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traordinary expenditures. The budget for 1869, as voted by the Senate and Legislative body, is as follows: Regular receipts, 1,700,948,247; specie budget, 272,959,763; extraordinary budget, 102,882,787; total receipts, 1,995,404,666; total of expenditures, 2,128,340,645; deficit, 132,935,979, which will be covered by a portion of the loan of 440,500,000 francs. The public debt, in 1868, amounted to 12,993,298,000 francs. The following details of the public debt in May, 1868, given by a Paris writer, Louis Plée, are interesting: "The public debt is divided into three parts-consolidated, reduced or converted, redeemable debt, and life annuities. The first (consolidated) is composed of four and one-half, four, and three per cent. rentes. The annual interest paid on the four and one-half amounts to 37,453,098 francs; on the four, to not more than 446,096 francs; and on the three, to not less than 305,900,742 francs; total interest of the funded debt, 343,799,936 francs. The expense of the redeemable debt consists in the interest of capital of which the state is the depositary, such as caution-money, interest on money borrowed annually for the service of the Treasury, and periodical payments for the redemption of dues, or for territory to foreign governments. The interest on cautionmoney, of which the state is the depositary, amounts to 8,700,000 francs, and which, at three per cent., gives a capital of over 290,000,000 francs, and indicates the large number of functionaries holding places for which they give security. The interest of the floating debt is 26,000,000 francs, or a capital of more than 866,000,000 francs at three per cent. The periodical payments, rents, or redevances, amount to 248,832 francs for the Sound and Belt tolls, and another of 20,000 francs to Spain. The Dette Viagère, or life annuity, is of several kinds. It comprises fourteen articles, some of them important. First, are the military pensions, which amount to 45,000,000 francs; the second, civil pensions, as fixed by the law of the 9th of June, 1853, amounting to 52,455,000 francs; the third, retiring allowances, or superannuation pensions, amounting to 5,500,000 francs. Then come gratuities to old soldiers of the first republic and empire, which are set down at 2,700,000 francs; civil pensions, fixed by the law of 1790 at 1,779,000 francs; yearly indemnities on the same account, 910,000 francs; pensions on the old civil list, 539,000 francs; pensions granted by way of national recompenses, 508,000 francs; pensions on account of the Mont de Milan, 311,700 francs; pensions of the great functionaries of the empire, 288,000 francs; and some other less important items. The previous budgets comprised the dotation of Marshal Pelissier, but which ended with him.

The army, according to the new law of February 1, 1868, consists of the active army and the reserve, each numbering four hundred thousand men. The active army is composed as follows.

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A "Garde Nationale Mobile," which will number about 550,000, was to cooperate for the defence of fortresses, coasts, and frontiers. The National Guard has a military organization, and is placed under the Minister of War. It comprises 250 battalions, having each eight companies of 2,000 men, and 125 batteries of 200 men. Together, the active army, the reserve, and the National Guard number 1,350,000 men.

According to the French "Blue Book," published in January, 1869, the condition of the army of France at the end of December, 1868, was as follows:

Total available military forces..
Number of regular troops..
Active army at home.

66 in Algeria..
in Italy..

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Total in active service..







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of 430 vessels, of which 331 were steamers, with a The fleet was composed on the 31st December, 1868, total of 76,165 horse-power. There are, besides, in course of completion, afloat, seven others of 3.710 horse-power, and on the stocks 31 more of 12,45 horse-power, and one sailing transport. This total is divided into two distinct portions, the first including the vessels which form part of the new fleet, to be constituted in accordance with the programme in course of execution since 1857; and the second, composed of the remains of the old navy, considered untransformation. The new naval force, the only one fit to take place in the new, either directly or after that constitutes the real maritime strength of the empire, counts, as completed, 314 steamers and 10 sailing-vessels. A table shows: 1. Iron-clads to the number of 50, of various classes. 2. The unarmored ers, dispatch-boats, tenders, etc. fighting-ships, 96 screw-steamers. 8. 91 small steam4. Transports, 95 of various sizes; and finally, the two training-schools, one for gunners and the other for naval pupils. Of the old fleet there still remain 17 steamers and 29


The works undertaken for the enlargement of the buildings and increase of the mechanical power in the two founderies of Ruelle and Nevers have been actively pushed forward. In the latter place they are very advanced; in the former they may be considered as terminated. These two establishments are now in full course of fabrication of large artillery.

