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formally. There was, however, a slighting of a cricket in a crevice of the wall of quaver in her voice. The occasion, the The Tavern. place and the man possibly caused it. "I mistook
you for a guide !” burst from “I am Ronald Burton,” said the young Miss Trotter in accents almost tearful. man, not at all formally, but with exceed- "Oh, Mr. Burton, what must you think ing diffidence. “I myself will—er-ap- of me?"
HE ISOTHERMAL maps of 61.3. Here is a belt 600 miles long north
are scientific curiosities. The not differ more than a degree or two. red lines, chiefly parallel, running north It has been found by experiment that orand south through two-thirds of the length anges, olives
olives and other semi-tropical of the State, signify an equal temperature fruits, where the soil is suitable, can be along the belts covered by each line. On grown in the northern counties of Butte, the margin at the end of the lines are ar- Tehama and Shasta equally as well as they ranged a succession of numbers from 44 can in Los Angeles, Seaside and San. to 72, denoting the mean annual tempera- Diego Counties. Facts confirm the accuture each line represents. The parallel racy of the isothermal lines of the belts of country over which the lines pass Weather Bureau. are not far apart, yet the maps show a At this point attention is called to the regular gradation of temperature. A situation of California, and its general map of no other country on the face of the topography. Whoever will look at a map globe has such an arrangement of isother- may see the peculiar location and conmal lines running north and south. struction. In form it is an irregular par
It may be asked on what principles allelogram extending from 3212 degrees were these strange lines arranged on the of latitude to 42 degrees north, and on an maps? In California are more than a average it is 200 miles wide, inclosing an hundred United States Signal Stations area of 153,650 square miles. It surpasses furnished with instruments which daily in size all of New England, with New give a record of the temperature, the at- York, New Jersey and Ohio added. It mospheric pressure, the humidity, the pre- lies diagonally with the points of the comcipitation and the course and velocity of pass. On the north it is bounded by the the winds. These instrumental records Siskiyou mountains, on the east by the from a hundred stations, all the high Sierra range, and on the west by the State, are sent to headquarters where they Pacific Ocean. Near the ocean, at irare sorted and classified. It has been regular distances, is the Coast Range. Befound that the places reported at about tween these ranges is a great inland valley the same temperature are so situated that 450 miles long and 50 miles or more in a line may be drawn from one point to width, between the high foothills... This another to the opposite end of the State. inland empire is nearly in the form of an As an example, Poway, near the Mexican ellipse reaching over five degrees of latiline, has an annual mean of 62.6 degree tude. The area is about equal to that of and Riverside in the adjoining county is Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maryland 62.3; Redlands, in the next county, is and Delaware combined. The Sacramento 62.2; Los Angeles, 62.6; Fresno, 62.5; River drains the north and the San JoaNewman, Stanislaus County, 62.1; Anti- quin gathers the water from near the south och, at the mouth of the San Joaquin, end, and the two rivers meet at the head 62.6; Rio Vista, near the mouth of the of Suisun Bay, pouring the accumulated Sacramento, about the same; and all the waters into the ocean through the Golden way up the Sacramento on both sides are Gate; and this forms the only open pass, points differing but a degree or two till through the Coast Range between the Redding is reached in Shasta County at ocean and the great valley. The extreme southern end of the valley discharges its the hotel proprietors spread broadcast waters into Tulare Lake, which has no their circulars, assuring the public that visible outlet. In the Sierra range not the great plain from Santa Barbara to far from the south end of the valley is San Diego has a climate unequaled for Mt. Whitney, 14,898 feet high, with per- its "soft and balmy qualities.” But after
” petual snow and ice on its summit. all, can it be proved that the climate
Only a few miles from the base of Mt. south of Point Conception and the TeWhitney is Death Valley, with its lowest hachapi is superior to what can be found plain 480 feet below sea level, surrounded north? Unfortunately no scientific inby tropical deserts, hot as Sahara. No- struments have been invented to measure where else within an equal space can one
the “soft and balmy qualities.” The pass from so high an altitude to so low a United States Weather Bureau furnishes depth from sea level; or from a summit no such instruments at their signal staof perpetual congealation to a plain tions. The bureau does not accept nerwhere the thermometer registers 124 de- vous sensibilities as an accurate measure grees in the shade, or to 140 in the sun. of any department of the weather. Here nature's forces have done their best Let a native of the Congo country go in shooting up and shaking down the to Modoc county, where the mercury falls material elements. Such extremes of gra- to 28 below zero, and he would conclude dation in height, depth and temperature from his feelings that he was at the point are nowhere else so near neighbors. How where mercury freezes. Or let a native much influence this peculiar situation from Point Barrow go to Death Valley, may have on the climate of the State at where it is claimed eggs cook in the sand large north and south has not been scien- from heat of the sun, and he would contifically settled. The deserts below sea clude from his feelings that the therlevel from Death Valley to Salton must mometer should stand at near 212, the radiate their heat afar athwart the ele- point where water boils. Sensations and vated table lands.
