Page images

PENNINGTON. Preparation of Frozen and Dried Eggs in Producing Section.

United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 224 (1916). JENKINS and HENDRICKSON. Accuracy of Commercial Grading of Opened Eggs.

United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 391, 26 pages (1918). LEVENE and West. (The Phosphatides of Egg Yolk.) Journal of Biological

Chemistry, Vol. 34, pages 175-186; Vol. 35, pages 285-290 (1918). PENNINGTON, JENKINS, and BETTS. How to Candle Eggs. United States

Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 565 (1918). Hawk, et al. Digestion in the Normal Human Stomach of Eggs Prepared

in Different Ways. American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 49, pages

254-270 (1919); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 13, page 3219. JENKINS. Commercial Preservation of Eggs by Cold Storage. United States

Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 775, pages 1-36 (1919); Chemical

Abstracts, Vol. 13, pages 1884 (1919). LYTHGOE. Tests of Storage and Fresh Eggs. American Food Journal,

Vol. 14, No. 1, page 15 (1919); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 13, page 1105. Model Egg Law. American Food Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, page 32 (1919);

Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 13, page 1104. BUCKNER and MARTIN. Effect of Calcium on the Composition of the Eggs

and Carcass of Laying Hens. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 41,

pages 195–204 (1920). JENKINS, HEPBURN, SWAN, and SHERWOOD. Effects of Cold Storage on

Shell Eggs. Ice and Refrigeration, Vol. 58, pages. 140-147 (1920);

Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 14, page 1395 (1920). JONES and DuBois. The Preservation of Eggs, including a Bibliography

of the Subject. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol.

12, pages 751–757 (1920); Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 14, page 2828. REDFIELD. Examination of Frozen Egg Products and Interpretation of Re

sults. United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 846, pages

1-96 (1920). TINKLER and SOAR. Formation of Ferrous Sulfide in Eggs during Cooking.

Biochemical Journal, Vol. 14, pages 114-119 (1920); Chemical Abstracts,

Vol. 14, page 2037. Almy, MACOMBER, and HEPBURN. A Study of Methods of Minimizing

Shrinkage in Shell Eggs during Storage. Journal of Industrial and

Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 14, pages 525-527 (1922). LEVENE and Rolf. The Unsaturated Fatty Acids of Egg Lecithin. Jour

nal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 51, pages 507-514 (1922). Rose and MACLEOD. Some Human Digestion Experiments with Raw

White of Egg. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 50, pages 83-88 (1922).

HERTWIG. Determination of Lipoids and Lipoid-Phosphoric Acid in Flours,

Alimentary Pastes, Noodles and Eggs. Journal of the Association of

Oficial Agricultural Chemists, Vol. 7, pages 91-98 (1923). Hess. Therapeutic Value of Egg Yolk in Rickets. Journal of the American

Medical Association, Vol. 81, pages 15-17 (1923). OSBORNE and MENDEL. Eggs as a Source of Vitamin B. Journal of the

American Medical Association, Vol. 80, pages 302-303 (1923).



As rated by the Bureau of the Census according to money value of annual product, the industry of slaughtering and meat packing is the largest manufacturing industry of the United States. Many animals are also slaughtered for food on farms and in local butcher shops not classed as manufacturing establishments. The United States Department estimates the farm value of cattle slaughtered yearly at about one billion dollars, and that of swine at somewhat more than a billion dollars; and since it is also estimated that the farm value averages about fifty-three per cent of what the consumer pays, it follows that the retail meat bill of the United States must be between $3,500,000,000 and $4,000,000,000 per year. This is about one third of the total expenditure for food and a larger amount than is spent for food of any other one type.

The meat-packing industry as we now understand it began about fifty years ago, with establishments for the curing and packing of pork at Cincinnati, which was then the center of the corn belt. The close connection between corn growing and swine raising is illustrated by a comparison of Figs. 12

and 13.

With the development of railroad transportation, and the westward extension of the corn belt, the center of the porkpacking industry moved to Chicago; and with the introduction of refrigerator cars, slaughter of beef for transportation in cold storage has grown to a business of great magnitude.


Slaughterhouse methods. The animals are driven up an incline to the upper stories of the packing houses so that after slaughter the carcasses may be run from place to place by gravity. A few beeves at a time are let into the slaughter pen, where each is killed by a blow with a sledge-hammer. The floor of the pen then drops like an elevator, the beeves are rolled out upon the cement floor of the slaughterhouse, and the slaughter pen is raised into position again. The dead animal is at once strung up by the hind feet and, hanging head downward from a wheel on a track which runs from room to room, is bled, dressed, skinned, and the carcass divided in half without the necessity of any lifting or the use of power to transport it.

The animal is bled by cutting the carotid artery, the blood being collected by itself and for the most part dried for fertilizer, though a part of it may find its way into food products. In Europe blood sausage is a common article of food; here it is not generally popular, but a small amount of blood is sold at a large profit in dried or condensed form in patent foods. Commercial albumen may also be made from this blood.

Next the stomach and intestines are removed, the fat which adheres to them serving for the preparation of oleo oil or tallow, their contents going into the cheaper grades of tankage, their muscular walls after thorough cleaning being available for food as “tripe.” The lining of the stomach, particularly of calves, may be used as a source of rennet.

Then the hide, horns, and hoofs are removed and worked for oil, gelatin, glue, leather, hair, and horn, the trimmings going into the tankage for fertilizer.

Finally the carcass is split down the backbone and the halves sent to the refrigerating room to be thoroughly chilled.

Although not more than twenty minutes may elapse between the felling of the animal and the arrival of the dressed sides at


Fig. 12. — Production of corn in the United States in 1900. Reproduced by permission from Taylor's Prices of Farm Products

(Bulletin 209 of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station).

« PreviousContinue »