The pieces of 19, 24 and 27 centimetres (7 to 10

in.) calibre which they have completed are already in number sufficient to arm all the iron-clad vessels capable of immediately putting to sea, and the battery of the frigates is even augmented in force by the entire substitution of cannon of 24c. for those of 19c. The wooden screw-vessels have also had their military value increased by a new armament of guus of 16c. and 19c. of the most recent type. Subjected to numerous trials at Gavres and at sea, this naval weapon has given results satisfactory upon the whole. France incessantly pursues, moreover, like other nations, the studies intended to improve it in augmenting its power. These experiments seem now to point more particularly to a profound modification in the manufacture of gunpowder. As to portable arms, the Naval Department has been already able to give the muskets of the 1866 model to its sailors and soldiers, and there is reason to hope that the new armament, actively urged forward, will be very soon terminated. The special commerce* of France with America and some European countries was, in 1866, as follows (value expressed in francs).


United States..
Central America.

Spanish Colonies..

Argentine Republic..

Peru and Ecuador..

U. S. of Colombia and



191,900,000 173,000,000
4,300,000 39,300,000
24,300,000 8,100,000
35,200,000 28,500,000

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An official report of the ministry of Agriculture, Commerce, and Public Works gives the following information of the different lines of railway working at the close of 1867, and their receipts during the year, as compared with 1866: The total length of railway open on the 31st of December, 1867, was 15,669 kilometres (five-eighths of a mile each), and of 57,100,000 81,300,000 which 7,524 formed the old network, and 59,600,000 51,600,000 7,809 the new, while the remaining 336 be35,700,000 84,500,000 longed to private companies; the extent of 15,200,000 17,500,000 lines at the close of 1866 was 14,530 kilome26,200,000 26,400,000 tres, there being an increase of 1,139 kilomeVenezuela.......... 16,500,000 22,700,000 tres in 1867. The total receipts in the two Other American States.. 8,200,000 11,000,000 years respectively were as follows: In 1867, old network, 499,687,007 francs; new, 152,Total America.... 469,200,000 493,900,000 141,793 francs; other companies, 4,665,288 francs-together, 656,494,088 francs. In 1866, 637,300,000 1,140,500,000 old network, 469,894,060 francs; new, 132,304,700,000 262,300,000 452,382 francs; other companies, 3,334,001 195,200,000 187,000,000 francs-together, 605,680,443 francs. The 111,100,000 226,300,000 augmentation in 1867 was consequently 50,234,300,000 230,500,000 813,645 francs. 129,500,000 58,400,000 68,000,000 128,700,000 Total Europe..... 1,962,400,000 2,386,000,000

Great Britain

Zollverein and Meck-









Other Colonies..



73,900,000 2,793,500,000 3,180,600,000

The following is a summary of the movement

The legislative session, which had been opened in November, 1867, closed in July, 1868. It was the longest since 1852, having comprised 141 public sittings, whereas that of 99,000,000 71,200,000 1867 consisted of 89 only. The discussion on 90,700,000 18,900,000 the budget alone occupied not fewer than 25; in 1867 the debate lasted only 21. For the 6,400.600 65,700,000 129,900,000 first time since 1852 the Assembly heard nine 105,500,000 ministers take part successively in the public discussions, M. Rouher, M. Baroche, M. Pinard, the Marquis de Moustier, M. de Forcade la Roquette, Marshal Niel, Admiral Rigault de Genouilly, M. Duruy, and M. Vuitry coming forward and defending their departments. One only, Marshal Vaillant, minister of the Emperor's household, took no part in the labors of the Legislative body. The Senate met 34 times in its bureaux and 66 in general sittings. The former had to examine one demand for an interpellation, as well as several petitions, proposing modifications in the Constitution; they appointed 75 committees, the labors of which were as follows: One to examine a Senatus Consultum; 63 for the investigation of bills; one to consider a demand for authorization to prosecute a senator; nine to prepare reports

of commerce from 1827 to 1866:




