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CONTENTS. - No. 27. NOTES:-Burton's Acquaintance with English Writers, 1Greek Church in Soho, 2-Cary's Dante-Kingston-uponThames-"Heron "- - Oakapple Day, 4-Bacilli-"Childbed Pew"-Church Row, Hampstead-" Rough "-"Cordwainer," 5-Manila-Accent in Spanish-George Old, 6. QUERIES:-"Horse Guards"-"Sumer is y-cumen in ""Dewy-feathered "-Rev. T. E. Owen-Nether Hall, Essex -Source of Quotation-Italian Law-Jas. Cox's Museum -Carew Poem-"Anigosanthus ""The man in the street"-Manor House, Clapton-Sir N. Stukeley. 7Cadoux-Song-'The Causidicade'-Saxe-Coburg-GothaArmy Lists-Telescope-Shepherd's Chess-Educational Systems-Rev. J. Flower-Farwell Pedigree-St. Werner Order of St. Germain-Withred, King of Kent, 8-The Egyptian Kite-Rev. G. Lewis-Lady A. RobartesScotter, 9. REPLIES:-Historic Perspective, 9-Essay by Carlyle City Names in Stow, 10-"Sny "-The Ship Oxford"Bundling"-Canaletto in London-Hare Proverb-"The calling of the sea"-"Fool's plough"-C. Sherborn, 11Width of Organ Keys-Macaulay and Montgomery-Portrait of Lady Wentworth, 12-Turner-General Wade Moon through Coloured Glass, 13-Judge Family-Latin Ambiguities-Massage - Sidesmen, 14-"-halgh,” 15— Gladstone as a Verse-Writer-Rev. Lockhart Gordon Style of Archbishops-Angels, 16-Sir R. Hotham-Bishop B. Hopkins-Rotten Row-Passage in Dickens-" Mess of pottage"-British Museum Reading Room, 17 Harry carry"- Popladies Reading in Milton - BayswaterGeneral Benedict Arnold, 18. NOTES ON BOOKS:-Routledge's Church of St. Martin, Canterbury-Hutchinson's Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads - Magnetic Magic Bygone Devonshire-Bygone Hertfordshire Webb's Shakespeare Reference Book'-'Antiquary'-'Public Library Journal.'
ROBERT BURTON'S ACQUAINTANCE WITH ENGLISH WRITERS.
R. BURTON was born in 1576, and died in 1639. The first edition of his 'Anatomy of Melancholy' was published in 1621, and finished in the previous year, as I gather from a very old copy (unfortunately the title-page is lost) in the Liverpool Free Library. The words in the colophon, as it may be termed, "From my Studie in Christ Church Oxon. Decemb. 5. 1620." The edition which I make use of in this note is a reprint of the sixth (1652), published by W. Tegg, London,
A mighty maze! but not without a plan. Pope, Essay on Man,' i. 6. It will probably astonish those who have not made themselves well acquainted with this fascinating work to learn that the writer, in addition to his amazing knowledge of the classics, the fathers, the schoolmen-in short, all writers, sacred and profane, who have used Latin or Greek as the vehicle of their thoughts-was well versed in the vernacular literature of his country, both earlier and later. It is a curious thing that Burton would have written his book in Latin if he had been able to get a publisher. In indignant terms he says :—
"It was not mine intent to prostitute my muse in English, or to divulge secreta Minerva, but to have exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could have got it printed. Any scurrile pamphlet is welcome to our mercenary stationers in English; they print all, cuduntque libellos
In quorum foliis vix simia nuda cacaret; but in Latin they will not deal; which is one of the reasons Nicholas Carr, in his oration of the paucity of English writers, gives, that so many flourishing wits are smothered in oblivion, lie dead and buried in this our nation (pp. 10, 11)."
It is therefore evident that our author did not think that his book would be a success, wherein he erred like many another. Petrarch prided himself on his Latin poetry, which has long since been engulfed in the waters of oblivion, while his Italian love-sonnets, which he regarded as idle conceits, are immortal (F. W. Schlegel's 'History of Literature,' p. 161, Bohn, London, 1859). Notwithstanding that Burton did not write in Latin, a fair acquaintance with that language is absolutely necessary to the full comprehension of his book, for, though he quotes from almost every Greek author, he uses a Latin version, except once in the case of Anacreon (p. 453), and four times in the case of Hesiod (pp. 86, 145, 176, 429). Furthermore, he has given us (pp. 497-8 and 505-6) specimens of what his book would have been had he composed it in the classical tongue. Certainly his style therein is not more contract" than in his homely, vigorous English, which has saved his work from being "smothered in oblivion,' to use his own phrase (p. 11). But, as Austin saith, "Alia quæstio est, et ad rem, quæ agitur, non pertinet" (De Doctr. Christ., "That's another story" (N. & Q., 1. ii. c. 2). "Revenons à nos bouteilles,' 9th S. i. 417). as Montaigne says ('Essais,' liv. ii. ch. 2), wherein he is nowise original, for he hath adapted it from the phrase "Revenons à nos moutons," to be found in the comedy L'Avocat Patelin' ('Histoire de la Littérature Française,' par J. Demogeot, Paris, 1864), and not first used by the fabulist La Fontaine, as many do ignorantly suppose.
