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lest they should come to the same end. The house ordered that, in future, no person under a dean or doctor of divinity should preach before them. Stephen, in defiance of this censure, published his


In looking over the enormous list of the works of Daniel de Foe, of which Mr. W. Wilson has specified more than two hundred in his recent elaborate Life and Times of that remarkable man, we observe, that in the year 1728, he published his “ Augusta Triumphans; or the way to make London the most flourishing city in the world; first, by establishing a University where gentlemen may have academical edu cation under the eye of their friends," &c. It is a curious coincidence, that exactly a century afterwards, such a university was opened and a second planned. De Foe also published in 1729, a plan for prevent ing street robberies; as he had done the year before, one "to save our lower class of people from utter ruin, by preventing the immoderate use of Geneva." The year 1829, a century after, witnessed the plan of the new police, which has effected the former and temperance societies have recently been instituted, to promote the latter. It may be some comfort to those who devise schemes of public benefit, that their plans may probably be in the end carried into effect, though they may not live to witness the event. Sharpe, and Clarkson, and Wilberforce, saw the slave trade abolished; a consummation which appeared, at one time, as unlikely in any reasonable period, as to Mr. Pitt, and Fox, and Burke, and Canning would have seemed that much litigated measure, which their successors, in a few short weeks, saw voted by overwhelming legislative majorities. The more rapid march of public intelligence in the present day, may lead us to expect, in future, far less tardy results. We should be sorry to think that any lengthened period will elapse before our code and practice of jurisprudence will be amended; pauperism by law be abolished; our clergy specifically educated for their high office; all our parishes supplied with resident incumbents; colonial slavery exterminated; our population universally educated; and churches provided adequate to their wants. Our chief fear is, that this new march of mind may not prove a march of scriptural piety and Christian principles. Let the friends of religion look well to the result, and labour to direct it aright.

It is a curious illustration of the vicissitudes in scientific speculation, that where

as naturalists used formerly to maintain, that volcanos are probably "laboratories for concocting minerals into metals," Sir H. Davy, and other modern philosophers, think it very probable, that they are just the contrary-laboratories for concocting metals into minerals; for instance, the metals, calcium, sodium, and potassium, converted by the rushing in of water with a violent explosion, into the minerals, lime, soda, and potass.

The Privy Council used formerly to issue passes for persons to travel abroad; and the Lord Treasurer Burleigh induced them to make a regulation, that they would not grant a pass to any person who had not first travelled at home, and acquired a good idea of the memorabilia of our own island.

One of the newspapers states, that thirty-nine clergymen attended the last staff-ball at Lincoln, and requests a list of their names for publication. "It should be known,” adds the journalist, “in what manner so large a body of our sacred instructors read their vows to renounce the pomps and vanities of this wicked world." It is mournful to every true friend of the church, that such charges can be urged, and cannot be repelled. Even if a clergyman thought there is no evil in a public ball he shews more selfishness than public spirit or regard for the welfare of others, if he does not yield to those public feelings of respect for the clerical office which are outraged by an addiction to unprofessional amusements.


The works of the Baron de Stael have been published at Paris, in three volumes, with an interesting memoir of the author.

An important society has been established, with the royal sanction, for encouraging elementary education among the Protestants of France. The society has arisen out of the Bible and Tract Societies, which had brought to light the educational wants of the French Protestants.

The Baron Cuvier lately delivered an oration at the French Academy, at the distribution of the Monthyon prizes, in which he remarked with high encomium, that one had been adjudged to Louisa Schepler, the housekeeper of Oberlin, as the foundress of infant schools. To this moment, though far advanced in years, she devotes herself to her beloved gratuitous school of a hundred children from three to seven years of age. We do not doubt, said M. Cuvier, that she will accept our premium, because we all know to what use she will destine it.


The authorities of the Canton de Vaud have banished M. Hahn, of Studtgard, resident at Lausanne, for having expressed an opinion against the late persecutions. The Cantons of Basle and Geneva have, however, declared themselves favourable to religious liberty; and it is to be hoped the majority of the cantons will copy their example rather than that of the bigots of Berne and Vaud. The council of the city of Neuchatel, some time since, laid their interdict upon religious meetings, but the council of the state wisely set it aside. TURKEY.