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Imports. Exports. Imports. Ex'ts. 2,799.5 3,180.6 1,065 | 554 2,641.8 3,088.4 659 433 Ann'l av'ge 1862-'65 2,517.7 2,815.7 705 536 1857-'61 1,883.2 2,044.5 670 469 1,204.0 162 302

1847-256 1,001.0





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776.0 1827-136 480.0

713.0 150 53 521.0 144 41 By special commerce those imports are understood which are intended for consumption in France, and those exports which are produced in France.

on petitions, and one charged with the examination of the accounts of the Senate. The Assembly deliberated on a Senatus Consultum relative to an exchange of land between the crown and private individuals; voted 116 bills, among which were 68 concerning the departments, communes, or private individuals; and 48 of general interest; it also set aside, by the previous question, the application for authorization to institute proceedings against a member. Among the most important acts approved during the session belong the law on the right of meeting and the law on the press. The law on the right of meeting was adopted by the Legislative body by 209 yeas against 22 nays; and in the Senate by 86 yeas against 24 nays; and the law on the press, in the Legislative body, by 242 yeas against 1 nay; and in the Senate by 93 yeas against 27 nays. (See FRANCE, PRESS OF.)

The execution of the law concerning the reorganization of the French army produced considerable trouble in several places. In no place were the disturbances so serious as in Bordeaux. On March 21st a numerous band paraded the Rue de la Tresorerie, singing the "Marseillaise." The commissary of police of the quarter presented himself, and attempted to take away a red flag carried by one of the party. A scuffle ensued, and the commissary was badly knocked about. A grocer, who came to the aid of the officer of justice with an iron rod in his hand, was disarmed and beaten. Subsequently the police made several arrests. In the St. Nicholas quarter a sergeantde-ville was ill-treated. On the 22d the young men ordered to appear before the council of revision in the Place Tourny presented themselves with big carrots in their button-holes and in their hands. These pacific emblems of agriculture threw ridicule upon the proceedings, and provoked great guffaws from the crowd. The police showed themselves in great force everywhere, and many agents went about in plain clothes. In the Place Tourny a picket of regular troops was obliged to aid the police. These disturbances of the 21st and 224 took place subsequently to the trial, on the 20th, by the tribunal of correctional police, of three young men arrested for singing the "Marseillaise" and crying "Vive la Republique" on the 19th. One of these, who excused himself for carrying a red flag on the ground that he had seen one paraded in the streets on the day before, which nobody interfered with, was sentenced only to four days' imprisonment; but the two others, one of whom publicly harangued the mob and spoke against the army bill, were sentenced respectively to three months' and one month's imprisonment.

In August M. Magne, the Minister of Finance, addressed a report to the Emperor touching the success of the loan of 440,500,000 francs, which the Government had made. The report states the number of subscribers to the loan at 781,292, and the aggregate of their subscriptions at

660,000,000 of rente, being equal to a capital of fifteen milliards of francs, or little short of thirty-four times the amount called for. The subscriptions received at Paris and in the departments, being not subject to reduction, amount to 3,141,170 francs rente. The moneys deposited to insure an allotment exceed the sum of 660,000,000 francs.

According to a table published by the Paris Epoque, the result of fifty-two partial elections for the Legislative body, which have taken place from 1863 (the last general elections) to 1868, was as follows: The official candidates, who in 1863 obtained 1,032,367 votes, received only 849,759, while 525,290 have been given to the opposition aspirants, in place of 307,295 in 1863. Therefore, since the general election, and in fifty-two circumscriptions alone, the Government has lost 182,608 votes, while its opponents have gained 218,000, constituting nearly double the number they obtained five years back. On examining the definitive results, it is found that 36 candidates of the administration have been elected to 16 independents.

