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existence, ending in April, 1866, has been $25,530.68, to 1,868 persons, and the amount paid to the fund has exceeded this sum by about $1,200. The corporation contributes weekly to this fund, and also to meet individual cases which are especially aggravated.

To meet the protection of the large number of single females employed by the company, who are away from the guardianship of their friends, the boarding-houses are controlled by persons carefully selected for their ability to influence this class of work-people of established good character, who will secure the comfort of their boarders, save them from bad moral influences, and act as far as possible in the place of guardians. If a female gives any reason for suspicion that she is guilty of immorality, she is admonished, and, if reform is not immediate, she is discharged from the house and from employment. The doors are locked at ten o'clock at night, and no one is allowed to be out after that hour without a satisfactory excuse. Men of intemperate habits, or of general bad character, are excluded from the company's service.

When the company was first established, the directors appropriated $1,000 for the purchase of suitable books for a circulating library, and provided a convenient room for it on their premises. The work-people have always been required to pay one cent each week during their services, and they thus become members of the "Pacific Mills Library Association," which is managed entirely by themselves. This weekly payment secures the privilege of the use of the library and reading-rooms of the society. One room is appropriated to males, and is supplied with newspapers, and scientific and literary serials, and is open from 6 A. M. till 9 P. M., warmed and lighted. It is in close proximity to the other room containing the library, now exceeding 5,000 vols., and also a cheerful, airy, comfortable, carpeted apartment for females, and made attractive by daily and weekly publications, and stereoscopes. It is open from 9 A. M. till 9 P. M. A large number of volumes of the library are in constant circulation, as the number of the work-people who cannot read or write does not exceed 50 in 1,000, and these are principally of foreign birth. The funds of the society are also used to purchase tickets of admission to lectures, and suitable popular amusements, which are distributed among the members.

It has often been stated that care of employers for the education and welfare of their operatives, especially to the extent herein shown, is incompatible with pecuniary success. Facts prove that this is not true with the Pacific Mills. There have been no strikes among the workpeople, which are their curse, and the dread of employers. They have been encouraged to feel that any grievances will be patiently listened to, and frankly discussed. A higher class

of workmen has been secured. Those best able to appreciate the privileges enjoyed in connection with this company have been drawn thither for employment. Many of the workpeople have invested their funds in savings banks, and this is specially encouraged.

Quite a number of the work-people own houses free of debt, while others have been partially assisted by the company, it receiving a portion of their wages each month in reduction of the debt. More than $50,000 are thus invested. Others invest their funds in the bonds of the United States Government. Several of the workmen are owners of the stock of the company. Their stock has now a market value exceeding $60,000. Investments of earnings in premiums on life insurance have been made by many of the workmen. More than one of the workmen has been a member of the city government in its Board of Aldermen and Common Council.

The least sum now paid in weekly wages to the youngest employé is $1.82 in gold. Bors of sixteen years do not receive less than $2.85 gold weekly. The least amount paid weekly to men is $6.75 gold. Females receive from $2.48 gold weekly, for the lowest, to $6.72, while a few earn more. Spinners, weavers, and a few others, are paid in accordance with their products, some of them earning very large wages.

The stockholders have invested $2,500,000 in the company. During the past twelve years they have received in dividends more than $3,000,000, and the value of the fixed property is in excess of the capital stock; and in the hands of the treasurer, as cash capital, there is a very large amount of undivided earnings.

