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Master. Stop, stop. If I were to offer you a job to-morrow, could you execute it?
Harry. No. I see I must have tools and materials, and I have no money to buy these. Well, I cannot start as a master carpenter, but I must first become a journeyman; I need not have money for that, and I hope I may get good wages.
Master. You see, then, that no one can enter upon any trade without some stock of money to furnish himself with tools and materials. This is just as true in farming as in other trades. But in farming the money required is greater than in such trades as a carpenter's or a bricklayer's. A farmer must buy horses and carts, and cattle and sheep, besides ploughs, and harrows, and seeds; and, besides, there is much work to be done, and many labourers to be paid, before the farmer can receive a shilling. The money which is thus employed in any business is called capital; and for a large business much capital is required. There would be no work for labourers who start without any money, unless some one had capital to undertake a business.
Harry. Yes. We all know how much employment Mr. Field has given to persons in this neighbourhood, by pulling down the old mill, and rebuilding it on so much larger a scale. I heard my father say that Mr. Field will have laid out at least two thousand pounds before he has finished the mill. And besides the bricklayers and carpenters, and other workmen employed in building it, there will be a number of labourers regularly engaged in grinding the corn and in carrying the flour to different places.
Master. You see, then, what good to a neighbour
hood may be done with money well laid out; and I have no doubt that Mr. Field's mill will bring him in a good return for what he has spent upon it, that is, for his capital. Then if he makes more money he can enlarge his mill still further, if he finds that a larger mill is wanted; if not, he may establish a mill in another neighbourhood, or give the money to one of his sons to set him up in this or in some other business. Thus, as it is true that the rich can do nothing without the poor, it is equally true that the poor would be very ill off without the rich. Some men look with envy upon persons richer than themselves; and there have been men foolish enough to fancy that it would be a good thing if all were equally rich. If you ever hear persons talking so foolishly, you may tell them that if the poor want plenty of employment, there must be some one who can undertake great works. No one can do this without capital. A person with capital is a person with money, and that is a rich man. For God has so ordered the world that men cannot be happy or even live unless work be done, and that work cannot be done unless there be rich and poor. Remember the words of Scripture, "The poor shall never cease out of the land,"* and, "The rich and poor meet together; the Lord is the maker of them all."t
* Deut. xv. 11.
+ Proverbs xxii. 2.
"WHY sitt'st thou by that ruin'd hall, Thou aged carle,* so stern and grey! Dost thou its former pride recall,
Or ponder why it pass'd away ?"
"Know'st thou not me," the deep voice cried,
"Before my breath, like blazing flax,
While in my glass the sand-grains shiver,
When Time and thou must part for ever.'
SIR W. SCOTT.
*Carle.] Stern-looking man. + Alternate.] By turns.
SAVINGS' BANKS.-PART I.
Master. Some persons who have begun with nothing have acquired great wealth, but few are so fortunate or so clever. You, Harry, are not thinking of becoming a very rich man, but are only looking to be one day a master carpenter. You said you must start as a journeyman, how will you proceed?
Harry. I must be very careful to save something out of my wages, until I have capital enough to make a start. Master. Then you will soon become acquainted
with the Savings' Bank. You may put your money into the bank, and you will not only have it kept safe for you, but will have something added to it every year. This additional sum is called interest, and is given by the bank in return for the use of the money put in. Thus, if you put in 17., at the end of a year you would have 17. Os. 7d.* This may not at first seem much; but if a young unmarried man began with journeyman's wages of 15s. a week, he might very well find himself with most that he wants, and yet save 58. a week. If he did this for a whole year, he would have saved 131. But suppose he keeps back 17. for extras, and pays into the bank 17. on the last day of each month, then at the end of the year he will have in the bank 12., and 38. 2d. added to it for interest. If he continues this for five years his savings will be as follows:
Harry. But 5s. a week is a very large sum to save. Master. True; and yet many a young journeyman will think little of spending 3d. every evening at the public-house. That money, saved in the way I
*The money put in is called the principal. Here 17. is the principal, and 7d. the interest in one year. If you wanted your money at the end of the year, you would have 17. Os. 7d. to receive instead of 17., but if you leave it in they will give you interest for
17. Os. 7d.
have just mentioned, would, at the end of five years, amount to 247. 38. 3d. But I am supposing that you intend to be very careful, that you may be soon able to start for yourself. But you may perhaps have sickness or be out of employment for a time, or some other accident may happen which you cannot foresee. But if God gives you the blessing of general good health, and you are successful in getting work, I think you will see that it is not at all unlikely you may at the end of five years have saved 50l., and this will go some way towards enabling you to make your first start.
Harry. But might I not borrow the money and begin at once?
Master. You would scarcely find any one ready to lend it to you, because no one can tell whether you will be careful and saving; but if you go on steadily and prudently for five years, people will say, "Harry is a good workman and a steady honest man; he is sure to find employment, and he is careful and prudent; he has saved money while he was a journeyman, and so there will be no risk in lending him money to help him on in his business." It may be necessary for you sometimes to borrow money, as when you have a large order, but will not be paid till work is done. You may want more wood and other things than you can pay for with ready money; so you will either have to get credit from the timber-merchant and others, or to borrow money. But though it is sometimes wise to borrow, you should do so as little as you can. You get everything cheaper by paying for it at once; and for all the money you borrow you have to pay interest, as well as paying back the sum received. You should never borrow more than you