On March 17th, a pamphlet was published at the imperial printing-press, under the title Les Titres de la Dynastie Napoléonienne ("The Claims of the Napoleonic Dynasty "), having for its object to show, among other facts, that in 1799, as well as in 1852, the imperial dynasty, without upsetting any Government, ascended the throne of France, vacant at each of these dates, with the almost unanimous sanction of the people. The following extracts give a review of the principal elections, which elevated Napoleon I. and Napoleon III. to the throne, and of the changes which have taken place in the Constitution of the Second French Empire. since 1852:

had been 1,918,841 votes; on the 20th of December, The opposition to the presidential election in 1848 1851, it had declined to 641,851 votes. Against the creation of the empire the nays were only 253,145.

But that which this exposition above all sets forth, is, that six times within half a century the Napoleonic suffrage. The uncle and the nephew have gone through dynasty has received the consecration of universal the same historical cycle; both have rescued France from chaos; each, three times acclaimed, held office for a limited period, soon prolonged, and both took their seats on a throne which they found vacant. The pire-a unique spectacle in history at fifty years' interconsulate and the presidency both merged in the emval, in spite of so many events that intervened to keep it down. The will of the people, like a river swallowed up by sand, bursts forth from the lower layers of society, and resumes its level of independence and national greatness. The plebiscite of 1852 answers as an echo to the plebiscite of 1804. The 4,000,000 of voters which amazed the historians (of the First Empire) increased to 8,000,000; and he who was called to the throne by virtue of the constitution of the First Empire becomes the chief of the Second, uniting in 1799 to 1804 Napoleon received 10,000,000 of suffrages. his person hereditary with elective rights. From From 1848 to 1852 Napoleon received 20,000,000 of votes-30,000,000 of voting papers signed by the French people-those are the title-deeds of the Napoleonic dynasty.

In the measures which followed the 2d of December, it may have been seen that the Prince-President

did not confine himself to apply to the nation for extraordinary powers, with a view to devising a remedy for a temporary ailment, but that he set forth a whole system of government appropriate to the permanent requirements of the country. He only consented to undertake the burden of leading the destinies of France on the condition that that system, reverting to the consular tradition of the year VIII., was favorably received by the nation. Never was a condition more explicitly stated nor more unanimously fulfilled. The principles whence the Constitution is derived were, therefore, the result of a freely-consented compact. But if these bases be fixed, if they cannot be modified without a plébiscite, the work itself involves progressive improvements; it is perfectible. The Emperor openly proclaimed that fact as early as the 31st of December, 1851, when he said he intended to inure the country to the wise practice of liberty. Let us add, that the decree of November 24, 1860, and the letter of January 19, 1867, have fulfilled that promise. The Constitution of the 14th of January, 1852, has, it is known, become the Constitution of the empire. The change effected in the form of government has resulted in abrogating or amending several articles which were no longer in harmony with the new state of things. It has appeared to us useless to point out these differences. The intelligence of the reader will at once supply that want.

As for modifications of another order, they are the result of various Senatus Consulti; and, as they mark, so to speak, the stages of the Emperor's Government in the liberal path it has entered on, we will confine ourselves to mentioning the most important, and enumerating the great measures which have been their almost immediate consequence.

We will mention (1) the act which has made public in the papers the debates of the Senate, and has permitted the reproduction in extenso by shorthand of the discussions in the two Chambers; (2) the sending of ministers to the Chambers by special delegation; (3) the extension to the Corps Législatif of the right of amendment; (4) the power attributed to the Senate to send back to the Corps Législatif, for fresh examination, bills which appear to it to be defective; (5) the voting of the budget by large sections; (6) the abandonment by the Emperor of the power of opening, in the absence of the Chambers, supplementary or extraordinary credits; (7) the law on the liberty of the press; (8) the law on coalitions, and (9) finally, the bill which is now before the Legislature, and whose object is the right of meeting.

