Page images

been pending for so long a time with the British Secretary of Foreign affairs, Lord Stanley, for the settlement of the Alabama and other claims, held by our Government against Great Britain. He found the British Government far more ready to adjust these claims on liberal terms than they had formerly been: the conviction prevailing that, in the event of a war between Great Britain and any other power, the following of her precedent by the United States would ruin her commerce. Mr. Johnson, however, somewhat injudiciously courted the society of Mr. Laird, the builder of the Alabama and Shenandoah, and of Mr. Roebuck, and other prominent enemies of the United States Government, apparently preferring association with them to the society of those who had been the stanch friends of the United States during the war; and, having thus excited prejudice against himself, he negotiated a treaty which was entirely unsatisfactory to his own Government, and was rejected subsequently by the United States Senate.

The Fenians did not attempt any further demonstrations of importance during the year, and, at the earnest solicitation of our Government, some of those who had been arrested, tried, and convicted of participation in the insurrection, and who had a quasi claim on the United States for protection, were respited, their punishment commuted, and in two or three instances they were pardoned.

We subjoin our usual statistics.

I. FINANCES: 1. Revenue and Expenditure. -The gross revenue for the year ending March 31, 1868, was £69,600,218 4s. 1d.= $348,001,091. The gross expenditure for the same period was £71,766,241 17s. 7d. : $358,831,209.50. Of the revenue, £22,650,000 $113,250,000, was from customs; £20,162,000 = $100,810,000, from excise duties; £9,541,000 = $47,705,000, from stamps; £3,509,000 $17,545,000, from land and assessed taxes; £6,177,000 $30,885,000, from property tax; £4,630,000 = $23,150,000, from the post-office; £345,000 = $1,725,000, the net proceeds of the crown lands; and £2,586,218 4s. 1d. $12,931,091, from miscellaneous sources.






Of the Expenditure, £96,571,750 1s. 9d. $132,858,750.44, was for the interest and management of the permanent and floating debts of the Government; £1,893,898 3s. 5d. $9,469,490.85, was for the civil list, salaries, pensions, annuities, courts of justice, and miscellaneous charges; £42,770,593 12s. 5d. = $213,852,968.10, was for supply services, including army, navy, customs and inland revenue, post-office, packet service, the Abyssinian expedition, and miscellaneous civil services. There was also an expenditure of £530,000 = $2,650,000, for the completion of fortifications on the coast. The estimates of Mr. Hunt, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, for the year ending March 31, 1869, were: revenue, £71,350,000 = $356,750,000; expenditure, £70,428,000 $352,140,000. This, if realized, would leave


a surplus of $4,610,000; but the expenses of the Abyssinian War, a part of which would come into this year, would probably create a deficit of about ten millions of dollars. The income tax was raised from 4d. to 6d. per pound in December, 1867, in order to meet this deficiency, and this would give, it was estimated, £2,900,000 $14,500,000 additional, which was to be applied to this purpose.



2. National Debt.-The principal of the national debt, funded and unfunded, was on the 31st of March, 1868, £749,101,428 $3,745,507,140, and its interest, as already stated, £26,571,750 = $132,858,750.

II. ARMY and NAVY: 1. Army.-The army of the United Kingdom, during the year 1868, consisted of 138,691 men, constituted as follows: officers of the general staff, 100; troops of the line, including the life-guards, horse-guards, etc., 6,482 commissioned officers, 12,115 non-commissioned officers, trumpeters, and drummers, and 108,173 rank and file; depots of Indian regiments, 412 commissioned officers, 976 non-commissioned officers, 8,492 rank and file; recruiting and other establishments, 129 commissioned, and 263 non-commissioned officers, and 66 rank and file; training-schools, 32 commissioned, and 248 noncommissioned officers, and 10 rank and file; making a grand total of 7,149 commissioned officers, 13,602 non-commissioned officers, and 115,741 rank and file. Aside from these, the British forces in India comprised 3,592 commissioned and 5,318 non-commissioned officers, and 25,556 rank and file.

Besides these, which are both included under the general head of regular forces, provision is made for four classes of reserve or auxiliary forces, viz.: the enrolled militia, numbering 128,971, for whom £986,800 = $4,934,000, was appropriated; the yeomanry cavalry, of which there were 14,339 non-commissioned officers and men, for whom £88,000 = $440,000 was voted; the volunteers, numbering 162,681 officers and men, to whom was appropri ated £385,100 $1,925,500; and fourth, the enrolled pensioners and army reserve force. numbers not given, but receiving £64,600 = $323,000. The total cost of the British army, including the auxiliary and reserved forces, in the year ending March 31, 1868, was £15,252,200 = $76,261,000; and the estimate for the year ending March 31, 1869, was £15,455,400

[ocr errors]


= $77,277,000. Of this amount £2,124,400 = $10,622,000, was for non-effective service, pensions, half pay, allowances, superannuation, etc.

2. Navy.-The actual strength of the British navy in February, 1868, consisted of 339 screw-steamers of all sizes, afloat, and 32 building; of 73 paddle-wheel steamers afloat, and 2 building, making a total of 437 steam-vessels afloat and building, and 29 effective sailing-ves sels afloat: in all 466. Of these there were at that time in commission including stationary receiving, surveying, training, and store ships and tenders, 45 sailing and 205 steam-vessels.


Of these, 150, all steamers, were rated as seagoing ships, effective for general service. In this number were included 1 line-of-battle ship, 19 iron-cased ships, 31 frigates and corvettes, and 99 sloops and small vessels. There were in addition to these 10 steamers, guard-ships of the coast guard, and 41 sailing, and 18 steamtenders and cruisers, belonging to the coastguard service. The navy employed, in 1868, 36,502 officers and seamen, and 7,403 boys, together with 16,271 marines. There were also 7,700 seamen and boys employed on the coast guard. The appropriation for the naval service in 1868 was £10,826,690 = $54,133,450, besides £350,600 $1,753,000, for conveyance of troops for the army. The armor-clad fleet consists of 37 ships and four floating batteries, a part of them not now in commission. Of these, four only are less than 1,000 tons; 3 ships and 4 floating batteries between 1,000 and 2,000 tons; 3 ships between 2,000 and 3,000 tons; 8 ships between 3,000 and 4,000 tons; 11 ships between 4,000 and 4,500 tons; 2 between 5,000 and 6,000 tons; and 6 of more than 6,000 tons. Of these, 30 were in commission in the summer of 1868. But five of these have their entire armor more than 43 inches in thickness, four having 5-inch armor, and one, the Bellerophon, a ship of 4,270 tons, having 6-inch plating. Three wooden ships, the Royal Alfred, the Lord Clyde, and the Lord Warden, each of about 4,000 tons, have their general plating of 44-inch iron, and the most exposed portions covered with 5 or 6 inch plates.

III. COMMERCE AND TRADE.-1. Imports and Exports.-The latest reports of these are for the fiscal year 1867, closing, we believe, with January 1, 1868. The imports of that year were £275,249,853=$1,376,249,265, of which £60,783,134 $303,915,670, were from the British possessions, and £214,466,719=$1,072,333,595, were from foreign countries. The exports the same year were £226,057,136=$1,130,285,680, of which £181,183,791 $905,918,955, were of British produce, and £44,873,165-$224,365,825, were of foreign and colonial production. The imports from the United States in the year 1867 were £41,047,949 $205,239,745. The exports of home produce of the United Kingdom to the United States were £21,821,786 = $109,108,930. The entire receipts of raw cotton in the United Kingdom during the year 1867 were 1,262,536,912 lbs., which was 115,000,000 less than in 1866. The value of this cotton was £51,999,537=$259,997,685, or about $104,000,000 less than the preceding year. While very large quantities of cotton goods, manufactured in Great Britain, are consumed at home, the exports of cotton manufactures in 1867 amounted to £70,843,692 $354,218,460.

2. Shipping.-The number of sailing-vessels employed exclusively in the home trade of the United Kingdom in 1867 was 11,498, measuring 839,523 tons, and employing 38,526 men; there were also in the same trade that year

657 steam-vessels, measuring 154,244 tons, and employing 9,451 men. There were, in the same year, 1,196 sailing-vessels engaged partly in the home and partly in the foreign trade, measuring 199,846 tons, and employing 7,339 men; and 125 steam-vessels, measuring 50,201 tons, and employing 2,249 men. In the foreign trade, the same year, there were 7,467 sailingvessels, measuring 3,641,662 tons, and employing 107,364 men; and 834 steam-vessels, measuring 608,232 tons, and employing 31,411 men. The total number of vessels in the shipping of the United Kingdom in 1867, both in the home and foreign trade, was 21,777, measuring 5,493,708 tons, and employing 196,340 men. The total tonnage of British and foreign vessels entering and clearing at all the ports of the United Kingdom in the year 1867 was 32,756,112 tons, of which 22,370,070 tons were British, and 10,386,042 foreign.

IV. VITAL STATISTICS.-The net increase of population in England and Wales, over emigration, is about one million in every five years. The number of births in England and Wales in 1867, in a population of 21,429,508, was 767,997; of deaths the same year, 471,102. The proportion of births of male to female children is 104,811 to 100,000; but the equilibrium between the sexes is established about the tenth year, and at adult age there are 100,000 women to 95,008 men. In Scotland the ratio of net increase of population does not exceed 3 per cent. for each five years. The number of births in Scotland in 1867, in a population of 3,170,769, was 114,115; and of deaths 69,024. The population of Ireland decreases at the rate of nearly 5 per cent. in five years, mainly from excessive emigration.

V. PAUPERISM AND CRIME. In the 655 parishes and poor-law unions of England and Wales there were, in 1868, 185,630 ablebodied paupers, and 849,193 other recipients of state aid, making 1,034,823 paupers, or about 5 per cent. of the population. In 1867 there were committed for trial, charged with criminal offences in England and Wales, 18,971 persons, of whom 14,207 were convicted, and 4,741 acquitted. This was exclusive of the very large number, over 100,000, arrested and tried on summary process in the police courts and other courts of limited jurisdiction.

In Scotland, the number of registered paupers and dependants, exclusive of casual poor, in the 885 parishes, was 76,737 paupers and 44,432 dependants, a total of 121,169, or nearly 4 per cent. of the population. The number of criminal offenders in Scotland (aside from those arrested on summary process) who were committed for trial in 1867, was 3,305, of whom 2,510 were convicted, and 277 acquitted.

In Ireland, pauperism is decreasing, at least in its legalized form, the number being only about one-half what it was in 1853. In 1868 there were reported, on the 1st of January, 56,663 indoor paupers and 15,830 outdoor paupers, a total of 72,925, or about 1.25 per

cent. of the population. In 1867, the number of criminal offenders committed for trial (aside from arrests on summary process) was 4,561, of whom 2,733 were convicted, and 1,803 acquitted.


Out of

VI. EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS.—The number of schools in Great Britain, excluding Ireland, on the 1st of January, 1868, was 14,591; the number of children present at the inspection of the schools by the commissioners was 1,391,100; the average annual attendance was 1,147,463. The number of certificated teachers was 12,837, of which 7,099 were males, and 5,738 females. Of assistant teachers there were 1,179, viz.: males, 529; females, 650and of pupil-teachers, 11,686; males, 5,374; females, 6,312. There were 37 colleges, or normal schools, for the professional instruction of teachers, the annual expenditure of which was £100,125 $500,625. There were also six colleges, or training-schools, affording instruction, separately, to male and female students. In these 43 normal or training colleges there were 14,600 students, while the accommodations were sufficient for 21,400. The average annual salary of a certificated (male) teacher was £89 = $445; and of an uncertificated one, from £52 to £70 = $260 to $350. The salary of a certificated mistress was about £55 = $275, and of an uncertificated one, from £30 to £33 $150 to $165. = every 11 children of the laboring classes attending school, 4 were aided by the Committee of Education, i. e., received assistance from the national fund for education. The appropriation for public education in Great Britain for 1868 was £842,500 = $4,212,500, a little more than one-half the expenditure of the State of New York for the same purpose. The report of the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland gives the following particulars concerning the national schools there at the beginning of 1868: The number of schools in operation was 6,520. The total number of children on the rolls of the school-books during the year was 913,198; the average daily attendance, 321,515. The number of teachers in the service of the Board was 8,326, of whom 3,480 were trained; besides these, were 348 workmistresses and technical teachers. In some parts of Ireland model-schools and schoolfarms are in active operation. The expenditure by the commissioners for the year was £370,504 $1,852,520. The schools are connected with all persuasions, the larger number being Catholics, next Presbyterians, next the Established Church, then other persuasions. 299 teachers had graduated from the trainingschools during the year. The appropriation to public education in Ireland for 1868 was £360,195 $1,800,975, about three-fourths that of Massachusetts for the same purpose in

that year.

GREECE, a kingdom in Europe. King, George I., second son of the King of Denmark, born December 24, 1845; elected "King of the

Hellenes" by the National Assembly of Athens, March 18 (old style 30), 1863. Area, about 19,353 square miles; population (in 1861), 1,348,412; and, according to a census of 1864, about 1,400,000. The budget for 1867 estimates the receipts at 32,472,335 drachmas (one drachma about eighteen cents); the expenditures to 29,520,000 drachmas. The public debt, in July, 1865, was officially estimated at 299,806,192 drachmas.

According to a bill presented to the Legislature in January, 1867, and adopted by it, the strength of the army was, in 1867, to be raised to 31,300 men (14,300 regular, and 17,000 irregular troops). The fleet, at the beginning of 1866, consisted of one frigate (of fifty guns); two corvettes (together of forty-eight guns); six screw steamers (of ten guns each); besides twenty-six vessels of smaller dimensions, and gunboats.

The merchant navy, in 1864,* was composed of 4,528 vessels, together of 280,342 tons.

At the official reception on New-Year's Day (old style), the King, in reply to the address of the president of the ministry, thus expressed himself with regard to the refugees from Crete, residing in Greece:

My heart and that of the Queen bleed at seeing so many thousand Christians obliged to find refuge on the maternal soil of Greece. Humanity and the indissoluble laws of fraternity impose upon us a duty to give what succor we can under so great a calamity. I hope and trust that the new year will be a happier

one than the last.

On February 6th a new ministry was formed, with Bulgaris as president. A programme published by the ministry thus defined the policy to be pursued in the Eastern question:

We fully understand the serious position of our internal affairs, and the necessity dictated by pure patriotism that our dear country should make earnest preparations for the future marked out for it by Provi dence. We consider ostentatious demonstrations too burdensome for the country, and believe that prepa rations for the future ought to advance in proportion to the well-being of the present. Moved by the sufferings of a kindred people, which have enlisted the sympathies of the whole of Christendom, we will grant it all the assistance in our power.

On February 8th a royal decree was issued dissolving the Greek Chamber. New elections began on the 3d of April, and resulted in a large majority for the ministry. The princi pal leaders of the opposition were not reelected. The new Chamber was opened by the King on 7th of May, who delivered a speech from the throne. The King announced that, in order to consolidate the throne, he had married a princess of the orthodox religion. His object in dissolving the last Chamber had been to ascer tain the opinion of the nation relative to the constitutional distribution of power. The King in his speech declared further that it was a ra tional duty to aid in alleviating the sufferings of a kindred people, and also drew attention

further information on the public debt, and the latest sta* See the ANNUAL AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA, for 1867, for tistics of the movement of shipping.

to the inequality between the revenue and expenditure.

Soon after the opening of the Parliament, four deputies appeared from Crete, asking for admission on the ground that an assembly of delegates in Crete had declared in favor of annexation to the United States. The people of Greece showed a great deal of sympathy with this demand, but the ambassadors of the great powers of Europe strongly protested against their admission, and the Turkish ambassador declared that, in case of their admission, he would at once demand his passports. The Government of Greece yielded to this pressure, and opposed their admission; and the Chamber, by a large majority, pronounced the ministerial declarations satisfactory.

On the 27th of June the Metropolitan of Athens called on Mr. Tuckerman, the minister of the United States in Greece, to thank him, in the name of the Greek clergy and nation, for the sympathy shown in the United States with the cause of Crete. The Metropolitan said: "As one of the men of our grand struggle commencing in 1821, and which continues still, and as chief of the Hellenic clergy, I desire to express to you, the representative of the great American nation, the gratitude of my old companions in arms belonging to the orthodox clergy, and that of the whole Greek nation, for the great favors of every kind which the American nation, in the old struggle as in the new one in Crete, has conferred, and yet confers, upon Eastern Christians who fight for religion, country, and liberty. I pray your Excellency to convey the expressions of our profound gratitude to the glorious American nation, and, if it be possible, to every American citizen, and say to them that so long as there shall be Greeks in the world, the feeling of Hellenic gratitude toward the glorious American nation will be transmitted from generation to generation, and will be traced in indelible characters on the hearts of Greeks. The Greek clergy will ever pray the Eternal to grant peace and prosperity to the world, but especially to the nations so closely united by benefits and by gratitude. We could hardly stand in our great struggle without the favors of America; but for American kindness many Cretan widows and orphans must have perished of hunger and cold. God bless the Americans, the benefactors of the Christians of the East!"

The sympathy of Greece with Crete, and the aid which Grecian steamers, notwithstanding the watchfulness of the Turkish fleet, succeeded in rendering to the Cretans, by supplying them with volunteers and war materials, -kept up a.constant irritation between the Governments of Turkey and Greece. On the 11th of December (29th of November, old style) the Turkish ambassador, in the name of his Government, presented an ultimatum (see TURKEY). The Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs, P. Delyanni, replied on the 3d of December (15th,

old style). The following extracts give the Greek answer to the five points contained in the Turkish ultimatum:

The five demands, the acceptance of which the Sublime Porte considers as the terms of the continuation of peace with Greece, are-first, to disband immediately the bands of volunteers lately organized in different parts of the kingdom, and to prevent the formation of other similar bodies in future; secondly, the disarmament of the blockade-runners Erosis, Crete, and Panhellenion, or to prohibit their entrance into Greek ports; thirdly, liberty to the Cretan refugees to return to their country, and also to give them efficacious aid and protection; fourthly, the punishment according to law of those who were guilty of offence against the Ottoman military agents, with indemnification to the victims; fifthly, an engagement that Greece in future will follow a conduct according to the existing treaties and international rights.

le Ministre, that I have no other arguments than Respecting the first and second, I regret, Monsieur those of my last letter to convince you that the laws of the country will not permit the King's Government to infringe the liberties of its subjects in the for Turkey than for any other power. During the interest of a foreign power. Greece cannot do more wars that have had place in our time in Europe and America, Greek volunteers entered into the services of the various combatants, but no such demand was addressed to us, and that because those volunteers acted for themselves, on their own responsibility, and could not attach any responsibility to the King's Government. We have not done to you in this any thing new. I have told you repeatedly that during the long space of time occupied by the Cretan revolution several bands of volunteers have gone to Crete.

The Sublime Porte understood that the King's Government was powerless before the laws of this country against such arguments, and therefore has not persisted in her demands. On the other hand, volunteers have gone to Crete not only from Greece. With the Greeks went English, French, Italians, Hungarians, Americans, and Montenegrins.

The Erosis, the Crete, and the Panhellenion are not blockade-runners armed in our ports, they are steamers belonging to the Hellenic Steam Navigation Company, which ply to Candia, taking provisions to the other duties. If these steamers-one of which is insurgents, and at the same time are employed on employed on a regular line round the kingdom-are captured while running the blockade, resisting the Ottoman cruisers, or found carrying a cargo which is considered as contraband of war, she may be seized as a lawful prize, and treated according to the laws of maritime right.

No law of this kingdom prevents its subjects furnishing a blockaded port with such cargoes, because they take on themselves all the consequences of their


I am ignorant if the above steamers are armed, but, if by chance they are, we must not forget that all steamers, even large sailing-vessels, ordinarily carry a few guns, to defend themselves in case of need.

remind you of my observations contained in my last Respecting your third request, it is sufficient to letter on the number of the Cretan refugees sent by the Ottoman embassy back to Crete, and the protection furnished to them by our authorities. If it is necessary to bring forward another proof of the good ject, I would add that, even after the said letter, and disposition of the King's Government on this subalthough it was reported everywhere that the Sublime Porte was determined to interrupt its relations with Greece, more than two hundred Cretans were allowed to embark at the Piræus for Crete without

any molestation.

Referring to your fourth request, the King's Government learns with surprise that crimes were com

mitted in the kingdom against Ottoman subjects, and that such crimes were left unpunished.

We repudiate with all our strength such an accusation. If you mean an Albanian soldier who was killed in a dispute by another Albanian, while passing through Syra last year, I think this is not a cause that will justify that clause of the ultimatum.

You know perfectly well that the authorities of Syra then took, without loss of time, the necessary steps to arrest the culprit, but that he escaped to Crete immediately after committing the crime. We gave you then every information regarding both this affair and the conduct of the authorities, and there is nothing to indicate, in the documents that we then exchanged, that the authorities neglected their duty. Excepting this crime, which was committed by one Turkish subject against another, the subjects of the Sublime Porte enjoy on the Hellenic soil, as well as all other foreigners, the most perfect security. This pretext is as surprising as the other-namely, certain words that I spoke in the Chamber respecting the steamer Crete."

am ignorant of what the former ministers said, and what opinion must be given on their spoken words. All I know is, that the present Government, desiring to preserve amicable relations with the Sublime Porte, has given proof of its good disposition. You remember how firmly we opposed the proposition to receive Cretan deputies in the Chamber. You remember particularly what explanations I gave you of the speech I made in the House. I explained to you in conversation that I had not the slightest hostile feeling against the Sublime Porte; that they were the expressions of our opinions on the probable solution of the question, and that the Hellenic Government did not intend to detach Crete by force from the Ottoman empire, as his Excellency ServetPacha complained in one of his dispatches which you read to me.

Lastly, respecting your fifth demand, viz., the engagement which the King's Government must give to follow in future a conduct in accordance with the treaties and the right of nations, I confess, Monsieur le Ministre, that I do not understand the meaning of those words.

I wish to know what treaty Greece has violated? I do not speak any longer of the obligations of international rights, because I have already sufficiently proved to you that the Royal Government has not violated any of them. Greece, on the contrary, above all others, has to complain of the non-perform

ance of the treaties.

If we except the various difficulties which our subjects ordinarily meet in the conduct of their affairs in the Ottoman empire, if we except the violence which many of them are found to submit to, there were made during the last ten years between us two treaties for the suppression of the brigandage which desolates our provinces near our common frontier, which cost us extraordinary expense, and, notwithstanding, the Sublime Porte has not yet decided on executing either of the two treaties, in spite of all the strong remonstrances of the King's Government. The greatest part of the correspondence of the foreign office with the imperial legation treats of nothing else but the assistance given by the irregulars of the Ottoman army, who keep the frontiers, to the brigands, of the crimes committed in our provinces by bands crossing the common frontier, and of the prevention of such a state of affairs by the application of the treaties which imposed on the Ottoman empire the duty of employing only regular troops, instead of the irregular


The King's representative at Constantinople several times invited the attention of the Sublime Porte to this, but his observations had no better success. From this simple example it is clear that, if we wished to accumulate_pretexts against the Government of the Sublime Porte to justify a rupture, we

should have such in reality. But we always reflected that the various interests of both countries imposed on us the duty of preserving amicable and harmonious relations with our neighbor.

Some of your demands, as the return of the refugees, and the protection of the Ottoman subjects in Greece, and the preservation of the neutrality of the King's Government in the struggle of the Cretans, were never the subjects of discussion or hesitation for the Royal Government.

The rest are based only on indefinite and erroneous suppositions, which become by themselves unacceptable.

GREEK CHURCH,* the largest of the Eastern Churches. Of the population of 81,500,000 which is supposed to be connected with the Eastern Churches, fully 74,000,000 belong to the Greek Church (see EASTERN CHURCHES).

The invitation from the Pope to the Oriental bishops to take part in the coming Ecumenical Council, met with a decided refusal on the part of the representative of the Greek Church. The Patriarch of Constantinople received the Pope's missive, engrossed on a sheet of gilt paper, from an embassy consisting of four priests. The Patriarch met the messengers with friendly cordiality, and was addressed by one of them in the following terms:

In the absence of Monsignor Brunoni (the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Constantinople), we come to invite your Holiness to the Ecumenical Council appointed to be held in Rome, on the 8th of December of next year, and with reference to this object we have to request you will be pleased to accept this written invitation of which we are the bearers.

The Patriarch, beckoning to them to be seated and to deposit the letters on the table, addressed them as follows:

If the Diario of Rome, and other journals which draw their intelligence from it, had not already published the Encyclical Invitation of His Holiness to and were we, in consequence, unacquainted with the the Ecumenical Council in Rome, to which you refer, scope and the contents of the document, and the principles set forth by His Holiness, with the greatest pleasure would we have received a communication addressed to us by the Patriarch of Old Rome, in the expectation of hearing something new. Since, however, the Encyclical published by the journals has explained His Holiness's tenets-tenets wholly st variance with those of the Orthodox Eastern Church -on this ground, with sorrow, but in all sincerity, we are compelled to declare to your Reverence that missive of His Holiness, in which are reiterated the we neither can accept any such invitation, nor this tile to the spirit of the Gospel, as also to the doctrine same unvarying principles-principles directly hosof the Ecumenical Synods and of the holy fathers. 1848, provoked a reply from the Orthodox Eastern His Holiness, by a similar proceeding in the year Church in the form of an Encyclical, which distinctly pointed out the antagonism which exists between the tenets of Rome and those handed down from the ancient Fathers and the Apostles, and which was not only not satisfactory, but a cause of pain to His Holiness. And how greatly His Holiness was thereby grieved manifestly appears from his rejoinder.

And since His Holiness does not appear to have receded from the principles then put forward-neither have we, through God's grace, receded from ours. Wherefore we neither find pleasure in becoming the

*See ANNUAL AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA, for 1867, for the names of the groups into which the Greek Church is divided, and for detailed statistics.

« PreviousContinue »