thermometers do not agree in temperature. One other point, it is claimed, wields a Near the southeast corner of California potent influence over the general climate is a desert region where the Weather Buof the State. The coast line from Alaska reau reports the mean annual temperature has a southerly trend, so there is little ap- from 68 to 72 degrees, and the highest as parent break to the Arctic breezes. About from 116 to 124 degrees. In the northern one-third of the way from Mexico to Ore- part of the State there is no such inferno. gon, at Point Conception, the coast turns Aside from this exceptional locality and abruptly to the east, and so continues for the high mountain crests the climate eighty miles. Near this point, also, the north and south is surprisingly uniform. Coast Range is broken off; and parallel To show that latitude cuts little or no with the new coast line is the Santa Ynez figure in the climate, attention is called to range connecting with the Tehachapi two circles of isothermal lines on the range, and extending to the Sierras. This map. One is in San Diego County near high cross wall of rock, commencing the Mexican border, and at its center is where the coast line changes, it is pre- Poway, the other circle is in the northern sumed, arrests the boreal gales and the end of Humboldt County, a few miles heat of the great inland valley, and forms from Oregon; in the center is Orleans. the climatic division between Northern The two points are relatively in the same and Southern California. Again the re- latitude as Charleston, South Carolina, moval of the regular Coast Range opens a and New York. Poway has a mean anvast plain or mesa from the ocean to the nual temperature of 62.6; highest 107, extension of the Sierras. This tract to lowest 26. Orleans registers 62.4; highest the foothills in places, at least, 50 miles 109, lowest 29. The northern is three dewide, is open to the placid waters, bring- grees warmer in winter and two degrees ing the warm Japanese current and shel- in summer than the southern. They are tered from bleak fogs, seems to insure a about equally distant from the coast. The climate of ideal mildness. The real es- elevation of Poway is 460 feet. Of Ortate dealers, the transportation agents and leans 520. Only 60 feet difference.
Take two other points; El Cajon in instruments alone to determine the qualiSan Diego County is about as far from ties of California climate. The cultivated Mexico as Shasta in Siskiyou is from productions corroborate the records of the Oregon. El Cajon registers mean annual Weather Bureau. Some plants and trees 63.4; highest 107, lowest 29. Shasta will endure almost an unlimited range of 63.9; highest 108, lowest 24. El Cajon climate. Wheat, rye, oaks and
pines is near the coast at an elevation of 484 thrive from the tropics to the Arctic. It feet. Shasta is at the extreme north end is not so with pineapples, bananas, dates of the great inland valley east of the Sac- and olives. Citrus fruits, oranges, lemramento river and at an elevation of 1049 ons, date-palms, cannot endure a temperfeet.
ature much below 24 degrees without inAltitude decides little until the alpine jury to fruit and trees. There must be heights or infernal depths are reached. a mean of not less than 60 degrees. With As an example, Rocklin and Auburn are these restrictions, citrus orchards are 18 miles apart. The elevation of Rocklin thriving in most of the counties of the is 249 feet, of Auburn 1360 feet. The State. register of Rocklin is mean 60.6; highest The first immigrant settlers in Califor100, lowest 24. Auburn 60; highest 108, nia were Franciscan Missionaries from lowest 27. Between the two points by Spain.
Spain. They began operations at San rail is Newcastle, five miles from Auburn, Diego, and gradually increased their staand 970 feet elevation. Here is a citrus tions where they found the largest Indian belt unsurpassed in the State. The or- settlements. Finding the climate so much anges at Newcastle are ready for market a like that in their native land, they intromonth earlier than at Los Angeles and duced the citrus fruits. Step by step they Seaside, and of the richest quality. This planted stations a day's journey apart till belt is north of the center of the State, and they reached San Rafael and Sonoma, in the foothills east of the Sacramento. near San Francisco. At the most of
The climate of California is a phenome- these stations they started citrus fruits nal mystery. It cannot be estimated or and palms. Even in Sonoma it is found traced by the rules which prevail in other oranges do nearly as well as south of the parts of the world.