The whole of these dispositions emanate, so to speak, from the womb of that Constitution, which lends itself to every movement of liberty, and which, in this respect, has been an innovation as hardy as fruitful. To appreciate the liberal character of this Constitution, we have only to compare it with the Constitutions of preceding monarchies.

An imperial decree in the Moniteur announced the abrogation of the eighteenth article of the commercial treaty between France and Mecklenburg. The concessions accorded by the Zollverein to France were a reduction to 20f. of duty on the 100 kilogrammes of wine in casks and bottles, and to 20 per cent. on cotton tissues, light, transparent white or prepared, and 8f. 75c. on various other articles. Another decree approved of the declaration signed 21st February, 1868, between France and Italy, concerning privileges granted to French subjects in Italy and Italian subjects in France. The subjects of either country shall be respectively exempt from all service in the army, navy, national guard, or militia, from all judicial or municipal functions, forced loans, and military requisition.

The ratifications of the treaty concluded between France and the kingdom of Siam were exchanged in due form at Bangkok on the 24th of November, 1867. On the following day M. Duchesne de Bellecourt laid before the King the presents sent by the Emperor Napoleon. His Majesty testified his gratitude, and declared that he was resolved to neglect nothing to secure the good-will of the European govern


On the 16th of June a French outpost of twenty-five soldiers, at Rach-gia, Cochin China, was surprised by a roving party of 1,000 Anamite robbers. Only one of the soldiers escaped with his life, when this news reached the garrison. Five days afterward, an expeditionary force, increased by bodies of native militia, who volunteered their services, was sent out to pursue the perpetrators of the massacre, upon whom they inflicted severe loss.

At the end of April the consul-general of France in Tunis broke off diplomatic relations with the Government of the Bey. The difficulty was settled by a mixed commission, presided over by a Frenchman, and diplomatic relations were renewed in May.

The "Blue Book," published by the Government in January, 1869, remarks, with satisfaction, on the conclusion of the labors of the international commission on the boundary question between France and Spain. These labors, which have continued for fifteen years, were brought to an end at the very time when the Spanish revolution broke out. It notices, also, the settlement of the division of the Pontifical debt with the Italian Government, interrupted by the events of which the Roman frontier was the theatre last year. The arrangement concluded then was satisfactory to the Government of the Pope. The attempt since made to suspend its effects afforded an occasion to the Cabinet of Florence to declare its firm desire to cause those engagements to be respected; and the approval given by the Italian

Parliament to the declarations of the minister is regarded as unequivocal testimony of a better state of public feeling.

The following paragraph, in the "Blue Book," relates to the Eastern question. After mentioning the difficulties attending it, and the necessity for Europe to maintain the state of things as established by treaties, it says:

Thus, when, in presence of the complications which occurred between the Turkish Government and the Cabinet of Athens, in consequence of the Candiote question, Prussia took the initiative in a proposition for submitting to the powers which signed the treaty of Paris the difference which so seriously menaced the tranquillity of the East, we did not hesitate to recommend that combination to all the courts interested. We have had the satisfaction of seeing it accepted. Already, in the mean time, the good offices rendered by a ship of the Imperial Navy in the Greek waters had prevented all danger

of an immediate conflict between the naval forces of Turkey and Greece. Since then a conference met in Paris. Thanks to the spirit of conciliation with which their labors were carried on, the plenipoten

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As was mentioned last year, the American Government having again proposed its mediation be tween the belligerents, we thought, as well as England, that the maintenance of our previous offers might become an embarrassment for the Cabinet to which we addressed ourselves first, and retard the arrangement which all the neutral powers desired. We lost no time in declaring that our propositions should not be an obstacle to the success of the American mediation, and desiring, above all, the reestablishment of peace, which became still more necessary after the calamities which occurred on the coast of the Pacific, we are disposed to support the measures, from whatever quarter they come, that appear most likely to attain that favorable result.

As a fresh proof of its friendly sentiments toward the two republics in the South, the French Government has accredited to them diplomatic agents of a rank superior to those who hitherto represented it.