The Turks have a religious scruple in killing the buffalo, and never taste its flesh but in one superstitious ceremony,in which they boil the young animal in its mother's milk. The Mosaic code may have referred to such ceremonies, in its prohibition of seething the kid in its mother's milk.

There are, or lately were, but two public clocks in all the Turkish dominions; one at Shumla, and one given by Lord Elgin to the city of Athens, after he had spoiled the Parthenon.

If our readers will turn to their map of the Holy Land, and trace the course of the river Jordan till it loses itself in the Dead Sea, from which there is no visible outlet, they will feel interested in a geographical fact discovered by the late enterprising traveller, Burckhardt,-that from the southern coast of the Dead Sea, to the eastern horn of the Red Sea, near EzionGeber, there is one continuous valley in a line with the river Jordan. It would seem no violent conjecture that the river Jordan may have once flowed to the Red Sea through this valley, passing through the vale of Siddim (which was full of "slime pits," or bitumen), now the site of the Dead Sea; and that the same awful catastrophe which destroyed the devoted cities of this plain, or valley, stopped up the outlet of the lake, as might have happened with a stream of brimstone or lava; or else that by a slower process the channel became choked with mud, leaving the waters of the rivers that fall into the Dead Sea to be carried off by evaporation. There is a precisely similar entrance and emergence of the river Jordan in the lake of Tiberias. Burckhardt's valley was probably the route of the ancient traffic between Jerusalem and the Red Sea.

SANDWICH ISLANDS. The drinking of spirituous liquors has been prohibited in Owhyee, under the penalty of five hogs.


The Life and Correspondence of Mr. Jefferson, by his son, in four volumes, has lately been published in America; and as the work has been reprinted in London, we think it right to apprise our readers that this celebrated patriot and philosopher proves to have been a profane and ribald sneerer at religion, and that passages occur in his correspondence which must shock and offend every Christian mind.

Dr. Murdoch of New Haven is publishing a new translation of Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History. It will be far more succinct than Maclaine's paraphrastic version; and will be accompanied by notes equal in extent to the text.

Our western friends grow refined; for their journals tell us, with no little exultation, that letter-paper is manufactured in the United States "scented with rose and geranium, giving a perfume equal to the fragrance of the full-blown rose, and which will last for years!"

A law has been passed in Massachusetts, that no person shall by bills, or in any other manner, indicate where lottery tickets are to be sold, under a considerable fine.

There are eight hundred newspapers in the United States. These papers circulate, on an average, about one thousand copies each.

The Anglo-American Episcopalians are generally as strongly opposed to the union of church and state as the Congregationalists themselves. In the first New-York State Convention, which framed the constitution of the Anglo-American church, a member urged a wish of this kind, but, meeting with no concurrence, desired leave of absence; which was seconded by a distinguished clergyman of the body in these words: "I hope the gentleman's request will be granted, and granted unanimously; and that when he gets home, he will have leave to stay there, and never come back again."

An act to suppress duelling has recently passed the Legislative Council of Florida, by which all persons concerned in duels are declared incapable of holding office in that territory.

The North-American Indians are far from being all of them such savages as some of their White neighbours pretend. The Cherokees are far advanced in mental, political, and religious culture. The number of Choctaws in fellowship with what is called the Methodist Episcopal

church is one in ten of the whole population, or one in five of the adults. About sixty hymns have been prepared in the Choctaw language, and are now in press.

The adult Choctaws manifest a new desire to learn to read their own language, especially those who have been recently con verted to Christianity.



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MR. B. Barker, the agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society at Smyrna, made a tour in Greece, last summer, with a view to visit the schools, and to introduce into them the Holy Scriptures. These promising institutions had greatly fallen off, for want of funds to purchase books. The Bible Society has printed his journal, from which we extract a few particulars as a specimen. The whole will greatly interest every friend to the diffu sion of the Scriptures among the hitherto ignorant aad oppressed Greeks.

