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age, but only what the title, advisedly selected, indicates. I have prefixed to it the Introducrion from the first volume of my Church History, reserving the recasting of the whole work for a new edition, should God permit.

In reference to the arrangement of the whole plan, and the mutual relation of the parts of the representation, I must beg the reader to suspend his judgment awhile, till the completion of the whole by the publication of the second part.

It will be my constant aim to carry on to its conclusion the whole of the work I have undertaken on the history of the Church, if God continue to grant me strength and resolution for the purpose. Meanwhile, a brief compendium of Church History on the principles of my arrangement, but enriched with literary notices, will be published. My dear friend, Professor Rheinwald, of Bonn, having been prevented by his new duties from executing this work, it has been undertaken at my request by another of my friends, Mr. Licentiate Vogt," already favourably known to the theological public by his share in editing the Homilarium, and still more commended to the public favour by his literary labours on the Pseudo-Dionysius, and the Life and Times of Gerson, Chancellor of Paris. May he receive from every quarter that public favour and encouragement which his character, acquirements, and performances deserve ! 2

A. NEANDER. BERLIN, 29th May, 1832.

PREFACE TO VOLUME II. OF THE FIRST EDITION.

I HAVE only a few words to say in addition to the Preface of the first volume. The exposition of doctrines which occupies the principal part of the second half of this work, I was obliged to regulate as to quantity by the relation in which this work stands to the general history of the Church, and the proportion which the history of doctrine in the latter bears to the whole. Hence I have been obliged to leave untouched many questions which would occur to the Christian theologian, who develops and elaborates the contents of the sacred records for the use of his own times ; my endeavours have been confined to representing primitive Christianity according to its principal models of doctrine in its historical development. In executing such a work, every man must be influenced by his own religious and doctrinal standing-point, by his views of the doctrines of Christianity, its origin, and its relation to the general development of the human race. On this point no one can

(1) Now Dr. Vogt, ordinary professor of Theology, and pastor at Greifswald.

(2) This wish for so peculiarly dear a friend, whose personal intercourse, so beneficial to my heart, I no longer enjoy, has been fulfilled. But his multiplied labours will not permit him to accomplish the design mentioned above. Yet if it please God another of my young friends will be found fitted for the task.

blame another for differing from himself; for a purely objective historical work, stripped of all subjectivity in its representation, untinctured by the individual notions of the writer, is an absurdity. The only question is, what point of view in the contemplation of these objects most nearly corresponds to the truth, and from this the clearest conceptions will be formed of the images presented in history. Without renouncing our subjectivity, without giving up our own way of thinking (a thing utterly impossible) to those of others, or rendering it a slave to the dogmas of any school which the petty arrogance of man would set on the throne of the living God, (for this would be to forfeit the divine freedom won for us by Christ,) our efforts must be directed to the constant purification and elevation of our thinking otherwise subject to sin and error) by the spirit of truth. Free inquiry belongs to the goods of humanity, but it presupposes the true freedom of the whole man, which commences in the disposition, which has its seat in the heart, and we know where this freedom is alone to be found. We know whence that freedom came which by means of Luther and the Reformation broke the fetters of the human mind. We know that those who have this beautiful name most frequently on their lips, often mean by it only another kind of slavery.

It will now be my most earnest care and greatest satisfaction, to devote the time and strength not employed in my official labours, to the continuation of my History of the Church, to its termination, for which may God grant me the assistance of his Spirit !

A. NEANDER. BERLIN, 9th August, 1832.

(GENERAL) PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. Having, as I believe, sufficiently explained in my former prefaces the object of this work, and the theological position it takes in relation to other standing-points, I have little more to add. What I have here expressed will serve to rectify several errors which have since been discovered, to pacify, as far as possible, various complaints. Many things indeed find their rectification or settlement only in that constant process of development and purification which is going on in a critical age. There is a fire kindled, which must separate in the building that is founded on a rock, the wood, hay and stubble, from what is formed of the precious metals and jewels. There are imaginary wants, which not only I cannot satisfy, but which I do not wish to satisfy. The activity shown of late years, in Biblical inquiries and the kindred branches of history, has enabled me to correct and amplify many parts, and to vindicate others from objections.

A. NEANDER. BERLIN, 30th May, 1838.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

us.

As to what I have said respecting the position I have taken in reference to the controversies which are every day waxing fiercer, and distract an age that longs after a new creation, I can only reassert that, if it pleased God, I hope to abide faithful to these principles to my latest breath! the ground beneath our feet may be shaken, but not the heavens above

We will adhere to that theologia pectoris, which is likewise the true theology of the spirit, the German theology, as Luther calls it.

