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is either a conscious or an unconscious Mr. Thomas Hardy with Fielding, or Lord humcurist. What does he mean by this?—

"And so of Browning and Meredith. Who questions their power or fails to appreciate their talent, though their sentences be oftenest like the Delphic tury read their lines with less difficulty or belaud Oracles in mystery? And will the twenty-first cenwhat it cannot understand more loudly than the nineteenth? More likely it will relegate them (though unfairly), by the contraction of perspective, to the limbo of things unreadable."

What will the ladies, members of the Browning Society, say to the great, the immortal Robert Browning being described as a writer of "things unreadable"? In truth, it is difficult, within the limits of restricted space, to do justice to J. B. S. "And Tennyson and Goethe, will posterity bid them climb to a higher gradient up the slopes of Parnassus than that which they have already reached? I doubt it." Imagine Tennyson and Goethe walking hand in hand up the slopes of Parnassus for the edification of mankind! The conjunction of Byron and Keats is nothing to that. J. B. S. then writes:

"The verdict of the future is passed by a jury utterly incapable of viewing a case except through party-tinted lenses, and furnished only with fragments of evidence upon which to base it......Gibbon, Macaulay, Freeman, and Lecky are samples [sic] in point; McCarthy's History of our Times witnesses for the plaintiff. One such volume is worth, in point of accuracy, a whole library of the former."

Poor Gibbon! Poor Macaulay! Poor Freeman! and, alas! poor Lecky! From 1788 to 1897, behold the vicissitudes of Fame ! RICHARD EDGCUMBH. 33, Tedworth Square, S. W.

follows that we cannot see anything accurately Complete accuracy implies proportion. It unless we see its surroundings too. A certain distance of time is therefore necessary to completely accurate vision of an historical, as of space to similar vision of a scenic object. This is, indeed, more necessary in the case of an historical than of a scenic object, because in the case of the latter, however near to the object we may be, the surroundings are all there; whereas in the other case they are not. We cannot possibly see our contemporaries in relation to succeeding times, and these are not the least important part of a man's historical surroundings.

It may also be urged that a man can only be judged by his work, the value of which cannot be accurately known until its full effect is seen. Time tries all. We can compare Shakespeare with Dante, because time has shown what the work of each was permanently worth; but we cannot compare

Salisbury with his Elizabethan ancestor, for we do not know either the actual or the relative value of their work.

And in all this no account is taken of the vision of contemporaries far more than of the passions and prejudices which affect our men of times past.

C. C. B.


The real estimate of a man is the lasting one which he actually bears through the ages, and not that which any one generation do not arrive at that estimate until some of think he ought to bear. Therefore we the ages are already past. Shakespeare was little thought of by his contemporaries. Hold a penny piece near enough to your eye Many of our own day are by us over-rated. and you can blot out the sun. You can have no conception of the relative size of a mountain while you are standing at its foot. Surely it is a sign of the "end of the age that we are so impatient, so hasty to form judgments; as it was said of a late critic, we are not sure of our own personal identity unless we have made up our minds about every thing and everybody. Our business should be rather the patient accumulation of materials from which a later age may be enabled to form a correct estimate.


W. C. B.


ESSAY BY CARLYLE (9th S. i. 368).-That number of 'Chambers's Papers for the People,' vol. ix., 1851, which your correspondent says is "palpably Carlyle's," was written for the Messrs. Chambers by Mr. John Leaf, of Friskney, Lincolnshire, who about that date article on Fichte and seven others (of which did a great deal of literary work for the various publications of this house. those on Heyne, Defoe, and Louis XVII, had also appeared in 'Papers for the People or Chambers's Repository') were subsequently published by Mr. Leaf as a separate volume with a sufficiently un-Carlylean title, Lives and Characters of a Few Illustrious Biographic Portraitures; or, Sketches of the Persons' (London, James Blackwood, 1861).



339, High Street, Edinburgh.