"Early on the 26th of May I sailed from Smyrna, and reached Ægina on the night of the 28th. The population of the island

of Ægina is estimated at about 12,000 souls, who are mostly strangers, drawn thither by its being the seat of government, and who will follow the president as soon as he goes to establish himself at Napoli di Romania, after the great Conventional Assembly is terminated at Argos. The first thing I did, after my arrival, was to visit the schools, with the Rev. Mr. King and my surprise and pleasure were great, to find Ægina full of institutions for instruction, mostly conducted on the Lan casterian (mutual) system. These are called preparatory schools; that is, the children learn to read and write, and, in some, grammar is also taught. All Mr. King had related to me of the increase of schools in Greece, and the

desire of the children to learn, did not exceed the real state of the case. The town of Ægina, being crowded, does not afford proper room for schools, which are carried on in miserable huts or sheds. The schools are, if possible, still more miserable in regard to books :—in short, what I witnessed is truly deplorable; for I could hardly find an entire book in schools of forty and fifty children, excepting now and then a tract printed at the Malta missionary press. Some boys had only half a book; others held a few leaves of one; and most of them had their lessons written out. Notwithstanding all these inconveniences, it is astonishing to see the progress which the children make, how readily they go to school, and how anxious they are to learn, and to excel each other. About twenty of these schools possess from fifteen to one hundred children: others, less numbers. There are, besides, the Orphan Asylum, which is now composed of about five hundred boys; and the school for Ancient Greek, of one hundred and twenty.

"The Orphan Asylum, lately built by subscription, and aided by contributions from the friends of Greece, is an extensive and fine edifice. The boys who have therein found a home, were previously beggars in the streets in different parts of Greece, having lost their parents in the war. The Lancasterian system is adopted in this school; and the boys are wonderfully improved, considering they commenced being instructed a short time ago. The Greek boys are naturally bright and clever, and little pains are necessary to teach them any thing. There is no doubt that instruction will henceforth be not only general, but far superior to that which has existed in Greece for centuries back, provided the country enjoys tranquillity and a good government: and if this take place, Europe will be surprised at the rapid progress of science that will be manifested in this small state; and, if I may prognosticate, of true religion also, for the Sacred Scriptures are readily received by the Greeks."

"Most interesting scenes ensued: the masters, with their poor boys, came to my residence at the appointed hour; and, on examining them according to the instruction they possessed, a New Testament or a Psalter was presented to each, noting down their names and country, and inserting them in the books given them. I had the satisfaction of making many happy by this distribution. The boys who received books are from all parts of CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 338.

Greece, and a very small number only belonging to Ægina; so that, as soon as they return to their respective countries, they will carry along with them the word of God. I made it a point to talk to the children on the importance of not only reading the Holy Scriptures at school, but also at home, to their parents, and that daily. I was surprised at the ready answer of one of the boys: We know it is our duty to do so; for the word of God is as essential as bread, and ought to be read as often as we take that food, and oftener if we can.'

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"A particular instance of humility I witnessed in a priest who came to beg of me a New Testament. He confessed himself an ignorant and sinful man, unacquainted with the New Testament, for he never saw one in Modern Greek; and he was anxious to know the contents of it. I talked to him nearly an hour, informing him what he must expect to find in the book. He was uncommonly thoughtful and serious all the time; and as I was relating to him the consoling truths and promises to be found in the Sacred Volume, he only interrupted me from time to time with this ejaculation, Glory be to God!' After this, I took courage, and spoke to three or four priests who came for New Testaments, and to several young persons, and, in short, to almost every one who came to visit me. Far from being displeased, they heard me with patience, and not the least anger was manifested in any one's countenance. They acknowledged the barbarous ignorance of their nation in general, with respect to the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures; and the hope they entertained of a reform taking place amongst them, by the introduction of the pure word of God and the establishment of schools.

