and sun-baked earth, glowing with a furnace alkali, rendered indescribably vile from heat, gashed in gullies and deep ravines having been for a long time a buffalo walby the flood-like rains which at times pre- low. (Many of the soldiers, to obviate vai! there. Whenever the Indians made drinking at this pool, dug holes in the a stand, the troops were hurled upon them sandy bed of the whilom river and thus and the fight which, if it had opened tim- found water, but this was also impregidly, would have been a stoutly contested nated with alkali and gypsum, but deaffair, soon became a rout and a chase. void of buffalo urine; it, however, alColonel Biddle threw forward Captain though affording moisture, had the catharChaffee (now Lieutenant-General Adna tic effect of croton oil.) With infinite


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labor, the command, after resting, fol- wallow also for four days. The stout relowed the trail over which Pope (now sistance made to the Indians and the apColonel and Assistant Quartermaster- proach of a battalion of the Eighth CavGeneral) by devoting the night to it, had alry, under Major William R. Price, dragged up his Gatlings and so climbed raised the siege and the supply train was out of the valley of the Tule and followed enabled to proceed to the command on the Indian trail for miles out on the the Washita, whose famished condition it Llano. It became evident that no pursuit fortuitously alleviated. Meanwhile could be successful without supplies, and command had had very short rations, that before a train could be brought that they pieced out with horse-meat and through the ravines and breaks of the val- acorns from the scrub oak. Acorns are ley to the table-land on the right bank of alleged to be nutritious food; from the the Red River, the Indians could get be- personal experience of the writer it can yond pursuit. Hence recall

be conscientiously said that they are most sounded.”

abominably distasteful and puckeryDuring the progress of this movement, like an unripe persimmon—and that some two hundred and fifty Kiowa and horse-meat has a tendency to stick in one's Comanche warriors broke away from their throat going to the stomach. agency and went on the war-path, subse- Scouting parties were

were continuously · quently surrounding and attacking Gen- kept in the field around the Canadian, era! Miles' supply train, which was un- Washita and Sweetwater, and from Oasis der escort of Captain Wyllys Lyman for Creek along the Canadian and Wolf four days near the Wichita, from Septem- Creek to the Palo Duro and Adobe Walls, ber 9th to the 13th, and where scouts but no Indians were found in the vicinity. Amos Chapman (called Amos by the In- On October 10th, Major Compton made dians before that, afterward Tam-e-yukh- a scout toward Mustang Creek and Palo tah, or Cut-off Leg, losing a leg in the Duro and intercepted and engaged a body surround) and William "Billy” Dixon, of Indians that were afterward driven called Has-ta, or Long Hair, and four one hundred miles through the sand-hills soldiers were held at bay in a buffalo and to the Canadian, where, October 18th,

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they were dispersed. A detachment of cavalry under Captain Curwen B. McLellan, Sixth Cavalry, and another under First Lieutenant William M. Wallace, of the same regiment (now Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, retired), were sent out scouting; during these scouts, the capability of Ben Clark and “Billy” Dixon was especially demonstrated and valuable to the commands. The prowess of Ben Clark (Mi-e No-to-wah, Red Neck), was specifically mentioned in "The Subjugation of Black Kettle,” heretofore alluded as published in this magazine, and it is impracticable to sufficiently eulogize the modesty, efficiency and admirable marksmanship of this most excellent scout and trailer.

Again the general command took the field over the Staked Plain and amid the most bitter winter weather, the streams were frozen so hard that the loaded wagons and artillery crossed on the ice without difficulty; "sun dogs" were a steady phenomenon in the sky; picket pins would turn so that they resembled fish-hooks when they were driven into the marble earth; the only way tent pins could be used to hold up a tent was by pecking and picking a slanting hole in the ground, into which the tent pins were afterward put and tamped; northers seemed to be unceasing, and "Black Jack” (LieutenantColonel John W. Davidson of the Tenth (colored) cavalry had twenty-seven horses frozen dead one night on the picket line, though the line was stretched in a ravine where it was supposed there would be adequate protection from the bitter winds. A negro soldier was termed Mok-e-ti veho nut-okh-e, Buffalo soldiers, by the Indians, and for a long time the negro warrior was an object of mystery and fear!

A tangible evidence was obtained of an exploit of Colonel Ranald S. MacKenzie with the Fourth Cavalry during the scouting of the Staked Plain, and near Canoncito Blanco (an affluent of Red River), when he had attacked a band of Indians there and captured the pony herd. The unkilled Indians skedaddled

for the safety of their unpunctured skins Ben Clark, scout, guide and interpreter- cold weather, the aroma from the numer

and the pony herd was shot. Despite the Mi-e No-to-wah (Red Neck.)

ous carcasses of the ponies was as pungent William Dixon

to the smell and as offensive thereto as

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