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also a college and theological seminary at Causenburg, which is the seat of the Consistory. They have also two preparatory highschools, and there are day-schools connected with each of the congregations. In these schools there are 5,000 students.

The Unitarians sustain a flourishing mission in British India. It was stated at the meeting of the National American Unitarian Conference by Rev. Mr. Dall, the founder of the mission, that the eleven years of his missionary labors among the Hindoos have produced Through preaching, encouraging results. schools, and the circulation of religious tracts and books, a broad and solid foundation has been laid upon which to build still greater success. The field over which he has travelled, and made himself acquainted with the condition and needs of the people, extends about 2,000 miles north and south, by 1,500 east and west. The calls for the writings of Channing, Clarke, and others, is constant; and the opportunities for access to the native mind call for increased exertions in strengthening the mission. Great reliance is placed upon the educational agency, for releasing the people from the bondage of ignorance and superstition. When he left Calcutta, ten schools and three chapels were established there. A collection of over $2,500 for the benefit of this mission was taken up by the National Conference. The statistics of the Indian missions were, in 1868, reported as follows: Calcutta-schools and missions conducted by Rev. C. H. A. Dall, missionary of the American Unitarian Association; assisted by Dwarkanauth Singhee. Madras-mission conducted by Rev. William Roberts; supported in part by the American Unitarian Association. Salem school and mission under Joshua Anthony Paul; supported in part by the American Unitarian Association. Secunderabad-school and mission under V. Elisha; supported in part by the American Unitarian Association.

UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST. The church has five bishops. It supports 3 laborers in the foreign field (Africa), 99 in the frontier, and 140 in the home field; total, 242-an increase of 31. The missionaries receive $67,389.94, an average salary of $316.

The following periodicals are published in the interest of the church: The Religious Telescope, the Children's Friend, the Missionary Visitor, and the Froliche Botschafter (German). The following are the names of the literary institutions: Otterbein University, Westerville, Ohio; Hartsville University, Hartsville, Ind.; Westfield College, Westfield, Ill.; Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pa.; Lane University, Lecompton, Kansas; Western College, Western, Iowa. The church has also four seminaries.

A "United Brethren Historical Society" was organized, in 1868, in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. The second article of the constitution states the object of the society to be "to collect and

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There are 2,268 Sunday-schools, with 16,057 teachers, and 106,002 scholars. The number of meeting-houses is 1,334, and of parsonages 25. The collections, etc., were as follows: Preachers' salaries, $262,093; missions, $29,150.73; conference collections, $4,383.67; Sunday-school purposes, $27,125.36; Bible cause, $3,916.42; church expenses, $191,284.43; publication fund, $1,344.70; college fund, $6,688.64; total for all purposes, $525,681, an increase of $106,961.88 from previous year.

UNITED STATES. The fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of the United States, which removed all distinction of color in citizenship, was fully adopted during the year. The number of States was thirty-seven, of which twenty-nine voted for the amendment. The Legislatures of Ohio and New Jersey passed resolutions respectively withdrawing their consent to the amendment. Without deciding the effect of these proceedings, the Secretary of State, as required by an act of Congress, announced, on July 28th, that if the resolutions

of Ohio and New Jersey were regarded as remaining in full force, the amendment had been adopted by three-fourths of the States, although the Constitution required only two-thirds to approve the same. (For the amendment and a list of the States ratifying the same, see p. 197.)

At the commencement of the session of Congress which began on December 7, 1867, the President sent to the Senate a statement of the reasons for his suspension of the Secretary of War (Stanton) from the duties of his office. This statement was required by the act of the previous Congress, to regulate removals from office, known as the "Tenure-of-Office" Act (see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA, 1867, pp. 187 and 733). The Senate, after consideration of the message, refused to approve of the suspension, and it thereby became void. General Grant, who was discharging the duties of Secretary of War, immediately surrendered the office to Mr. Stanton, and he was thus fully reinstated on January 13th. At the same time General Grant addressed the following note to the Pres

ident:

HEADQUARTERS ARMIES UNITED STATES,

WASHINGTON, D. C., January 14, 1868. } SIR: I have the honor to enclose herewith copy of official notice received by me last evening of the ac

tion of the Senate of the United States in the case of the suspension of Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War. According to the provisions of section 2, of "An act regulating the tenure of certain civil offices," my functions as Secretary of War ad interim ceased from the moment of the receipt of the within notice. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obediU. S. GRANT, General. His Excellency A. JOHNSON, President of the United States.

ent servant,

A warm correspondence now ensued between President Johnson and General Grant, for

which see PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.