FULFORD, Right Rev. FRANCIS, D. D., Bishop of Montreal and Metropolitan Bishop of Canada, a prelate of the Anglican Church, born in Fulford, Devon, in 1803; died at Montreal, September 9, 1868. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and was for some years a Fellow of that College. Resigning his fel lowship on his marriage, he was preferred to the rectorship of Trowbridge, Wilts, and subsequently appointed minister of Curzon Chap, el, May Fair. In 1850 he was consecrated Bishop of Montreal, and came to that city. which was thenceforth his residence until his death. He was active and zealous in his duties in this responsible position, possessing rare gifts of temper, judgment, prudence, and moderation; in administrative power he had few equals, and still fewer superiors. He was noted for his learning, and took an active part in the promotion of education throughout his diocese; yet his profound scientific and classi cal attainments were never paraded before the public. He was widely popular with all classes and ranks of people throughout Canada. In 1859 he was appointed, by royal letters patent, Metropolitan Bishop of Canada.

GATES, Brevet Brigadier-General WILLIAM, colonel Third Artillery, U. S. A., a brave and meritorious army officer, born in Massachusetts, in 1788; died in New York City, October 7, 1868. He entered the Military Academy at West Point in 1801, and graduated in 1806, when he was appointed second lieutenant in the regiment of artillerists, and served in garrison at Atlantic posts until 1812; when the war with Great Britain commenced, he was appointed acting adjutant of a regiment of light artillery, and aide to General Porter. He had been advanced to a first lieutenancy in 1807, and in March, 1813, was promoted to be captain of the regiment of artillerists. He was engaged in the capture of York (now Toronto), Canada West, and in the bombardment of Fort George. In May, 1814, he was transferred to the corps of Artillery, and served in garrison and frontier duty for several years. On the reorganization of the army in June, 1812, he was made captain in the Second Artillery, and in 1823, brevet major. He remained in garrison duty till 1832, when, during the troubles in regard to nullification in South Carolina, he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, in Charleston harbor, with his command (he had been promoted to be major in May, 1832). He took an active part in nearly all the Indian troubles, having captured Osceola in person, and escorted the Cherokees to the Indian Territory; and, when the war with Mexico broke out, he accompanied the Third Artillery as colonel. In 1846, and for two years subsequent, he acted as Governor of Tampico, Mexico. Since then he had done many years' service in garrison. He retired from active service in 1863, and was brevetted brigadier-general in 1865, for long and faithful services. General Gates was one of the old school-one of the few remaining links that connect us with the past. He was engaged for sixty-two years in his country's service. General Gates was the father of seventeen children, only seven of whom survived him, the youngest being but seven years of age. He was buried on Governor's Island, New York harbor, by the side of his son Major Gates, who fell in the Mexican War.

GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN 1868. The year 1868 has been more remarkable for physical phenomena, earthquakes of a terribly destructive character, violent volcanic eruptions, and the depression of considerable tracts of the earth's surface, and for changes in political geography caused by revolutions, wars, etc., than for any of those great discoveries which have made some of the years of the past decade so conspicuous. No great exploration has been crowned with perfect success, so far as we are aware, during the


past year, except that of Carl Mauch, into the hitherto untrodden regions between the Limpopo and the Zambesi, which has resulted in the finding of extensive gold-fields, to which thousands have since been hastening. At this time we are uncertain whether Livingstone, now supposed to be slowly making his way to the Lower Nile, has definitely settled the question of the ultimate sources of the Nile ; and we are equally in the dark as to the recent progress of that intrepid and daring traveller Gerhard Rohlfs, in his adventurous journey into the kingdom of Wadai, from Abyssinia and Eastern Africa. War, which sometimes, as in the case of the Abyssinian expedition, promotes our geographical knowledge, oftener tends to obscure and prevent it. In Central Africa, in South America, and in China, and Middle Asia, it has sadly hampered and delayed the movements of explorers, and often put them in great peril.