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"The introduction of the Holy Scriptures into the Government School and the Orphan Asylum was what I most aimed at, and, in the opinion of both the Rev. Mr. King and myself, it constituted the most essential object of my mission; for when once this was effected, we might consider all opposition as ended, and we could proceed in the dissemination of the word of God without restraint. Mr. King being acquainted with Count Viaro, the president's brother, and patron to the Orphan Asylum, called on him, and acquainted him with the purport of my visit at Ægina, and of my offer, with his permission, to place the Sacred Scriptures in the government school. The Count received the application graciously: and R

referred to the priest Constantas, as to the number of volumes the school would require. Constantas told us, that it would be desirable that each boy should possess the New Testament, or a Psalter. I told him that the English would be extremely pleased and gratified to hear that each of the poor orphans had the word of God to peruse; and that, for the present, I would place in the school two hundred and fifty volumes; and as the boys learned to read I would complete the number required. This has been done. On taking final leave of this school, one of the directors addressed the boys, telling them who I was, and that I had presented them with two hundred and fifty volumes of the sacred Scriptures; and finished by admonishing them to attend to their studies, promising, that, as soon as a boy knew how to read, he would immediately have a New Testament. The whole of the boys then rose, and shouted, as loud as they could, Long live the friends of Greece !'

"The reception of the word of God at Ægina was such as to create in me abundance of joy, as well as gratitude and thankfulness to the Almighty; and I reckon the few days I spent at this is and amongst the happiest ones of my whole life.

"The Lord having permitted the sacred Scriptures to be introduced into the Government school-a circumstance so much desired-until more books arrived from Syra, I crossed over in a boat to Epidaurus, and thence proceeded to visit the schools at Napoli di Romania and Argos.

"Napoli di Romania has a fine appearance as you approach it, on account of its fortifications, but the interior is most wretched. The Lancasterian school is composed of upwards of one hundred and fifty boys. The school-room is a Turkish mosque, spacious and airy, with an elevated dome. I found the boys without books, and the master very willing to introduce the sacred Scriptures into the school; especially when I informed him that the Government and other schools at Egina had already received the New Testament and Psalter. I sent to this school, which belongs also to government, one hundred and two volumes; since which, my young man sold in this city six hundred volumes, immediately on his arrival.

"Not having any thing to keep me at Napoli, I proceeded to Argos. The Lancasterian school at Argos has two hundred and fifty children. The master was extremely pleased when I told him my intention to send him some New Testaments for the poorest of the boys, and that there

would be also some to sell cheap to those boys who could afford to pay for them. He said, a greater act of charity could not be done, for he did not know how to continue the school without books. I sent also to this school one hundred and six volumes. I had some interesting conversations with the master of the house and his family where I passed the night at Argos, and with several priests and others, on the reading of the Holy Scriptures, and on religious subjects: the result was, that they were anxious to possess New Testa


"Having, by the grace of God, introduced the sacred Scriptures into the schools at Ægina, Napoli di Romania, and Argos, I sailed for Syra; intending to visit several islands where schools had been established. Dr. Korck received me very kindly on my arrival at Syra; and gave me the pleasing intelligence, that my young man had just returned from Hydra, where he had sold, in the course of a few days, five hundred Greek New-Testaments. Dr. Korck took me to see his school, composed of two hundred and twenty boys, and one hundred and thirty girls; and a most pleasing sight it was. I here witnessed what could be done with children by proper management. This school was commenced by an American missionary, the Rev. Mr. Brewer; who, being obliged to quit Syra for America, made it over to the Rev. Dr. Korck, of the Church Missionary Society. Applications to admit more scholars are daily made; and Dr. Korck is now engaged in persuading the inhabitants to build a separate school for the girls, and has every hope of succeeding. I was astonished at the improvement of these children, especially that of some of the girls. This school is by far the best of the sort in Greece. I visited other schools at Syra, where the New Testament was the principal book read. In short, Dr. Korck had left nothing for me to do in Syra; and during my short stay there I had every day reason to rejoice and glorify God, as I saw that His holy word was not only acceptable to many, but found its way out of the island, to spots where, through the continuance of His grace, it will take root and produce fruit abundantly."

After visiting many other parts of Greece, Mr. Barker adds :-" I returned to Smyrna with a joyful heart, having experienced much satisfaction and pleasure during the whole time of my excursion. To the Lord alone is to be attributed the change that has taken place in Greece, in

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