CITY NAMES IN THE FIRST EDITION OF STOW'S 'SURVEY' (8th S. xii. 161, 201, 255, 276, 309, 391; 9th S. i. 48, 333, 431).—-Aldersgate. My remarks upon Aldersgate referred solely to the form of the word as it stands. The statement that it really represents "Aldred's gate" is easily verified. In the 'Liber Custumarum,' ed. Riley, i. 230, the form is Aldrethegate, an Anglo-French spelling of Aldredesgate. As

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HARE PROVERB (9th S. i. 468).--An article on Sarcasm and Humour in the Sanctuary,' in the Antiquary for June, says, p. 183, col. 1: "Among the grotesque carvings upon the arches of the north choir aisle of Bristol Cathedral we have......a goat blowing a horn, and carrying a hare slung over its back." The article opens with the explanation that many of the carvings were allegories at the expense of the friars. Is it possible that the folk-tale is the perpetuation of an old confusion between hare-pipe-hare-snare and



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signify a ground swell, When this occurs on a windless night the echo of it rings thro' the timbers Lord Tennyson: a Memoir,' by his son, 1897, vol. ii. of the old houses in a haven."-From 'Alfred,

P. 8.


Ropley, Hampshire.

"FOOL'S PLOUGH" (9th S. i. 348).-Perhaps the following from A Glossary of Yorkshire Words and Phrases' will explain the meaning of the phrase in question:

the first Monday after Twelfth Day, and the days "Plufe Stots or Plough Stots.-On Plough Monday, following, there is a procession of rustic youths dragging a plough, who, as they officiate for oxen,' says Dr. Young, are called Plough Stots [stot=a steer, a young ox]. They are dressed with their shirts over the outsides of their jackets, with sashes of ribbons fixed across their breasts and backs, and knots or roses of the same fastened on to their shirts and hats.' They are generally accompanied with a band of sword-dancers, while one or more musicians play the fiddle or flute. When the dancers perform their evolutions, the Madgies or Madgy Pegs, grotesquely attired, and oft with their faces blacked and heads horned, go about for contributions, rattling their tin canisters as money boxes. In this way they proceed from place to place for miles around; and afterwards the money collected is spent in festivities with their friends and sweethearts.'

In the instance quoted by Mackenzie_the money, thus collected would seem to have been given towards building the bridge which he mentions. C. P. HALE.

This was the plough that was taken in procession on “Plough Monday"; see Bohn's ed. of Brand's 'Popular Antiquities,' 1849, i. 505. W. C. B.

CHARLES SHERBORN, ENGRAVER (8th S. iv.307, 358).-Charles Sherborn was the son of Thomas Sherborn (d. 1731) and Hannah-. Thomas was the son of Henry Sherborn (d. 1705) and married Elizabeth Mary (d. 1707). Charles was born 1716, 1786 (Gent. Mag., 1786, p. 719), (d. 1787), and died He was succeeded in his Gutter Lane business by his son H-. The plates engraved in 1789, 1791, and 1792, mentioned by MR. HODGKIN, Bedfont Sherborns. were by the son. Charles was one of the His father had three brothers- Francis, whose descendants still live at Bedfont; William, who died young; and Henry, who married Rachel Elford. This Henry had many children, of whom one, Henry (1711-84), went to Windsor, and also had a large family, of which one, William, his went to Newbury, in Berkshire, and William Sherborn, the line engraver, my descendant still lives in the person of Charles father.

I have during the last five years gone very

carefully into the history of the Sherborns, and have a great mass of material. I should be glad to hear from any one interested in the family. C. DAVIES SHERBORN. 540, King's Road, S. W.