But the year, though not prolific in discoveries, has been one of more than ordinary mortality among the friends and promoters of geographical research. Lieutenant Le Saint, whose departure on an expedition across the African Continent, we chronicled in the ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1867, fell a victim to the deadly paludal fever of the Upper Nile, in April, 1868, at Abu Küka, 120 miles north of Gondokoro. Charles John Andersson, a brave and intrepid explorer, whose "Lake Ngami and "Okavango River" give evidence of his daring and his scientific qualifications as a geographer, had made his home in Herrero-Land, and, after encountering perils and wounds which had materially impaired his health, died of fever, near Ondonga-Southwest Africa. Rev. Pierce Butler, rector of Ulcombe, Kent, an accomplished geographer and physicist, who had made two very careful and thorough reconnoissances of the Sinaitic peninsula, and had arranged for a third and more complete exploration of that entire region, under the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society, on which he was to have set out on the very day on which he died (February 8th), succumbed to a sudden attack of illness, greatly to the distress of his friends and the loss of science. John Crawfurd, a veteran traveller and geographer, more critically acquainted with the entire East-Indian Archipelago, Burmah, Siam, and British India, than any man of our time, a man whose careful research and fulness of knowledge on all geographical subjects had made him at times perhaps a little captious, and had caused his associates in the Royal Geographical Society to give him the title of Objector-General, but who was nevertheless a most accomplished scholar in all departments of physics, died very suddenly, though at the

great age of 85 years, in London, on the 11th of May. At the very beginning of 1869 (January 9th), Viscount Strangford, a learned traveller in the East, and a profound Orientalist, an active member of the Geographical Society, and said to be better acquainted with the entire range of Oriental literature than any other man in Great Britain, died at the early age of 43 years.

These losses it will be difficult to make up, for so wide is the range of geographical science, that few men can give it that thorough and life-long study which will qualify them to become authorities in regard to all subjects appertaining to it.

We turn now to the brief record of what has been accomplished in the way of exploration and discovery during the year 1868, and commence with the Arctic region, and the efforts to penetrate into the circumpolar space. The year was as prolific in theories and adventures, and as barren in accomplishment, as that which had preceded it. The German Arctic Expedition, projected and fitted out by Dr. Aug. Petermann, sailed from Bremen in the Greenland or Germania, a vessel of eighty tons burden, commanded by Captain Karl Koldewey. On the 24th of May they left Bergen, Norway, and on the 19th of July had penetrated as far north as 80° 30′ N. lat. and 60° 35′ E. long. from Greenwich, where they were seriously impeded by the ice. Captain Koldewey, while managing his little vessel with great skill, to avoid being crushed by the ice, made repeated efforts, both on that parallel and farther south, to reach the east coast of Greenland, but without success, though on the 10th of August they reached the meridian of 17° 30' W. long. in lat. 73° 23′ N., when they were not more than seventy miles distant from Cape Hold-with-Hope, and could see several of the rocky promontories of the coast, but the heavy solid ice prevented their penetrating any nearer. Finding progress in this direction impossible, Captain Koldewey turned the prow of his vessel toward the north coast of Spitzbergen, and on the 21st of August reached Cape Torell, 79° 23' N. lat., and 21° 30' E. long. from Greenwich, having passed through the Hinlopen Straits, though not without considerable difficulty. Here they were locked in by the ice for several weeks, but, by climbing the mountains, and using their powerful glasses, they were able to survey the greater part of the southern coast of the island of Northeast Land (the northeast island of the Spitzbergen group). They waited till the 10th of September for the breaking up of the ice, but, foul weather coming on, with snow and fog, they were reluctantly obliged to return homeward. By great exertion they succeeded in forcing a passage through the Hinlopen Straits into the sea north of the Spitzbergen Islands, and on the 14th of September reached lat. 81° 5' N. on the 16th meridian of east long., the farthest point yet attained in this part of the Arctic

Ocean, though not so high by nearly two degrees as Wrangel's Land north of Smith's Sound, visited by Parry. On their return they reached the Fiord of Bergen on the 30th of September, 1868, and at Bremen were entertained with a banquet on the 16th of October.

An Arctic expedition was also dispatched from Stockholm by the Swedish Government in the summer of 1868. A powerful screwsteamer, expressly built for winter navigation, and provisioned for twelve months, sailed in July, and by the last of September had reached the latitude of 81° 42′ north of Spitzbergen.