Subsequently, on February 21st, the President appointed Major-General Lorenzo Thomas, Adjutant-General of the Army, to be Secretary of War ad interim, as follows:

EXECUTIVE MANSION,

}

WASHINGTON, D. C., February 21, 1868. SIR: The Honorable Edwin M. Stanton having been removed from office as Secretary of the Department of War, you are hereby authorized and empowered to act as Secretary of War ad interim, and will immediately enter upon the discharge of the duties pertaining to that office. Mr. Stanton has been instructed to transfer to you all records, books, papers, and other public property intrusted to his charge. Respectfully yours,

[Signed] ANDREW JOHNSON. To Brevet Major-General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. A.

At the same time that he ordered General Thomas to assume this position, he furnished him with an order to the following effect, of which, it seems, a copy was handed to the individual thereby affected:

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tions as such will terminate upon the receipt of this communication.

Thomas, Adjutant-General of the Army, who has this You will transfer to Brevet Major-General Lorenzo day been authorized and empowered to act as Secretary of War ad interim, all records, books, papers, and other public property now in your custody and charge. Respectfully, yours,

ANDREW JOHNSON, President. To Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Washington, D. C.

General Thomas, on receiving his appointment, proceeded at once to the discharge of his duties. He went to the room occupied by Mr. Stanton, and exhibited to him his own letter of appointment, and the order dismissing The latter, upon Mr. Stanton from office. reading these documents, asked for time to remove his private papers, which was courteously granted to him by General Thomas.

During the morning the President sent a written message to the Senate, informing that body that, under the Constitution and laws, he had removed Edwin M. Stanton from the of fice of Secretary of War, and had appointed General Thomas to fill the position. The Senate very soon after the receipt of this message laid aside its regular order of business, viz., a bill to modify the reconstruction laws, and went into executive session, to consider the subject mentioned in the President's message. After a very excited debate, which lasted until a late hour in the evening, and after many different propositions had been presented, the following resolution was passed by very nearly a party vote, being a substitute of fered by Mr. Wilson for a resolution proposed by Mr. Edmunds:

Whereas, the Senate have received and considered the communication of the President, stating that he had removed Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and had designated the Adjutant-General of the Army to act as Secretary of War ad interim; therefore,

Resolved by the Senate of the United States, That, under the Constitution and laws of the United States, the President has no power to remove the Secretary of War and designate any other officer to perform the duties of that office.

At the same time that the Senate was thus

engaged, Mr. Stanton addressed the following letter to the Speaker of the House, enclosing a copy of the order by which he was dismissed from office:

WAR DEPARTMENT,

WASHINGTON, D. C., February 21, 1863. SIR: General Thomas has just delivered to me s copy of the enclosed order, which you will please communicate to the House of Representatives. Your obedient servant,

EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. Hon. SCHUYLER COLFAX, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

On the next day the President sent a communication to the Senate in explanation of his action (see PUBLIC DOCUMENTS).

Meantime Mr. Stanton refused to vacate the office on the application of General Thomas, but made his arrangements to occupy night and day until the further action of Congress. He also made application to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the District of Colum

bia for the issue of a writ commanding the arrest of General Thomas for the following rea

sons:

And the said E. M. Stanton, on oath, further states that on the said 21st of February, 1868, in the city of Washington aforesaid, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, made and issued an order in writing, under his hand, with the intent and purpose of removing him, the said Edwin M. Stanton, from said office of Secretary for the Department of War, and authorizing and empowering Lorenzo Thomas, Adjutant-General of the Army of the United States, to act as Secretary of War ad interim, and directing him, the said Thomas, to immediately enter upon the discharge of the duties pertaining to that office; and your affiant further states that said pretended order of removal of him from the said office of Secretary for the Department of War is wholly illegal and void, and contrary to the express provisions of an act duly passed by the Congress of the United States on the 22d of March, 1867, entitled "An act regulating the tenure of certain civil offices;" and your affiant, on oath, further states that the said Lorenzo Thomas,did, on the said 21st day of February, 1868, in said city of Washington, accept the said pretended appointment of Secretary of War ad interim, and on the same day left with your affiant a copy of said pretended order of the President removing your affiant as Secretary of War and appointing the said Lorenzo Thomas Secretary of War ad interim, certified by the said Lorenzo Thomas, under his own hand, as Secretary of War ad interim, and on the same 21st day of February, in 1868, in the city of Washington aforesaid, the said Lorenzo Thomas delivered to your affiant the said pretended order of Andrew Johnson, with intent to cause

your affiant to deliver to him, the said Thomas, all the records, books, papers, and other public property now in his, the affiant's, custody as Secretary of War; and your affiant further states, on oath, that he is informed and believes that the said Thomas has, in said city of Washington, exercised and attempted to exercise the duties of Secretary of War, and to issue orders as such; and your affiant is also informed and believes that the said Lorenzo Thomas gives out and threatens that he will forcibly remove your complainant from the building and apartments of Secretary of War in the War Department and forcibly take possession and control thereof, under his said pretended appointment, by the President of the United States, as Secretary of War ad interim; and your affiant alleges that the appointment under which the said Thomas claims to act and to hold and perform the duties of Secretary of War is wholly unauthorized and illegal, and that the said Thomas, by accepting such appointment and thereunder exercising and attempting to exercise the duties of Secretary of War, has violated the provisions of the fifth section of the act above referred to, and thereby has been guilty of a high misdemeanor and subjected himself to the pains and penalties prescribed in said fifth section against any person committing such offence. Thereupon your affiant prays that a warrant be issued against the said Lorenzo Thomas, and that he may be thereupon arrested and brought before your Honor, whereupon he may be dealt as to law and justice in such case appertains. [Signed] Sworn and subscribed before me, the 21st day of February, A. D. 1868.

EDWIN M. STANTON.

D. K. CARTER, Chief Justice. General Thomas was arrested on the 22d, and was released on his own recognizance. On the same day, a resolution, impeaching the President for high crimes and misdemeanors, was offered in the House of Representatives and adopted (see page 138, and also IMPEACHMENT). The knowledge of these proceedings

}

created an unusual excitement throughout the country. The following dispatch from the Governor of Illinois was addressed to a member of the House, during the debate on the 22d of February: EXECUTIVE Department, SPRINGFIELD, ILL., February 22, 1868. The usurpations of Andrew Johnson have created a profound sensation in the State. His last act is the act of a traitor. His treason must be checked. The duty of Congress seems plain. The people of Illinois attached to the Union, I firmly believe, will demand his impeachment, and will heartily sustain such action by our Congress. The peace of the country is not to be trifled with by that presumptuous demagogue. We know the national Congress will proceed wisely and cautiously, but let it proceed. Millions of loyal hearts are panting to stand by the stars and stripes. Have no fear; all will be well. Liberty and order will again triumph. B. J. OGLESBY, Governor.

The following was sent on the same day from the Governor of Pennsylvania: Hon. Simon Cameron, United States Senate, Washing

ton, D. C.:

in Pennsylvania. The spirit of 1861 seems again to The news to-day has created a profound sensation Troops are rapidly pervade the Keystone State. tendering their services to sustain the laws. Let Congress stand firm.

JOHN W. GEARY.

Public meetings to sustain the President in his action were held in New York and Philadelphia, but were of little importance.

Upon the acquittal of the President, Mr. Stanton immediately addressed the following note to him:

WAR DEPARTMENT,

WASHINGTON CITY, May 26, 1868. SIR: The resolution of the Senate of the United President has no power to remove the Secretary of States of the 21st of February last, declaring that the War and designate another officer to perform the duties of that office ad interim, having this day failed and voting upon the articles of impeachment preferred to be supported by two-thirds of the Senate present against you by the House of Representatives, I have relinquished charge of the War Department, and have left the same, and the books, archives, papers, and property in my custody, as Secretary of War, in care of Brevet Major-General Townsend, the senior Assistant Adjutant-General, subject to your direction. EDWIN M. STANTON, To the President, Secretary of War. Major-General John M. Schofield succeeded to the position of Secretary of War. His name was sent into the Senate by the President as in the place of "E. M. Stanton, removed." The following preamble and resolution were therefore adopted by the Senate:

Whereas, The order of the President removing Secretary Stanton from office was unconstitutional and illegal, but on account of Mr. Stanton having on Tuesday relinquished said office; therefore

Resolved, That the Senate do advise and consent to the appointment of General Schofield.

The act for the reconstruction of the Southern States, first passed by Congress, provided that the constitutions to be submitted to the people should be adopted by a majority of the voters as registered. It soon became evident that in no case would such a majority be given, and, in the session of 1867-'68, a supplemental

act was passed by Congress, that a majority of the votes cast should be sufficient for the adoption of such constitutions. Under this act, the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina, ratified the constitutions respectively recommended by their conventions. Further acts were then passed recognizing these States as members of the Union. The States of Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia, failed to complete their reorganization during the year. A joint resolution was also passed by Congress, which excluded these three States from a vote in the presidential election which took place during the year.

The preparations for this election were early commenced. The National Committee of the Republican party issued their call for a convention to nominate candidates for the presidency and vice-presidency in February, and designated Chicago as the place and May 20th as the date for such convention. Each State in the United States was authorized to be represented in said convention by a number of delegates equal to twice the number of Senators and Representatives to which such State is entitled in Congress.

A call was also issued from an adjourned conference of Union soldiers and sailors for a convention of the same at Chicago on May 19th. Each State and each congressional district was entitled to twenty delegates in the convention.

The National Democratic Committee, on February 22d, issued a call for a National Democratic Convention to be held in New York on July 4th. The basis of representation was made the same as that for the Republican Convention. At the same time, a call was issued for a Soldiers and Sailors' Convention, to be held at the same place and time, "to advise and cooperate with the Democratic party in presenting to the nation a candidate for President." On May 19th, the soldiers and sailors, after an imposing march through the streets, assembled in convention in Chicago, and organized by the appointment of John A. Logan, of Illinois, as president, who declined in favor of Governor Fairchild, of Wisconsin. The States of Rhode Island, New York, Massachusetts, Tennessee, New Hampshire, Delaware, Connecticut, New Jersey, Louisiana, California, Georgia, Vermont, Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, Arkansas, Mississippi, Maine, Nebraska, Missouri, Dakota, Alabama, and Illinois, were represented by large delegations.

The following resolutions were adopted: Resolved, That the soldiers and sailors, steadfast as ever to the Union and its flag, fully recognize the claims of General U. S. Grant to the confidence of the American people, and, believing that the victories acheived under his guidance in war will be now illustrated by him in times of peace by such measures as shall secure the fruits of our exertions and a restoration of the Union upon a loyal basis, we declare it as our deliberate conviction that he is the choice of the soldiers and sailors of the Union for the office of President of the United States.

ples which underlie our Government, and for which we fought during four years of war, we pledge our earnest and active support to the Republican party as the only political organization which, in our judg ment, is true to the principles of loyalty, liberty, and equality before the law.

Resolved, That, speaking for ourselves, and the soldiers and sailors who imperilled their lives to preserve the Union, we believe that the impeachment of Aadrew Johnson by the House of Representatives for high crimes and misdemeanors in office, and his trial before the United States Senate, have presented unmistakable proofs of his guilt, and that, whatever may be the judgment of the tribunal before which he is arraigned, the verdict of the people is "guilty;" and we regard any Senator who has voted for acquittal as falling short of the proper discharge of his duty in this hour of the nation's trial, and unworthy of the confidence of a brave and loyal people.

Resolved, That the soldiers and sailors recognize no difference between native and adopted citizens, and they demand that the Government protect naturalized citizens abroad, as well as those of native birth.

The National Republican Convention assembled on the next day, May 20th, and organized by the appointment of Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut, as permanent president. On the next day the following declaration of principles was adopted:

1. We congratulate the country on the assured success of the reconstruction project of Congress, as evinced by the adoption in a majority of the States, lately in rebellion, of constitutions securing equal civil and politcal rights to all, and regard it as the duty of the Government to sustain these institutions, and to prevent the people of such States from being remitted to a state of anarchy.

2. The guarantee by Congress of equal suffrage to all loyal men at the South was demanded by every consideration of public safety, of gratitude, and of justice, and must be maintained, while the question the people of these States. of suffrage in all the loyal States properly belongs to

3. We denounce all forms of repudiation as a national crime, and the national honor requires the good faith to all creditors at home and abroad; not payment of the public indebtedness in the utmost only according to the letter, but the spirit of the law under which it was contracted.

4. It is due to the labor of the nation that taxation

should be equalized and reduced as rapidly as national facility will admit.

5. The national debt, contracted as it has been for the preservation of the Union for all time to come, should be extended over a fair period for redemption, and it is the duty of Congress to reduce the rate of interest thereon whenever it can honestly be done. debt is to so improve our credit that capitalists will 6. That the best policy to diminish our burden of seek to loan us money at lower rates of interest than we now pay, and must continue to pay so long as repudiation, partial or total, open or covert, is threatened or suspected.

7. The Government of the United States should be administered with the strictest economy, and the corruptions which have been so shamefully nursed and fostered by Andrew Johnson call loudly for a radical reform.

8. We profoundly deplore the untimely and tragic death of Abraham Lincoln, and regret the accession of Andrew Johnson to the presidency, who has acted treacherously to the people who elected him and the cause he was pledged to support; has usurped high legislative and judicial functions; has refused to execute the laws; has used his high office to induce other officers to ignore and violate the laws; has em Resolved, That in the maintenance of those princi- ployed his executive power to render insecure the

property, peace, liberty, and life of the citizens; has abused the pardoning power; has denounced the national Legislature as unconstitutional; has persistently and corruptly resisted, by every measure in his power, every proper attempt at the reconstruction of the States lately in rebellion; has perverted the public patronage into an engine of wholesale corruption, and has been justly impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors, and properly pronounced guilty thereof by the vote of thirty-five Senators.

9. The doctrine of Great Britain and other European powers, that because a man is once a subject he is always so, must be resisted at every hazard by the United States, as a relic of the feudal times not authorized by the law of nations, and at war with our national honor and independence. Naturalized citizens are entitled to be protected in all their rights of citizenship as though they were native-born, and no citizen of the United States, native or naturalized, must be liable to arrest and imprisonment by any foreign power for acts done or words spoken in this country, and if so arrested and imprisoned it is the duty of the Government to intefere in his behalf.

10. Of all who were faithful in the trials of the late war, there were none entitled to more special honor than the brave soldiers and seamen who endured the hardships of campaign and cruise, and imperilled their lives in the service of the country; the bounties and pensions provided by law for the brave defenders of the nation are obligations never to be forgotten; the widows and orphans of the gallant dead are the wards of the people-a sacred legacy bequeathed to the nation's protecting care.

11. Foreign emigration, which in the past has added so much to the wealth, development of resources, and increase of power to this nation, the asylum of the oppressed of all nations, should be fostered and encouraged by a liberal and just policy.

12. This Convention declares its sympathy with all oppressed people who are struggling for their rights.

Each State was then called, and General Ulysses S. Grant was unanimously nominated as the candidate for the presidency, having received 650 votes.

The nominations for candidate for the vicepresidency were: Benjamin Wade, of Ohio; Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana; Reuben E. Fenton, of New York; ex-Attorney-General Speed, of Kentucky; J. A. J. Creswell, of Maryland; A. G. Curtin, of Pennsylvania; James Harlan, of Iowa; W.D. Kelley, of Pennsylvania; Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine; and Henry Wilson, of Massachusetts. The ballots were as follows: 1. Wade, 149; Fenton, 132; Wilson, 119; Colfax, 118; Curtin, 52; Hamlin, 30; Speed, 22; Harlan, 16; Creswell, 14; Kelley, 6.

2. Wade, 170; Colfax, 149; Fenton, 140; Wilson, 113; Hamlin, 30; Curtin, 45.

3. Wade, 178; Colfax, 164; Fenton, 139; Wilson, 101; Curtin, 40; Hamlin, 25. 4. Wade, 204; Colfax, 186; Fenton, Wilson, 87; Hamlin, 25.

144;

5. Colfax, 224; Wade, 196; Fenton, 137; Wilson, 61; Hamlin, 19.

6. Colfax, 522; Fenton, 75; Wade, 42; Wilson, 11; by which Mr. Colfax was nominated. On May 29th, General Grant wrote the following letter accepting the nomination:

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 29, 1868. To_General Joseph R. Hawley, President National Union Republican Convention: In formally accepting the nomination of the "National Union Republican Convention" of the 21st of

May last, it seems proper that some statement of views, beyond the mere acceptance of the nomination, should be expressed.

The proceedings of the Convention were marked with wisdom, moderation, and patriotism, and, I believe, expressed the feelings of the great mass of those who sustained the country through its recent trials. I indorse their resolutions.

If elected to the office of President of the United States, it will be my endeavor to administer all the laws in good faith, with economy, and with the view of giving peace, quiet, and protection everywhere. In times like the present, it is impossible, or at least eminently improper, to lay down a policy to be adhered to, right or wrong. Through an administration of four years, new political issues, not foreseen, are constantly arising, the views of the public on old ones are constantly changing, and a purely administrative officer should always be left free to execute the will of the people. I always have respected that will, and always shall. Peace, and universal prosperity, its sequence, with economy of administration, will lighten the burden of taxation, while it constantly reduces the national debt. Let us have peace. With great respect, your obedient servant,

U. S. GRANT. Mr. Colfax also accepted his nomination in the following letter:

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 30, 1868. Hon. J. R. Hawley, President National Union Repub

lican Convention:

DEAR SIR: The platform adopted by the patriotic convention over which you presided, and the resolutions which so happily supplement it, so entirely agree with my views as to a just national policy, that my thanks are due to the delegates as much for this clear and auspicious declaration of principles as for the nomination with which I have been honored, and which I gratefully accept.

When a great rebellion, which imperilled the national existence, was at last overthrown, the duty, of all others, devolving on those intrusted with the responsibilities of legislation evidently was to require that the revolted States should be readmitted to participation in the Government against which they had warred only on such a basis as to increase and fortify, the nation. Certainly no one ought to have claimed not to weaken or endanger, the strength and power of that they should be readmitted under such rule that their organization as States could ever again be used, as at the opening of the war, to defy the national authority, or to destroy the national unity. This principle has been the pole-star of those who have inflexibly insisted on the congressional policy your convention has so cordially indorsed.

Baffled by Executive opposition, and by persistent refusals to accept any plan of reconstruction proffered by Congress, justice and public safety at last combined to teach us that only by an enlargement of suffrage in those States could the desired end be attained, and that it was even more safe to give the ballot to those who saved the Union than to those who had sought ineffectually to destroy it. The assured success of this legislation is being written on the adamant of history, and will be our triumphant vindica'tion. More clearly, too, than ever before does the nation now recognize that the greatest glory of a republic is that it throws the shield of its protection dicates the rights of the poor and the powerless as over the humblest and weakest of its people, and vinfaithfully as those of the rich and the powerful.

I rejoice, too, in this connection, to find in your platform the frank and fearless avowal that naturalized citizens must be protected abroad at every hazard, as though they were native-born. Our whole people are foreigners, or descendants of foreigners. Our fathers established by arms their right to be called a nation. It remains for us to establish the right to welcome to our shores all who are willing,

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