After this little digression in the style of mine author, I will now endeavour to show his acquaintance with English writers, most of whom belonged to the Golden Age of our literature, of which Burton was temporary.
From "Sir Geoffrey Chaucer" (p. 630), "our English Homer" (p. 565), he quotes frequently
* Carr Nicolaus, De Scriptorum Britannicorum Paucitate et Studiorum Impedimentis Oratio,' Lond., 1576. As to the lines quoted, for which Burton gives no author, I will obey his request (p. 138):
Good Master Schoolmaster, do not English this."
and with evident enjoyment. I have counted familiar. He quotes Sir Francis Bacon, “an twenty-six quotations from and references honourable man, now Viscount St. Albans to the works of the father of English (p. 73), "our noble and learned Lord Verulam poetry spread throughout the book, the (p. 455), four times, thrice from the Essays,' figures of which I will not give, as they and once from his book 'De Vita et Morte, as The Wife he terms it (see Lowndes). With writers such as would over-burden these pages. of Bath' is his favourite. Spenser, "our J. Lyly (Euphues'), Sir H. Spelman, Camden, modern Maro" (p. 485), is quoted six times, Leland, J. Fox (Acts and Monuments ') Sam. "The Purchas, Sands (the traveller), Vaughan (the more than once. and referred to Faerie Queene' is the only poem of Spenser's author of 'The Golden Fleece'); theological used by Burton. Shakespeare, "an elegant writers like "Bishop Fotherby in his Atheopoet of ours" (p. 511), is quoted on the same mastix,' Doctor Dove, Doctor Jackson, page, and quoted incorrectly. Four lines are Abernethy, Corderoy, who have written well cited from the 'Venus and Adonis,' the fourth, of this subject [immortality of the soul] in our mother tongue" (p. 713); Father Parsons, the Jesuit; medical writers, geographers, according to Burton, being, &c., this indefatigable student is familiar. As this note has extended to an inordinate length, I am afraid I must reserve any further observations to some future date. If I take up the subject again, it will be for the purpose of giving a sketch of Burton's character, habits, and idiosyncrasies, for which the materials are scant elsewhere, but abundant in his own monumental work, for JOHN T. CURRY. never was author more self-revealing.
And all did covet her for to embrace, which is a poor substitute for the original,
She wildly breaketh from their strict embrace. (See Globe Shakespeare, 'Venus and Adonis,' 1. 874, p. 1011.) On p. 531 there is a reference to 'Much Ado about Nothing," "Like Benedict On p. 600 are and Beatrice in the comedy." to be found, incorporated in the text, two lines from Ophelia's song, "Young men," &c., 'Hamlet,' IV. v. Lastly (p. 6), we find this energetic sentence, "They lard their lean books with the fat of others' works," which reminds us of the Prince's words,
Falstaff sweats to death, And lards the lean earth as he walks along. '1 Henry IV.,' II. ii. Ben Jonson, our arch poet" (p. 553), appears four times. Five lines are quoted from 'The Fox,' III. iii., to show how "old Volpone courted Coelia in the comedy." A reference is made to 'Every Man out of his Humour,' to show how some men dote on their wives, "as Senior Deliro on his Fallace" (p. 633).
But I must be brief. I will, therefore, only mention the names of the remaining poets whose productions are quoted or referred to our English in the Anatomy': Daniel, Tatius" (p. 600), nine times; M. Drayton, our English Ovid" (p. 171), six times; S. Rowlands, once; T. Randolph, four times; Sir John Harrington, the translator of Ariosto, nine times; G. Wither, thrice, the last from "The Manly Heart' (see 'Golden Treasury,' first edition, p. 83) :—
If she be not so to me,
What care I how kind she be?
I have quoted this couplet to illustrate a
With other English authors he was no less
THE GREEK CHURCH IN SOHO, AND
PASSING the other day along Charing Cross Road, I stepped aside from that tavernhaunted thoroughfare to look again upon the old Greek Church in what was once Hog Lane, and in more recent times Crown Street.
