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Hess, UNGER, and SUPPLEE. Relation of Fodder to the Antiscorbutic

Potency and Salt Content of Milk. Journal of Biological Chemistry,

Vol. 45, pages 229-236 (1920). KELLY and CLEMENT. City Milk Plants: Construction and Arrangement.

United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 849 (1920). Pasteurization of Milk. Report of Committee on Milk Supply of the Sani

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CHAPTER IV

MILK PRODUCTS OTHER THAN BUTTER

THE dairy farming “belt” of the United States extends from Vermont and Massachusetts southward and westward including New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, southern Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Many other states have very considerable numbers of dairy cattle, and each of the Pacific coast states has certain areas which are largely devoted to dairy farming. Outside of the “ dairy belt” and the limited dairy districts of California, Oregon, and Washington dairy cattle are numerous in total numbers but not sufficiently concentrated to support much large-scale manufacture of milk products. Texas and Missouri each has a larger number of dairy cattle than has Vermont; but Vermont has a larger number of cows per farm than has any other state and supports intensive commercial dairying as Texas and Missouri do not. (See Fig. 8, from Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1922.)

To only a limited extent as yet do we find dairy farming developed at great distances from centers of population for the exclusive purpose of supporting the manufacture of milk products. More commonly the manufacture of these products begins in (or on the margin of) the market milk region, using the seasonal surplus of the market milk farms and thus resulting in a gradual intensification and extension of the original "dairy belt."

According to official estimates of the United States Department of Agriculture (Yearbook for 1922) about 46 billion pounds of milk per year are used in the United States for manufacture

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FIG. 8.

- Distribution of dairy cattle in the United States in 1920. Each dot represents 2000 dairy cattle. United States

Department of Agriculture Yearbook for 1922.

of milk products. Of this much the largest part, about 35 billion pounds, goes into butter making, yielding about 1,700,000,000 pounds of butter or about 16 pounds per capita per year. Our further study of butter will be taken

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in connection with other edible fats in Chapter X. The other three chief manufactured products of milk are: (1) cheese, (2) condensed and evaporated milk, (3) ice cream. Each of these three industries uses about three and one half billion pounds of milk per year. This makes annually for each inhabitant of the United States about 2 gallons of ice cream, about 3.5 pounds of cheese, and about 14 pounds of condensed or evaporated milk. A considerable part of the latter, however, is either exported or used in the manufacture of other foods. The manufacture of all these products fluctuates with market conditions, but the general trend is toward increased production.

Cheese Cheese was probably the first commercial product manufactured from milk and the first form in which milk was preserved for future use upon any large scale. It has for centuries been an important article of diet in many countries, and is made in a great variety of forms. Doane and Lawson describe no less than 350 varieties of cheese.

Until the middle of the last century the making of cheese was a household or farm industry. The first cheese factory was started by Jesse Williams, a farmer of Oneida County, New York, who, finding that his cheese sold readily at more than the average price, began in 1851 to buy the milk of his neighbors and manufacture cheese from it as well as from the milk produced on his own farm. Within fifteen years his example had been followed to such an extent that there were about five hundred cheese factories in New York State alone.

It is estimated that in 1850 there was made in the United States about 100,000,000 pounds of cheese, all of it on farms or

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