Captain Lambert, of the French Navy, whose projected voyage toward the polar regions, by way of Behring's Straits, was noticed in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867, was delayed by various causes, mainly by the incompleteness of the subscription (the voyage being long and very expensive), and did not, as he had expected, sail in the autumn of 1868, but will probably commence his voyage during the year 1869.

Meantime, Captain Hall still remains in that frozen region, and has pursued his discoveries with considerable success. He has ascertained, beyond a doubt, that Captain Crozier and one other man of Franklin's party survived till 1864, and had heard of some traces of others of the party in Prince William's Land, which he was about to explore. His heroism and perseverance certainly deserve success. Of projected expeditions to the Polar Seas, the number is greater than ever before. Dr. Hayes is endeavoring to secure the means for another tour of exploration, by way of Smith's Sound, in search of that open Polar Sea which he has already twice essayed to reach; Captain Sherrard Osborne is urging with great strenuousness another British expedition, also by way of Smith's Sound; the Russian Government propose to seek a route to the Pole by way of the New Siberian Islands or Nova Zembla; Captain Long, an intelligent and experienced captain of a whale-ship, whose discovery of new lands in high latitudes was chronicled last year, has demonstrated, in two or three well-written essays, that the attempt to enter the Polar Sea, and to reach the Pole by Baffin's Bay and Smith's or Jones's Sound, is futile, because the advance must be made against the strong current of water and ice flowing out of this sea through these channels, and down the east coast of Greenland, the result of the immense volume of water poured into it from the great rivers of Siberia and Arctic America; and he advises, as the only sensible course, to follow the current through Behring's Straits, and either along the route lying north of Siberia and Russia to its efflux into the Atlantic by way of Spitzbergen, or north of the extensive tracts of land to the north of our own continent to the Pole itself, and out by way of Smith's or Jones's Sound, and Baffin's Bay. Captain David Gray, an experienced Scottish whaling-captain, insists, and will at

tempt the experiment this season, that the true way to the Pole is by the eastern coast of Greenland, the ice there, being, he says, even in winter, field or floe ice, and always in motion, so that it is more easily penetrated than the attached ice of Smith's Sound. He urges also that this route is the one most readily and easily accessible, and that it can be reached so much earlier than any other as to give a much longer season for prosecuting the voyage.

With so many ardent explorers in the field, it is hardly possible that another year should pass without revealing to us the secrets so long sought, and demonstrating that it is not so very cold and dismal at the North Pole after all.

With a few words concerning some of the countries partially or wholly within the arctic circle, we will pass to warmer climes.

Mr. Edward Whymper undertook, in 1867, an exploration of the interior of Greenland, while his brother was ascending the Yukon in Alaska; but his expedition was somewhat unsuccessful, in consequence of an epidemic which delayed him until much of the route he had intended to traverse was impassable. He, however, made a considerable collection, mineral, botanic, and archæological, and obtained partial vocabularies of some of the Indian and Esquimaux tribes.

In Iceland there was a violent eruption, in August, 1867, from the north side of the volcano Skaptár Jökull, which was visible for more than a hundred miles from the shores of the island. No lives were lost, nor was any serious injury sustained in consequence of it. The attention of Danish geographers and physicists has been of late called to the mountains of Iceland, which are more numerous than is generally supposed. Professor Schjellerup in 1867 published a list of twenty-one, giving the latitude and longitude of each, and its height above the sea in Danish feet, which differ but very slightly from English feet. Of these the Orofa Jökull is the loftiest, being 6,241 feet above the sea-level. The next four in height are the Eyjafjulla Jökull, 5,432 feet; Herderbried, 5,290 feet; Hecla, 4,961 feet; and the Snaefells Jökull, 4,577 feet. None of the others rise above 4,000 feet; and the lowest, Ingólfshōifdi, is but 260 feet in height. A considerable number of the whole are volcanoes.

