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NUMBER OF ANALYSES

WATER

PROTEIN (N X 6.25)

FAT

TOTAL CARBOHY.
DRATES (INCLUD-

ING FIBER)
FIBER (NUMBER OF
IN PARENTHESES)

DETERMINATIONS

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FUEL VALUE PER

POUND

Per

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Cals.

cent

1 23.6 | 9.4

7.2

59.1

.7

1537

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TABLE 44. AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF GRAIN PRODUCTS (AMERICAN

ANALYSES) — Continued

DESCRIPTION

BREAD, CRACKERS, PASTRY,

ETC.
Bread, etc., wheat:
Buns, cinnamon, as pur-

chased
Buns, currant, as pur-

chased Buns, hot cross, as pur

chased Buns, sugar, as purchased Graham bread, as pur

chased Biscuit, homemade, as pur

chased
Biscuit, Maryland, as pur-

chased
Rolls, French, as purchased
Rolls, plain, as purchased
Rolls, Vienna, as purchased
Rolls, water, as purchased
Rolls, all analyses, as pur-

chased
Toasted bread, as pur-

chased
White bread, cheap grade
White bread, homemade
White bread, milk, as pur-

chased
White bread, New Eng-

land, as purchased White bread, Quaker, as

purchased White bread, Vienna, as

purchased

24.6 | 8.4 5.6 60.I 1.3 1.3

32.0 8.5 | 2.5 55.7 5 25.2

9.7

4.2 59.9 (?) :3 1 31.7 8.5

2.2 / 56.5 .4 232.6 | 9.0 3.0 54.2

1.0

1470 1 267 1435 1270 I 268

II

1.2

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TABLE 44. AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF GRAIN PRODUCTS (AMERICAN

ANALYSES) — Continued

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cent

cent

cent

cent

5.8

2

BREAD, CRACKERS, PASTRY,
Per Per Per Per Per Per

Cals.

cent cent ETC. White bread, all analyses,

as purchased, average?. 198 35-3 9.2 1.3 53.1 (27) .5 1.1 1182 Whole wheat bread, as purchased 12 38.4 9.7 .9 49.7 (1)1.2 1.3

1113 Zwieback, as purchased

9.8 9.9 73.5

I.O

1915 Crackers, Boston (split)

crackers, as purchased . 7.5 11.0 8.5 | 71.1 (1) .8 1.9 1837 Butter crackers

3 7.2 9.6 10.1 71.6 (?) .4 1.5 1885 Cream crackers

9 6.8 9.7 12.1 69.7 (5) .6 1.7 1935 Egg crackers.

5.8 12.6 14.0 66.6 .4

1.0 2008 Flatbread.

3
9.8 14.9
.5 73.6

1.2 1625 Graham crackers

4 5.4 10.0 9.4 73.8 (2)1.5 1.4 1904 Oatmeal crackers

2 6.3 11.8 11.1 69.0 (1)1.9 1.8 1920 Oyster crackers

7 4.8 11.3 10.5 70.5 (1) .2 2.9 1914 Pilot bread

3
8.7 11.1 5.0 74.2():3 1.0

1752 Pretzels

9.6 9.7 3.9 72.8 (2) .5 4.0 1657 Saltines 5.6 10.6 12.7 68.5

1952 Soda crackers

5 5.9 9.8 9.1 73.1(1):3 2.1 1875 Water crackers

6 6.4 11.7] 5.0 75.7 .4 1790 All analyses

71 6.8 10.7 8.8 71.9 (45) .5 1.8 1847

2

2

2

.5 2.6

1.2

1 Analyses of similar bread made from different grades of flour, from high to low grade:

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Per

Per
cent

Per
cent

Per
cent

Per
cent

Per
Cent

Cols.

cent

White bread from high-grade patent

flour
White bread from regular patent flour
White bread from baker's flour
White bread from low-grade flour .