Tehachapi. Trees there only a few years I once crossed the Sierras in April, be- old are three feet in circumference. At fore the middle. We left the snow-sheds the time of the secularization of missions, just as the rising sun began to glitter on about 1837, the stations were abandoned, the surrounding peaks. The snow, be- and the orchards, with other improveginning to melt, was nearly ten feet deep ments, went to ruin. A few years later, on a level. The road winds back and when California became United States terforth in curves and loops down the moun- ritory, and the mines were discovered, a tain side from an altitude of nearly 6,000 class of immigrants took possession who feet. Some miles before the train stopped had no experience nor interest in semiat 7:30 for the crew and passengers to tropical fruits. The early American setget breakfast, we were passing fruit or- tlers confined their attentions to what chards in full blossom. Before nine seemed to pay best, grazing, grain and deo'clock we were in one of the richest or- ciduous fruits. It was 1860 before any ange belts in the State. At ten o'clock we particular attention was given to oranges were rushing through hay fields where and lemons. The old orchards were still the farmers were mowing, raking and in existence about Los Angeles, Santa stacking hay. At eleven o'clock we were Barbara and other abandoned missions. in Sacramento. Thus in less than five In 1855 some one at Sacramento planted hours, passing over a circuitous road of the seeds from an Acapulco orange. Two 92 miles, we passed from snow and ice ten vears later, one of the little trees was feet deep to harvest fields in April. In transplanted at Bidwell's Bar, Butte what other part of the world can so great County. It is now a large and thriving a variety of climate be found in so short tree. This was the first experiment with a space and time or distance ?
oranges in the great inland valley and in We are not dependent upon scientific the northern part of the State. The ex
periment with one tree has resulted in cold place was close to the shady side making Butte County one of the richest of a bluff, at the mouth of a deep canyon orange centers in the State. In 1862 there through which cold blasts from the north were in all California 25,000 orange trees; swept down from the high mountain the latest reports show now more than peaks. The situation made the difference 5,000,000 trees. North of a line passing in the temperature. About five blocks due east from San Francisco, citrus or- from the sea and not far from the mouth chards are increasing almost as fast as of the canyon are two venerable date-palm south of the Tehachapi. The vast graz
The vast graz- trees, planted by the
trees, planted by the Mission Fathers ing and grain fields are being divided in- about 1788, one hundred and twenty years to orange orchards because they pay bet- ago. They have never produced fruit. ter (from $800 to $1,000 an acre) for Sea fogs and the cold draughts from the fruit. The climate is eminently fitting. mountains are not congenial to the child
In the Capitol Park, containing about ren of the desert. At Winters, an hour's thirty acres, around the State House at ride from Sacramento, is a palm tree Sacramento, may be seen 350 different which is annually loaded with fruit. One varieties of trees, natives of every country year it produced 700 pounds of dates, a upon the face of the globe-all growing single branch weighing 40 pounds. Wintogether and flourishing as if they were ters is considerably north of the center of at home. This is the finest capitol park in the State, and in the great inland empire, the United States, and is the wonder of while Ventura is south of Point Concepall visitors who are acquainted with the tion and close to Los Angeles County. many varieties of trees that are to be The successful cultivation of the fruit, found from the tropics to the poles.- as well as the records of the Weather BuState Agricultural Society.
reau, prove that latitude and
elevation What spot can be found outside of alone wield only a minimum influence on California where the denizens from the California climate. The weather is detropics and the Arctic can stand side by termined chiefly by situation. The broad side without finding it too hot or too cold and sunny plains and land-locked valley for the life of those from the extremes ? points, sheltered by mountain spurs or Here is a marvel of climatic perfection. exposed by canyons,
relative distance Do not be deceived. The climate is not from sea fogs and snow peaks; these are the same all over California. It is alike the conditions which regulate the unique only in spots or belts, not affected as in climate of California. On
other the world at large by latitude and alti- ground can we account for the strange tude. In other spots close by it is quite exceptions to general rules. Poway and different. Points eight degrees of lati- Orleans are about equally distant from tude apart, far as Charleston, South Caro- the ocean, differ only 60 feet in altitude, lina and New York, do not differ two de- but are separated by nine degrees of latigrees in temperature. Other spots a mile tude. The mean temperature is the same, apart differ materially. An example: and the northern point is three degrees
One winter I spent at Ventura, east the warmer in winter. Poway and Orof Point Conception. The city is on the leans are alike in the citrus zone. Porseaside. From the beach to the steep terville and Shasta have about the same mountain side is eight city blocks—about mean temperature; Shasta is five degrees a quarter of a mile. I found that on a colder at the lowest. The altitude of Porfew mornings on the level plat toward the terville is 464 feet, and of Shasta 1049 beach there was a light frost, but above feet; the two places are situated in the opthe upper street it was always frostless. posite end of the interior valley, five deNo plants were touched.
grees of latitude apart; each is in the citThis warm belt was not more than a
Their latitude corresponds to hundred feet above the tide level, but it the south line of Virginia and Connectiwas sheltered by high mountain spurs, cut. and open to the warm ocean current. Less Some repetition has been introduced to than a mile from this warm spot ice was show the correspondence of the Weather formed a quarter of an inch thick. The Bureau with the facts gathered from fruit