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prived of many rights which they enjoy in nearly every country of Europe; still, the rigorous laws against the press, and the right of holding meetings, were relaxed, and the number of Liberal papers therefore largely increased. Russia issued new edicts for the extirpation of the Polish language and nationality, but made considerable progress in point of education, in the extension of her railroad system, and other points of home administration. Turkey feels herself compelled to make every year some concession to the liberal tendencies in the Christian provinces. The most important reform introduced last year was the organization of a Council of State, to consist of fifty members, both Mohammedans and

Christians.

The overthrow of the throne of Queen Isabella of Spain adds another to the many vicissitudes which have befallen monarchy in Europe since the beginning of the present century. Absolute monarchy is nearly gone, and an irresistible current drives the peoples onward, toward securing greater liberties, and more and more threatens the very existence of all monarchies. In view of the unceasing conflict which may bring important changes in the course of the year 1869, the following brief retrospect (from the Paris Siècle) of the fate of European monarchy will be found useful for reference, whenever a new change may take place:

The great conqueror of the century, he who transmuted the French Republic into a sort of universal monarchy, Napoleon I., was thrown down definitively in 1815. His brothers, the Kings Jerome and Joseph, had already succumbed. Murat, King of Naples, disappeared soon after. Immediately upon being restored, the Bourbon monarchy in Spain began to totter. It lost all its American colonies, which became republics, and Ferdinand VII. was kept on the throne only by the French expedition in 1823. In the following year took place the fall of Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico. The Sultan of Turkey was shortly afterward deprived of Greece, which was proclaimed an independent monarchy on the 3d of February, 1830. In the same year fell the Dey of Algiers, and also Charles X., led on by M. de Polignac, and the Ultra Legitimist and clerical faction. The King of Holland lost Belgium, that is to say, one-half of his states, on the 25th of August, and the deposition of the house of Orange-Nassau was proclaimed at Brussels. The Duke Charles of Brunswick was, on the 7th September, 1830, driven from his dominions by an insurrection. The Czar, at the same epoch, lost Poland for a time. In 1833, the too famous Dom Miguel, King of Portugal, was compelled to cede the crown to Dona Maria, daughter of Dom Pedro, who retained the sovereignty of Brazil. Louis Philippe was sacrificed to the faults and obstinacy of M. Guizot. On the 1st December, 1848, the Emperor Ferdinand of Austria had to abdicate, in order to avoid being expelled. At that epoch Pius IX. was brought back to and has since been supported at Rome only by the French arms. Austria, for a short time, lost possession of Hungary. The King of Prussia, Frederick William IV., threatened all along from 1848, was forced on the 6th of February, 1850, to take an oath to preserve the Prussian charter. In 1855, Nicholas I. died of vexation and wounded self-love, because he was stopped on the road to Constantinople. In 1859, the Duke of Modena, the Duchess of Parma, and the Grandduke of Tuscany were struck out from the list of reigning princes. Soulouque, the Emperor of Hayti,

was hurled from his throne on the 15th January, 1859. In the following year, Francis II., King of Naples, and again another deposition was announced. Otho, saw Garibaldi enter his capital on the 7th September, King of the Hellenes, was driven from his throne by an insurrection in 1862. Three years later, Prince Couza lost the quasi-sovereignty of Roumania. In 1866, the Emperor of Austria definitively gave up Venetia; the surrender of which may, perhaps, have saved his empire. In the same year Prussia overthrew the thrones of Hanover, Nassau, and Electoral Hesse; and Maximilian fell in Mexico. During all this lapse of time no constitutional monarchy has England or in Sweden, where the young dynasty been disturbed-no revolution has taken place in continues; in Belgium the royal house has survived the storms of 1848; so in Portugal.

the official censuses or calculations published At the close of the year 1868, according to up to that time, the area and population of the countries of Europe were as follows:

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