Alaska, considering its remoteness, and how little was previously known concerning it, has within the past two years been explored more fully than most of the northern portion of the continent. Mr. Frederick Whymper ascended and descended the Yukon River for 1,300 miles, and explored other portions of the territory with great care and thoroughness. Mr. Dall and Mr. Thomas Kane (brother of the Arctic explorer), have both traversed considerable portions of it, and have given us a very fair idea of the commercial, agricultural, mineral, and zoological value of our new territory. That it has several large navigable rivers, great numbers of fur-bearing animals, some valuable

minerals and metals, and trees and shrubs of stinted growth, except in the interior, fisheries of considerable probable value, coal of good quality, and ice in great abundance, may be considered certain. Its native inhabitants seem to be, in about equal numbers, Esquimaux, or Innuit, and Indians; but the former, whose homes are nearer the coast, in striking contrast to those in the more eastern part of the continent, are men of large stature, finely formed, and considerably intelligent; while the Indians are smaller and some of them more degraded than most of the Indian tribes of the Pacific slope. Mr. Whymper, who visited also Kamtchatka and the coasts of Northeastern Siberia, obtained very full vocabularies of the languages of several of the Indian and Esquimaux tribes on both continents, and the great similarity of some of these indicates the close connection between the Esquimaux of Northern America and the Aborigines of Northern Siberia. His narrative of his travels, which is very interesting, has been republished here by Harper and Brothers. Mr. W. H. Dall, who was a companion of Mr. Whymper in a part of his tour, in a paper read before the Boston Society of Natural History, confined himself mainly to the physical geography of Alaska. He states that the Rocky Mountain range, about latitude 64°, turns westward, and meets the coast range in a confused, high, rolling country, where the distinctive characters of both ranges are lost. From these springs, however, one lofty volcanic range, which, extending at first westward, and then southward, forms the backbone of the peninsula of Alaska. North of this, between the Mackenzie and Porcupine Rivers, the country is filled with low rolling hills, but west of the Mackenzie, along the northern coast, the Romanzoff Mountains, a separate, lofty, snow-capped range, extend nearly to the mouth of the Colville River. There are, in consequence of this deflection of the mountains westward, two distinct fauna in the territory; that of the west coast of North America, bounded to the north by the Alaskan Mountains, and that of the great valley of the Yukon and its tributaries, which is properly northern and eastern in its character. There are no glaciers north of the Alaskan Mountains, but many local ones south of these mountains.

Captain Edward G. Fast, formerly stationed at Sitka, brought to New York, early in 1868, a large collection of implements, domestic and warlike, and curiosities and antiquities of this new region, many of them illustrative of the degree of civilization, habits, and customs of the Indian and Esquimaux tribes there.

In the summer of 1867, Commander W. Chimmo, of the British Navy, in her Majesty's steamship Gannet, surveyed a portion of the Labrador coast between the parallels of 52° and 56° north latitude, and found that the charts of previous surveys had placed the coast from ten to eleven miles too far eastward.

He explored several of the harbors along the coast, some of which, especially, Occasional Harbor, Indian Tackle, and Hopedale, he found of considerable importance for the fisheries. There is nothing of special geographical interest to report respecting the Dominion of Canada. The restlessness of a portion of its inhabitants under the new régime and the extraordinary magnitude of the emigration thence to the United States during the past year seem to indicate that its present government is not likely to prove a permanent one, and the most intelligent English travellers and explorers are unanimous in advising the British Government to grant it entire independence or to cede it to the United States. The vast region hitherto known as the Hudson's Bay Company's Territory is to be incorporated with Canada, and, while adding greatly to its area, will increase its expenses far more than its capacity for production.