32.9
34.1
39.1
40.7

8.7 1.4 56.5
9.01.3 54.9
10.6 1.2 48.3
12.6 1.1 44.3

0.5
.7
.9
1.3

1235
1212
I117
1078

TABLE 44. AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF GRAIN PRODUCTS (AMERICAN

ANALYSES) — Continued

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5 21.3 7.1 7.5 63.2 (4) .4 .9 1583 2 15.6 5.9 9.0 68.5 (1) :3 I.O 1716

5.9
9.064.8

1650 17-3

5.9 10.9 | 64.1 18.8 5.8 9.0 63.5 (1) .9 2.9 1625 3 15.3 6.3 10.7 65.9

1.8 1748 27 | 19.9 6.3 9.0 63.3 (1.4 1.5 1630 20 7.0 9.7 | 73.7

.5 1.5 1860 9 18.3 6.7 21.0 53.1 (?) .7 .9 1942 17.9 4.6 6.6 69.8 1.7

1620 7 6.3 6.5 8.676.0 (5) .7 2.6 1848 3 15.0 8.8 5.0 70.6 (2) .2 .6

1643 4 12.3 6.5 15.2 | 65.2 11 .8 1921 4 42.5 3.1 9.8 42.8

1.8

1233 332.0 4.4 11.451.2

1465 162.4 4.2 6.3 26.1

800 47.4 3.6 10.1 37.4

1.5 1157 341.3 5.8 12.3 38.1

1298 37.0 3.0 11.3 47.2

1.51373 I 64.2 4.4 8.4 21.7

1.3 817 160.7 5.5 4.8 27.5

795 59.44.0 4.6 31.4

.6 830 3 64.5 3.3

.8 702 5 6.6 8.7

1860 6 6.7 6.6 14.0 71.6 (5) :3 1990

The moisture content of grain products is subject to considerable variation. Bailey finds moisture in flour in equilibrium with air to vary from about 5.25 per cent when the air showed 30 per cent relative humidity to 15 per cent when the relative humidity of the air was 80 per cent.

Nutritive Value of Grain Products and Their Economy

as Food

The quantitative composition of the grains and of the chief food products made from them has already been given. The grains themselves, their chief mill products, and the dry cereal preparations made from them show considerable similarity in the general features of their chemical composition, and they vary but little from an average fuel value of about 1650 Calories per pound. The 100-Calorie portion of all these (dry) products is very nearly one ounce (varying only from 25 grams for oatmeal to 29 grams for rice). The cooked products naturally show greater differences, chiefly because of the presence of added water or fat.

The chemical nature and nutritive value of the carbohydrates (chiefly starch in all of the grains) and of the fat do not offer any problem requiring further discussion.

The chemical structure of the proteins of the cereal grains has been investigated with great thoroughness by Osborne, from whose results are taken the percentages of amino acids obtained on hydrolysis of these proteins as shown in Table 45.

That glycine is absent in some cases is, as has been seen in earlier chapters, a matter of no consequence so far as food value is concerned. When, however, we find little or no lysine, as in gliadin, hordein, and zein, or find tryptophane absent as in zein, we are confronted with a deficiency which affects seriously the nutritive value.

TABLE 45. AMINO ACIDS FROM PROTEINS OF GRAINS (OSBORNE)

HOR

DEIN
(BARLEY)

GLU- PRO- GLIA

GLU- LEU- EDESZEIN

TELIN LAMIN DIN TENIN COSIN TIN (CORN)

(CORN) (RYE) (WHEAT) (WHEAT) (WHEAT) (HEMP)

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Osborne and Mendel have used these proteins largely in their feeding experiments with isolated food substances and have found: (1) that when zein (lacking tryptophane) is the only protein of the diet, it does not suffice for the needs either of a growing or a full-grown animal; (2) that when hordein or gliadin (containing tryptophane but very little lysine) is the sole protein fed, full-grown animals can be maintained, but young animals cannot grow.

That these deficiencies in food value are actually due to the lack of the amino acids named has been shown by experiments in which the simple addition of the amino acid to the dietary was found to correct the deficiency.

This successful correlation of the chemical structure and nutritive function of the proteins is an accomplishment of the greatest importance to the scientific development of food chemistry.

Edestin occurs also in wheat.

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