WIDTH OF ORGAN AND PIANOFORTE KEYS (9th S. i. 408).-There is much on this subject in the dictionary of Sir George Grove :

"The permanence of the width of the octave has been determined by the average span of the hand, and a Ruckers harpsichord of 1614 measures but a small fraction of an inch less in the eight keys than a Broadwood or Erard concert-grand piano of 1879." The "average span" of a hand like that of Woelfl-who must have straddled the keyboard like a Colossus-would not make the octave of much account. Recent invention has, however, rendered great things possible to the smallest of average hands. K. B. Schumann (d. 1865) invented a radiated keyboard having c on a black key. Here the octave was the width of six of the present white keys (nearly 5 in.). Herr von Jankó (1887-8) also brought the octave within the limits of six keys. There appear to be some disadvantages, but it is obvious that much modern music-the well-known No. 4 of Schumann's Nachtstücke,' Op. 23, is an example-would thus tend to become more tolerable at the hands of the modern "pupil" than it is at present. GEORGE MARSHALL. Sefton Park, Liverpool.

MACAULAY AND MONTGOMERY (8th S. xii. 66, 132, 214, 332).--In glancing over the penultimate volume of 'N. & Q.' my eye caught, at the second reference, a very dogmatic assertion of the late C. F. S. WARREN, which escaped my attention when first issued, and which I venture equally dogmatically to contravert. "Macaulay was wrong; soul and spirit are not identical, and so far MR. YARDLEY is right," is MR. WARREN'S er cathedrá utterance. In logical parlance, I deny the major, minor, and conclusion of this quasi-syllogism, and formulate my thesis thus: Soul and spirit are identical, therefore both MR. WARREN and MR. YARDLEY are wrong, and Macaulay was right. Montgomery was also wrong; "his mistake," to judge MR. WARREN ex ore suo, was in the awkward association of the two words soul and spirit." Very "awkward" it certainly was, and richly merited Macaulay's drastic question. Since "qui bene distinguet bene docet," it would be interesting to have had MR. WARREN's distinction between soul and spirit, as I have never so far met with any convincing proof of difference between them, either philosophical or theological. What is


predicated of the one can be so of the other. But the onus probandi would have lain with MR. WARREN. Finally, though MR. YARDLEY may not thank me for championing his cause, his contention that "a fairy is a soulless thing and a spirit" differentiates correctly soul from spirit. Fairies are the only instances (imaginary though they be, and precisely instances for that very reason) of spirit divorced from soul. This is the only way of answering "a question put as one of fact"-or, rather, of hypothetical fact, which this undoubtedly is. "Quod gratis asseritur gratis negatur."

J. B. S.


PORTRAIT OF HENRIETTA, LADY WENTWORTH (9th S. i. 347, 475).-EBOR'S inquiry is one that much interests me, and I wish him the success which did not attend my own inquiries when reproducing in my Wentworth book Williams's engraving of Kneller's painting. It was not then known at the office of the National Portrait Gallery whether the picture yet existed: possibly, as a few years have elapsed, inquiry in the same quarter might now be more fruitful. The natural owners would be the Earl of Lovelace, or Earl Fitzwilliam, or Mr. VernonWentworth (of Wentworth Castle, Stainborough, co. York); but so far as my experience has extended, the present representatives of the Wentworths do not appear to be interested in family history, my work having had no encouragement from them.

The same interesting lady (whose story is too intimately connected with the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth) was also portrayed by Sir Peter Lely, if credence is to be given to a small engraving published by Richardson in 1708. I doubt the identity, however, as it has no resemblance to Kneller's portrait. The engraving is found in the British Museum Print-Room and at the office of the National Portrait Gallery. It is a half figure, hair in pendent curls, pearl necklace, hand on breast. A few words of description of MR. HUMPHREY WOOD's little picture would be welcome. If representing Ann, wife of Sir Thomas Wentworth, third Earl of Strafford (first Earl, of the second creation), married 1711, would it not have been described as the Countess of Strafford, not merely as "The Honble Mrs Wentworth"? Her name before marriage was Johnson (only daughter of Sir Henry Johnson, Knt., by his wife Martha, Baroness Wentworth); she died in 1754 (œtat. seventy).

On looking through my pedigrees, I find that 1724 seems to fit Alice, wife of Thomas Watson

Wentworth, M.P., heir to the property him; but I cannot remember to have seen (Wentworth-Woodhouse), but not to the this notice. Bishop Newton, in the preface title, of his maternal uncle William, to his 'Dissertations on the Prophecies,' in second Earl of Strafford. This lady was 1754, states that simply Mrs. Wentworth. Her maiden name was Proby. She was a widow_in_1723, and died in 1743. W. L. RUTTON.