I was sorry to find the building doomed to destruction--indeed, a shroud of hoarding already enveloped its devoted, but still robust frame. To those who might wish to take a last look at this historical edifice, I may mention that the name of Crown Street may now be sought for in vain, as that street was entirely absorbed by Charing Cross Road. The building may be found at the rear of the church of St. Mary the Virgin, within a few hundred feet of Oxford Street, on the western side of the new thoroughfare. Before it finally disappears from the face of the earth, a few words regarding its history may be interesting to the readers of N. & Q.'
In 1676 one Joseph Georgeirenes, Archbishop of Samos, came to London to obtain assistance in publishing a book of devotions for the use of the Orthodox community He found his compatriots at the west end of London without a church, and on his application Compton, Bishop of London, gave him a piece of ground in Soho Fields on which to build one. The bishop's name, by
the way, is still preserved in that of the adjacent Compton Street, as also, in Frith Street, is the name of one Mr. Frith, who acted for his lordship in the matter. Georgeirenes succeeded in collecting some 1,500l., and the church was ultimately built. It was dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, and over its door was placed a stone incised inscription, which exists, in excellent preservation, to this day. It is in rather fantastic modern Greek characters, impossible to reproduce in type, and has been translated as follows:
"In the year of Salvation 1677, this temple was erected for the nation of the Greeks the most serene Charles II. being King, and the Royal [lit. born in the purple] Prince Lord James being the commander of the forces, the Right Reverend Lord Henry Compton being Bishop-at the expense of the above and other bishops and nobles, and with the concurrence of our Humility of Samos, Joseph Georgeirenes, a native of the island of
Poor Georgeirenes's career, however, was beset with misfortunes. He had a thorn in the side in the shape of a rival Greek priest, who fraudulently represented himself as the Archbishop of Samos, and collected moneys ostensibly for the building of the church, which he devoted to a most unworthy object, namely, himself. To stop this impostor's practices, the real archbishop advertised a quaintly personal description of himself in the London Gazette of February, 1680, in which he accused "Joachim Ciciliano, of the island of Cefalonia, a Grecian minister of a high stature, with a black beard," of personating him and receiving contributions "towards building the Grecian Church," and further with "lewdly spending the same to the prejudice of the said church." To prevent all possibility of further mistake, he asked all and sundry to take notice that he himself (Georgeirenes) was an indifferent tall man, and slender, with long black hair, having a wart on the right side of the nose, but against his eye, and black whiskers, and very little beard," and he finished by declaring that "with the assistance of good Christians," amongst whom he doubtless included the "most serene" Charles and the royal James, he had built and almost finished "the Grecian Church in Sohoe Fields." But though Georgeirenes scored off his felonious fellow-countryman, his lot was not a happy one. The church was not a success. It was inconveniently situated. The Greeks were already removing from the site of their earlier settlement in Greek Street and its neighbourhood, and the congregation, and as a necessary were declining. consequence the funds, Compton was not now so willing to help
him as he had been; the parish authorities disputed the bishop's right to the ground on which the church stood; and the end of it all was that the poor Archbishop of Samos, like Mr. Gladstone's Turk, was evicted "bag and baggage." A legend existed in the neighbourhood that his ghost haunted the scene of his mortifications and failures. The building passed into the hands of other foreigners, the Huguenots, of whom Soho contained a great number, and it was held by them for more than a hundred years, till 1822. Then came, and went, a body of Calvinistic Protestant Dissenters; and in 1849 the edifice was secured by the rector of St. Anne's, Soho, and consecrated by Bishop Blomfield for the service of the Church of England, under its old name of "St. Mary the Virgin." This name the large modern church which has superseded it still bears, and the premises are now the scene of great parochial and evangelistic activity. It is much to be hoped that steps will be taken to preserve in safe custody the interesting inscription of which a translation is given above, for which, and for most of the historical facts relating to the church, I am indebted to an article in the Sunday at Home, written by Mr. J. Sachs.
It may be mentioned that the church, then in the possession of the Huguenots, is drawn by Hogarth in his picture Noon,' where also may be found a portrait of its minister and the painter's friend, the Rev. M. Hervé. With a sublime disregard of minute accuracy, Hogarth has shown St. Giles's steeple dominating the scene in Hog Lane.