Mr. Waddington, an enterprising capitalist of British Columbia, who has devoted much attention to the best routes for a railroad across British America, and has explored most of the available routes in person, read a paper before the Royal Geographical Society, in March, 1868, and made an address upon this subject. The route he proposed would go in an almost straight line from Montreal to Collingwood on the Georgian Bay, thence around Lake Superior to Dog Lake, Lake of the Woods, and Fort Garry; thence northward along Red River to Lake Winnipeg, up Lake Winnipeg along the Saskatchewan to near the foot of the Rocky Mountains, across through a pass in 50° 56' north latitude, near the southern end of Soushwap Lake, the elevation of which does not exceed 2,500 feet above the Saskatchewan River, and is very gradual, thence following the valley of the upper Frazer River to the mouth of the Quesnille, a distance of 280 miles, and from that point in a nearly straight line to Bute Inlet in about latitude 50° 30. This route has several advantages: Its length was somewhat greater than that of the Union Pacific Railway, being 3,490 miles, but 2,400 miles of the whole could consist, at first, of steamboat navigation, railroads being subsequently constructed as needed, and the 1,090 miles of railroad being in great part provided for by the colonial governments. Mr. Waddington contended that this route was much less liable to obstruction by snow than that of the Union Pacific.

Coming now to the United States, there is on the Atlantic slope but little in the way of either geographical progress or discovery to report. A few facts in physical geography and its allied sciences are all that have attracted our attention. In Salisbury, Connecticut, a remarkable cave, rivalling the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, was discovered in 1868. Its numerous chambers, halls, and galleries, are adorned with stalactites and stalagmites of the most varied forms, and in some instances rise

into vaulted ceilings or lofty domes, glittering, by artificial light, with numberless crystalline stars.

In the vicinity of Poultney, Vermont, numerous natural wells have been discovered far down below the horizontal layers of slate in the slate quarries, made, it is believed, by the whirling of large pebbles or round stones, in the hollows into which currents of water from greater elevations had forced themselves.

The coast of New Jersey has been for many years past gradually subsiding, as the recent geographical and geological survey of the State clearly proves. The tides along the whole coast reach a much higher point than they did sixty or one hundred years ago, and the shores have worn away, especially in the southeastern portion of the State, from a fourth of a mile to a mile. From these and other facts, the average subsidence is reckoned at about two feet in a century. As much of the southern part of the State is but slightly elevated above the ocean level (very few points in Cape May County being more than twenty feet above it, this gradual subsidence occasions considerable apprehension. There are, however, very probably in the future, as there have been in the past, epochs of elevation as well as of subsidence, and if these should not come in season, as a last resort, the people of southern New Jersey, like those of Holland, must resort to diking out the sea.

One of those measures, of which our times are so prolific, for changing the course and embouchure of great rivers, or the connection of large bodies of water, is now in progress in Louisiana. The Mississippi and Mexican Gulf Ship-Canal Company have undertaken to open a ship-canal between the Mississippi River and Lake Borgne, to leave the river at English Turn, ten miles below New Orleans. This canal will be but about three miles in length, opening into the Bayou Bienvenue, an arın of Lake Borgne; it will be eighteen feet in depth, and have a lock three hundred and fifty feet in length and eighty feet in width, to guard against the annual rise and fall of twelve feet in the river. By this route the largest steamers can load anywhere on the Upper Mississippi, for any of the Gulf ports east of New Orleans, passing out through Lake Borgne into the Mississippi Sound, and thence to Mobile or elsewhere in the Gulf, saving the one hundred and twenty miles of difficult and dangerous navigation of the Mississippi below English Turn, as well as the passage of the bar, and the eighty miles northward from Pass l'Outre to Cat Island; or the dangerous and shallow navigation of Lake Pontchartrain. The cost of the canal is estimated at $300,000, and it is to be completed by September, 1869. It is estimated that it will save nearly a million of dollars annually in tonnage, pilotage, and port charges, while it will greatly increase the commerce of the port. In this case, the canal, so inexpensive in its character, seems to be

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