The "Blue Book," in conclusion, thus refers

to the remonstrances of France on behalf of the native Christians of Japan:

The Government of the Mikado must have been

convinced on a recent occasion that the French Gov

ernment, which resolved to exact the strict execution of treaties, will not pass the limit which these acts mark out for it, and, in order to avoid exceeding its rights, it has done violence to its sympathies. Hardly had the struggle which he had entered upon with the Tycoon been ended than the Mikado prohibited to his subjects the exercise of the Christian religion, and an edict imposed severe penalties on the Japanese Christians who refused to abjure their faith. The treaties which guarantee to strangers the full liberty of professing their faith, wherever they are authorized to reside, containing no stipulation of a nature to justify the active intervention of the Christian powers in favor of Japanese subjects, we limited ourselves, as well as the Cabinets of Washington and London, to tendering counsels of moderation to the Government of the Mikado, and representing to him that his reverting to the errors of the past would affect the consideration he was held in by other nations. We cannot affirm that a power, which, perhaps, owes a part of its prestige to the influence of theocratic ideas, will at once consent to reconsider an act so grave; but we may be permitted to hope that the measures of repression, already less cruel than those enforced in former times, will be more and more mitigated in practice until such time

as they fall into complete desuetude.

FRANCE, THE PRESS OF, IN 1868. The year 1868 is of special importance in the history of France as regards the newspaper press of the country. For sixteen years past the Draconic Press Law of February 17, 1852, with its system of communiqués, warnings, previous authorization, stamp-tax, caution-money, and all those illiberal features which rendered it in every respect more oppressive than the press laws of any other European country, with the


exception of Russia and the two Mecklenburgs, had weighed down journalism in France and prevented its healthy growth and development. In consequence of the discretionary Powers given to the Minister of the Interior whom it was left optional whether or not they and to the prefects of the departments, with would allow new papers to be established, sixty had no other political journals than small offidepartments, at the beginning of the year 1868, cial or semi-official sheets, all attempts to start independent or opposition papers having been thwarted by the minister or the prefects. Even in the largest provincial cities of the empire, such as Lyons, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Lille, Toulouse, Nantes, and Rouen, the condition of the newspaper press was so deplorable, that these seven cities, with an aggregate population of upward of 1,300,000 inhabitants, had on the 1st of January, 1868, only eleven daily papers, with a total circulation of less than 130,000 copies. Only in Paris, where the imperial Government could not entirely disregard public opinion, the rigorous provisions of the Press Law of February 17, 1852, were not enforced as inexorably as in the provincial cities and towns; still, the tone of even the organs of the most advanced wing of the opposition the old saying that "Paris is France" is most was singularly mild and cautious, and, although decidedly true so far as its newspaper press concerned, nearly all the Paris dailies having as many subscribers in the departments as in Paris, the aggregate circulation of all the daily political journals published in Paris, on the 1st of January, 1868, fell short of 300,000 copies; and the profits of even the most successful of these dailies, such as the Siècle and Liberté, with respectively forty and thirty thousand subscribers, and with a heavy advertising patronage, remained comparatively insignificant. In the celebrated letter which the Emperor Napoleon had addressed on the 19th of January, 1867, to M. Rouher, the Minister of State, he had promised that "a law should be proposed for assigning the jurisdiction over of fences against the press laws exclusively to the correctional tribunals, and thus suppress the discretionary power of the Government." The semi-official organs of the imperial Government had added to this letter comments evidently proceeding from official sources, and promising in the most emphatic and unequivocal manner that the imperial Government, besides the reforms granted to the political journals of the country in the Emperor's letter, would at the earliest moment submit to the Senate and Corps Législatif an act modifying many of the most burdensome paragraphs of the Press Law of February 17, 1852, and thus place France, in this respect, too, on a footing of equality with the most liberal states on the European Continent.

For a long time, notwithstanding the most urgent appeals of the organs of the opposition, these promises remained unfulfilled, and ap

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