27, Elgin Avenue, W.

There is a remark upon this in Felix Summerly's Handbook for Westminster Abbey,' abridged edition, p. 20: "Bishop Newton is said to have been prompted to write his

TURNER (9th S. i. 389).-I do not know whether your correspondent has referred to my book Kingston Parish Registers' ('Monuments). In that he would see there is a monument to Margaret, wife of Thomas Turner, of Ileden, who died 4 Aug., 1698, in the forty-seventh year of her age and twenty-'Dissertations on the Prophecies' by conversixth of her marriage. There is also entered sations with this general.' on the same tablet the death of the said Thomas Turner, 1 April, 1715, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. I think that the following marriage allegation ('Harleian Society's Publications,' vol. xxiii. p. 210) must apply to the

ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. MOON THROUGH COLOURED GLASS (9th S. i. 328, 377, 393).-A writer in the Athenaum, 12 September, 1896, says :—


"The pictorial splendours of The Eve of St. Agnes' have so intoxicated all readers that Millais was taken to task for giving a green hue to moonbeams falling through a stained-glass window. It was of no use to tell the objectors that green is the true colour of Nature's own moonbeams falling through stained glass, even though they should fall Keats having conon Madeline's fair breast. having dipped his royal brush in all the colours descended to compete with Nature in this matter, with which the sun himself can stain the morning spray when he rises above the sea-line and turns to gold the brown cliffs of Cromer, why discuss the question of his veracity? why lug in Nature?...... Not for one moment do we challenge all this praise; on the contrary, we agree with most of it."

1672. Dec. 18. Thomas Turner, of S. Andrew's, Holborn, Gent., Bach., abt. 25, & Mrs. Margaret Theobald, of St. Saviour's, Southwark, Sp., abt. 22, her parents dead; at St. Dunstan's East." The ages and dates correspond with those on the tablet. Moreover, in the elaborate coat of arms above the inscription I find, from Berry's 'Dictionary of Heraldry,' the arms of Theobald included: Gules, six crosses crosslet fitchée or, 3, 2, and 1. Crest, a phoenix risin out of flames proper. I should mention that in my book Mr. R. Hovenden kindly gave the heraldic description of the arms, &c., as I am not versed in heraldry. If desired, I could furnish verbatim copy of the inscription on the tablet; but my book is in the British Museum, also at Lambeth Library.

I find from Bishop of London's Marriage Licences (Harleian Soc., vol. xxvi. p. 326) the second marriage of this Thomas Turner as follows:

"1700. Thomas Turner of Ileden, Kingston, Kent, Esq, Widower, 50, and Mr Susanna Ryves, of Stepney, Wid., 50; at St. James in Fields.'

CHRIS. HALES WILKIE. Kingston Rectory, Canterbury.

"what first suggested the design were some conversations formerly with a great general...... who was a man of good understanding and some reading, but unhappily had no great regard for revealed religion........and, when the prophecies were urged as a proof of revelation, constantly derided

the notion.'

Thomas Turner, of Ileden, Kent, married Margaret Theobald, 18 Dec., 1672. He was barrister-at-law and clerk in Chancery. If he is the man asked for, I can give full particulars of his wife's family, and should be grateful for his pedigree.


Warley Barracks, Brentwood.

GENERAL WADE (9th S. i. 129, 209, 253, 334, 376).-There have been several references to

If Keats, in the stanza of 'The Eve of St. Agnes' (the twenty-fifth) that is alluded to, is untrue to Nature, as I believe he certainly is, one feels inclined to say, "Tant pis pour Madame la Nature!" Keats, however, in this matter errs in good company. See "The Lay of the Last Minstrel,' canto ii. stanza xi., the last couplet. JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

Ropley, Alresford.