A walk round this district would well repay the reflective antiquary. In the immediate neighbourhood is St. Anne's, Soho, where lie the bones of the hapless Theodore, King of Corsica, and the register of which church contains records of the baptisms of many of the royal blood. In Soho Square itself, the rectory stands on the site of Monmouth House, where lived the unfortunate duke whose motto at Sedgemoor was "Soho!" The notorious Mrs. Cornelys, so frequently mentioned in the chroniques scandaleuses of the last century, had her house where the Catholic church now stands. Of the associations of Leicester Square it is needless to write. Sir Joshua Reynolds's house is still to be seen; Hogarth's, alas! is being demolished. Just round the corner, at the Newton Hall, is the famous Sir Isaac Newton's. In West Street, St. Giles's, is Wesley's chapel, now a mission chapel of the Church of England-a place with which the founder of Methodism was long and intimately connected, and of which the Rev. Mr. Dibdin a
former minister, has written a history. To their credit, the present possessors of the chapel are very solicitous with regard to its old associations, and some relics of Wesley and his early followers are preserved with care. Lastly, I may mention St. Giles's Church, with its churchyard, where lie buried George Chapman, the translator of Homer, in a tomb which, once fast falling to decay, has been recently "mended" by the parish authorities; and Richard Pendrell, "preserver and conductor to His Sacred Majesty King Charles the Second of Great Britain, after his escape from Worcester Fight in 1651." These are but specimens of the interesting and varied associations of the neighbourhood.
CARY'S NOTES TO HIS TRANSLATION OF DANTE. Has notice ever been taken in N. & Q.' of Cary's strange mistakes as to the Hebrew method of computing the hours of day? In a note to 'Hell,' canto xxi. 1. 109, he speaks of the ninth hour of the Hebrews as corresponding to our sixth; and in a note to 'Hell,' canto xxxiv. 1. 89, he says, "The poet uses the Hebrew manner of computing the day, according to which the third hour answers to our twelve o'clock at noon." The edition from which I quote is that published by Bohn in 1847.
With the Hebrews the hours of day were numbered from sunrise to sunset. The number of hours was uniformly twelve (St. John xi. 9), but the length of what was called an hour varied with the season of the year. Only at the equinoxes, when the sun rises at 6 A.M. and sets at 6 P.M., was the length of the Hebrew hour the same as ours. At the summer solstice, for instance, when the sun in Palestine rises about 5 A.M. and sets about 7 P.M., the Hebrew 12 hours were equal to 14 of ours, and consequently the Hebrew hour, at that season, consisted not of 60 minutes, but of 70. At the winter solstice, again,
when the sun in Palestine rises about 7 A.M. and sets about 5 P.M., the Hebrew 12 hours equalled 10 of ours, and the hour consisted of 50 minutes. The hours of principal note were the third, the sixth, and the ninth. The sixth hour all the year round was 12 noon, but only at the equinoxes did the third and the ninth hour correspond exactly to our 9 A.M. and 3 P.M. As it was necessary that the third, as the hour of morning, and the ninth, as the hour of evening sacrifice, should be determined as exactly as possible, the clepsydra was so adjusted as to measure, according to the season, three (Hebrew) hours
from sunrise, and three (Hebrew) hours from noon. Thus at the summer solstice the third hour from sunrise at 5 A.M. (70′×3=210′— 3h 30') was our 8.30 A.M., and the ninth hour our 3.30 P.M. At the winter solstice, again, the third hour from sunrise at 7 A.M. (50'X3 =150'=2h 30') was our 9.30 A.M., and the ninth hour was our 2.30 P.M. R. M. SPENCE, M.A.
Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B.
KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES.-Kingston is in A.-S. Cyningestún, Cyngestún, or Cinges tún. It was called the "King's tún" because it was MR. GARBETT's derivation a royal manor. (9th S. i. 475) from "King stone" is supported by no evidence. It is merely a plausible folk-etymology suggested by the venerable coronation stone in the centre of the town, seated upon which seven of the Saxon kings are said to have been crowned. What actual evidence is there for this legend? "Si non e vero e ben trovato." ISAAC TAYLOR.
"HERON."-Under the heading 'To Sue,' 9th S. i. 477, we are asked for the etymology of héron. Surely all the dictionaries give it. See Diez, Littré, Brachet, Webster, or even my Concise Dictionary.' I copy the article by Diez in full, as it is short :
"Aghirone, it., pr. aigron, cat. agró, sp. airon, altfr. hairon, nfr. héron (h asp.), in Berry égron; ein vogel, reiher; dimin. fr. aigrette (mit abgestossenem hauchlaut), kleiner weisser reiher; nicht vom gr. pwdióc; es ist vom ahd. heigir, heigro, wozu alle laute passen."
That is, it comes from the O.H.G. name heigir, of uncertain origin. Perhaps it was meant to be imitative. There is a parallel O.H.G. name spelt hreigir (answering to A.-S. hragra), whence the mod. G. Reiher. As to the supposed imitative origin, see Franck's account of the Du. reiger in his 'Etymological | Dutch Dictionary.' WALTER W. SKEAT.
OAKAPPLE DAY.-The following paragraphs relating to "Oakapple Day" appeared in the
Hull Times of June 4: