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ALMY and FIELD. The Preservation of Fish Frozen in Chilled Brine. I.

The Penetration of Salt. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chem

istry, Vol. 13, pages 927-930 (1921). DILL. A Chemical Study of Certain Pacific Coast Fishes. Journal of

Biological Chemistry, Vol. 48, pages 73-82 (1921).

A Chemical Study of the California Sardine (Sardinia caerulea).

Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 48, pages 93-104 (1921). MATTILL. Whale Meat. California Agricultural Experiment Station, Re

port, 1919, page 58; Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 15, page 2936 (1921). WANG. The Composition of Chinese Edible Birds' Nests and the Nature

of their Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 49, pages 429440 (1921).

The Isolation and Nature of the Amino Sugar of Chinese Edible Birds' Nests. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 49, pages 441-452

(1921). ALMY and FIELD. The Preservation of Fish Frozen in Chilled Brine. II.

The Keeping Quality of the Fish. Journal of Industrial and Engineering

Chemistry, Vol. 14, pages 203–206 (1922). HUNTER. A Comparative Study of Spoilage in Salmon. An Investigation

of the Number and Type of Bacteria found in Migrating and Hatchery Salmon after Spawning. American Food Journal, Vol. 17, No. 9, pages

19-21 (1922). ALBRECHT. Chemical Study of Several Marine Mollusks of the Pacific

Coast. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 45, pages 395-405 (1920–21) and Vol. 56, pages 483-487 (1923). (Includes abalone, Pismo clam,

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Salmon. Reprinted by National Canners Association, Northwest
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July, 1923.
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CHAPTER VIII

GRAIN PRODUCTS

In nearly every part of the world some form of breadstuff or other food made from grain is found to be the largest single item, not as to cost but as source of energy, in the food supply

in this sense the staff of life. This is because grain crops are easily grown and, once the seeds are fully matured, they are easily stored and can be kept a long time with little danger of loss from spoilage; and by processes which need not be elaborate or expensive the grains can be brought into the form of palatable, wholesome, and economical food.

According to the estimates of Alsberg and of Cooper and Spillman an average day's labor of a farmer devoted to wheat growing by American methods produces enough protein and calories of human food to maintain a man for a year. Osborne and Mendel quote from Hopkins: “Circumstances

“ have to be very exceptional indeed when the growing of cereals does not yield an energy supply for the worker at less cost and with less relative effort than any other method of food production. Economic and social factors usually tend to make bread by far the most convenient form in which the cereals can reach the individual consumer. The nations of the West have acquired the habit of demanding a well-piled loaf, and for this the special properties of wheat gluten seem necessary. Hence the reliance on wheat in the West.”

If, however, we consider the world as a whole, rice far surpasses wheat in popularity and in the contribution which it makes to the feeding of the human race. It is estimated that for half of

the world's people rice is the main article of food. In tropical Oriental countries it takes a larger place in the dietary than is occupied in the temperate zone of the Western world by wheat, rye, barley, and potatoes combined. From the standpoint of world production and consumption, therefore, rice unquestionably takes the first place among the grains.

As a bread grain, wheat is usually preferred, with rye second in favor, and barley third.

Maize and oats are important both as human food and in the feeding of farm animals.

Buckwheat, millet, and the grain sorghums (kafirs, durra) are also of considerable importance.

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Rice (Oryza sativa) If the population of the entire globe be considered, rice is the most used as human food of all the grains, since it enters so largely into the dietary of the people of India, China, Japan, and other Oriental countries.

In the United States rice plays the part only of a minor cereal, but its cultivation is increasing, especially in Louisiana and Texas. Smaller areas are devoted to rice culture in the South Atlantic States and in California.

Rice has been commonly marketed in this country either (1) unhulled, i.e. with the chaffy husk still covering the kernel ; (2) "cured,” freed from husk but not from bran; (3) polished (white). The following comparative analyses (Table 34) of rice in these three conditions are from Bulletin 13, Bureau of Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture, except the figures for phosphorus, which have been added by the author

It will be seen that the polishing” of the rice kernel removes only about one eighth of its weight but more than half of its ash constituents. The ash in both cases is composed chiefly of phosphates, about one half of the weight of ash being P,Os.

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It has been known for some time, especially in Japan and the Philippines, that a diet consisting chiefly of polished rice is likely to result in the disease beriberi, and by careful observation and experiment it was decided that rice which had been polished so as to contain less than 0.40 per cent of P,0; was unsafe for use as the chief article of food, as rice often is used in those countries. The frequency with which beriberi follows a deficient diet, such as one consisting mainly of highly polished rice, and the certainty with which it can be prevented by simply substituting unpolished (also called “cured ") rice, shows plainly that the removal of the outer portions of the rice kernel as in the “polishing” process results in a deficiency of some substance or substances which occur in that part of the grain and which are important for the maintenance of health. Beriberi is therefore considered typical of the “ deficiency diseases." The limit to which rice may be "refined ” without becoming markedly deficient has been determined in terms of its phosphorus content, and it is altogether probable that a diet of polished rice taken in sufficient quantity to furnish all the energy required in nutrition would fail to furnish an adequate supply of phosphorus. Experiments have shown, however, that so far as beriberi is concerned, the deficiency of the polished rice is due more particularly to the removal of vitamin B. In rice there is a high concentration of vitamin B in the embryo, a lower concentration in the bran, and little if any in the pure endosperm. The milling of rice is likely to lower greatly its antineuritic value through a loss of the embryo but rice which is not too highly milled still has some antineuritic value. In pure white polished rice, however, the vitamin content is so far reduced that it is a disputed point whether such rice contains any vitamin B whatever. It is also practically devoid of vitamins A and C. The use of a less highly refined product known as brown or cured rice is desirable, especially when rice constitutes a large proportion of the diet.

Partly as a result of the interest aroused by the rather striking demonstration in the Philippines of the impoverishment of rice by the complete removal of the outer layers to make a white product, “cured” or “brown” rice is now being introduced in the grocery

trade.

Wheat

Wheat is the typical bread-making grain and the one most used for human food in the United States, in English-speaking countries generally, and in probably the greater part of Europe. The different cultivated varieties of wheat all belong to the same genus (Triticum), but not all to one species. The wheat most commonly grown in America is Triticum vulgare, and probably the next most important from our standpoint is Triticum durum, which is valuable because of its ability to resist drouth and also because of yielding a flour suited to the manufacture of macaroni. Wheat is often classified as “hard” or “soft,” as “spring or “winter" wheat, and also according to the locality in which

it is grown.

Winter wheat is sown in the autumn in regions where the winter is not severe, and matures early in the summer. Spring

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