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better would go into York Minster or King's College Chapel at Cambridge, where there is the finest stained glass in England, when the moon is at the full, and observe the effect. We should then have the evidence of ocular demonstration on the point, if he would tell us what he saw. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

"John D'Arcy, the eldest son of Thomas D'Arcy, of Lisnabin, born about 1700, married 1727 Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Thomas Judge, of Grangebeg, in this county. He was the first of the family who conformed to the Protestant religion, which took place before his marriage with Miss Judge. He died in 1758, leaving four sons.


JUDGE FAMILY (9th S. i. 348).—I can give some particulars of the relationship mentioned between the Judges and the D'Arcys

I shall never forget my perplexity when, as a new-comer, I was confronted with the following "terrible bit of nonsense in Latin": "Mea pater in silvam tuum filium est lupus." While this sentence is not capable of two of co. Meath from a pamphlet in my posses-interpretations, I think it may be classified sion, entitled 'An Historical Sketch of the with that of your querist. Family of D'Arcy from the Norman Conquest to the Year 1853 (Miller School Print, 1882). Not being a genealogist, I cannot, of course, vouch for the accuracy of all the details, such as dates, &c.; but I believe them to be correct in the main :


"1. Judge, born 1729, married in 1765 Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Richard Nugent, of Robinstown, and died in 1766; by her he had a posthumous daughter, Elizabeth Judge D'Arcy, who married Sir Gorges Irvine, of Necarne (Castle Irvine), county Fermanagh. On his marriage, the settlements being about to be signed, which entailed all his estates in the male line of his family, his fatherin-law Richard Nugent suddenly stood up, and took his hat, saying, 'Mr. D'Arcy, Mr. D'Arcy, there's my daughter; you may marry her if you choose, but I won't settle an acre of my property, so I wish you good morning and a pleasant wedding,' and went away. He was, therefore, married without settlements, and his estates descended to his daughter.

"2. Francis, born in 1733, who, on the death of his brother Judge D'Arcy, became heir male of Sir William D'Arcy, of Platten, second son of Lord D'Arcy, Viceroy of Ireland; and on the death of the Earl of Holderness, in 1778, heir male of John, Lord D'Arcy, and Norman D'Arcy. He married Mary, daughter of Hall, of Somersetshire, and

died in 1813 without issue.

"3. Arthur, born in 1734, died about 1802, un


"4. James, born 1740, entered the navy, and married in 1766 Martha, daughter and heiress of William Grierson, of Deanstown, county Dublin, and died in 1803, leaving three sons and five daughters."

S. A. D'ARCY, L.R.C.P. and S.I. Rosslea, Clones, co. Fermanagh.

LATIN AMBIGUITIES (9th S. i. 269).—" Mea mater mala est sus." The ambiguity vanishes if a comma be put after "mea," and another after "mater," thus exhibiting the true sense, the first a in "mala" being, of course, long. The form of the puzzle familiar to me before

the date given (1856) was "Mea mater, mea pater, sus est jus," where, as in the above form, "mea" is a verb, and "est" the contracted form of "edit."



Here is another ambiguity: "Mater mea
Hispaniam natura naturam vitium visum."
Here is a Latin alliteration: "Sæpe cepe sub
sepe cepi."

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MASSAGE (9th S. i. 384).—I was told at Aixles-Bains that massage had been practised there in the time of the Romans.


SIDESMEN (9th S. i. 349).—The sidesman's oath, for which by 5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 62, sect. 9, a declaration is substituted, is "You shall swear that you will be assistant to the churchwardens, in the execution of their office, so far as by law you are bound." In the Canons of 1603 they are taken with the churchwardens by the expression "the Churchwardens or Questmen, see Canons 85, 88, 89, 90"; and in Canon 85 there is, "but especially they shall see that in every meeting of the congregation peace be well kept, and that all persons excommunicated, and so denounced, be kept out of the church "; while by Canon 90 they

"shall diligently see that all the parishioners resort to their church on all Sundays and holidays, and and none to walk or to stand idle or talking in the there continue the whole time of Divine Service: church, or in the churchyard, or the church porch, during that time."

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