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are so commonly used. If the milk contains 3.6 per cent by weight of fat globules and 96.4 per cent by weight of serum, then a cream made from it to contain 18 per cent fat will have 82 per cent serum, and will therefore contain, weight for weight, about five times as much of the fat globules as did the original milk, and about five sixths as much of everything which the milk contains outside its fat globules.

The fat-soluble vitamin is concentrated in the cream in nearly but not quite the same ratio as the fat itself. The high growthpromoting value of skimmed milk was until very recently interpreted to mean that it contained about half as much vitamin A as whole milk; but this now appears to have been an overestimate.

According to the most recent work thoroughly skimmed milk shows only about one tenth as much vitamin A as whole milk. Hence it follows that by far the largest part of the vitamin A of milk is in the fat globules and will be concentrated with the fat globules in the cream when this is removed either by gravity or by centrifugal force.

Ice Cream and Related Products The ice-cream trade has grown enormously in recent years and appears to be still increasing. Creameries which are favorably located find it often much more profitable to convert their cream into ice cream than into butter.

The term " ice cream " is commonly applied to a variety of products, including what would more accurately be called frozen custards and water ices. There is not yet a consensus of opinion among food control authorities as to whether the wider application of the term “ ice cream” is justified by common usage or whether the narrower and more literal usage should be insisted upon. The Federal standards are as follows: Ice cream is a frozen product made from cream and sugar, with or without a natural flavoring, and contains not less than 14 per cent of milk fat.

Fruit ice cream is a frozen product made from cream, sugar, and sound, clean, mature fruits, and contains not less than 12 per cent of milk fat.

Nut ice cream is a frozen product made from cream, sugar, and sound, non-rancid nuts and contains not less than 12 per cent of milk fat.

These standards would make ice cream a fat-rich food which many health authorities do not deem desirable, some holding that since it is so largely consumed between meals or at the end of a meal already sufficiently abundant, it should better remain, as custom had so largely made it, a frozen beverage rather than a fat-rich food.

The above standards have therefore been adopted by some of the states, but are far from being generally recognized. Probably the standard of 8 per cent milk-fat recommended by the Commission on Milk Standards is more commonly accepted than is the Federal standard of 14 per cent. The composition and food value of ice cream must therefore be expected to vary widely in different localities.

Frozen products made from fermented milk, sugar, eggs, and fruit, fruit juices, or other flavoring have been described under the general name of " lacto.”

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