The demand for this new edition was a call to improve the work to the utmost of my ability, and to introduce whatever new views appeared to me to be correct.

Sound criticism on particular points will always be welcome to me; the cavils of self-important sciolists I shall always despise.

A. NEANDER. BERIJN, 2d August, 1841

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.-The Christian Church on its First Appearance as a Distinct Religious

Community.

PAGE

Preparation for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit

..................... 1-3

The outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost...............................3—23

The gift of tongues

.........7-16

Peter's discourse and its effects-His call to repentance, faith, and baptism

... 18-20

CHAPTER II.-The First Form of the Christian Community, and the First Germ of the

Constitution of the Christian Church.

The formation of a community-One article of faith-Baptism into Jesus as the

Messiah-Probably only one baptismal formula-Imperfect knowledge and

mixed character of the first converts ...

........... 20, 21

The first form of the Christian community and worship-The Agapæ

22

Community of goods-Influence of Christianity on social relations—Orders of

monkhood-the St. Simonians ....

24-27

The case of Ananias and Sapphira

27, 28

Adherence to the Temple-worship

28, 29

The institution of Deacons

30-35

The institution of Presbyters-Originally for the purpose of government rather

than of instruction

Means of instruction-Teachers ; διδασκαλία, προφητεία, παράκλησις ............ 37, 38

Gradual transition from Judaism to Christianity ................................... 39, 40

CHAPTER III.-The outward Condition of the Primitive Church ; Persecutions and

their consequences.

The cure of the impotent man-Peter and John brought before the Sanhedrim-

The increase of believers-Peter's address-Gamaliel ....

41-47

Christianity in direct conflict with Pharisaism-Stephen the forerunner of Paul-

His views of Christianity in opposition to the permanence of the Mosaic ritual-

His discourse before the Sanhedrim-Martyrdom, and its effects

49-56

PAGE
Formation of Gentile Churches-Enlarged views of the Apostles produced by in-
ternal revelation and outward events ....

65, 66
Peter's labours at Lydda and Joppa-Cornelius the Centurion-A proseiyte of the

Gate - His prayers and fasting - Vision of an Angel - Peter's vision-His
address to Cornelius—The gift of the Holy Spirit bestowed on the Gentile
converts ...............

........................ 66-76

Paul's peculiar position in the development of the kingdom of God-His parentage
and education-His strict legal piety-Compared with Luther....

77-82

Paul a zealous persecutor of the Christians-His miraculous conversion-Un-

satisfactory explanation on natural principles-Or considered as merely in-

ternal-A real appearance of the risen Saviour-Its effects........ .... 82-90

Paul preaches the Gospel at Damascus-Goes into Arabia-Return to Damascus

-and flight-Visit to Jerusalem—The peculiar development of his religious
views-Return to Tarsus

90-98

CHAPTER II.-The Church at Antioch the Gentile Mother-Church, and its Relation to

the Jewish Mother-Church.

Barnabas at Antioch-The name Christians first given to believers-Contributions

from the Church at Antioch to the Church at Jerusalem-Persecution by Herod
Agrippa-Paul's visit to Jerusalem-Whether the same as that mentioned in
Gal. ii. 1.-Barnabas and Paul sent from Antioch to preach among the Gentiles

99-105

CHAPTER IV.-The Division between the Jewish and Gentile Christians, and its settle-

mentThe independent Development of the Gentile Church.

Dispute between the Jewish and Gentile Christians respecting Circumcision-

Mission of Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem-Paul's private conferences with
the Apostles-His Apostleship acknowledged-His controversy with the Jewish
believers, and opposition to the circumcision of Titus

114-116
The Apostolic Convention.-Peter's address-Barnabas and Paul give an account

of their success among the Gentiles-Proposal of James-The moderation and
conciliatory spirit of Paul and James-Epistle to the Gentile Christians in
Syria and Cilicia—Return of Paul and Barnabas to Antioch—The important
results of this Convention................

............. 116-128

CHAPTER V.-The Constitution of the Church, and the Ecclesiastical Usages of the

Gentile Christians.

The peculiar nature of the Christian community-all Christians Priests-equally

related to Christmand in a relation of fraternal equality to one another... 128-130

The influence of the Holy Spirit on the varieties of mental character and natural

endowments—The idea of Charisms-The giftsof duváuers, onucia, tépara 130–132

1. Charisms or gifts for the ministry of the Word......

132-140

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