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may be attributed in part to the law of 1867, allowing the members a yearly salary, instead of a certain sum per diem. The Senate was composed of 33 members, of whom 18 were Republicans and 15 Democrats: 13 Senators were lawyers, 9 farmers, and 11 devoted to other pursuits. In the Assembly there were 100 members, 59 Republicans and 41 Democrats: 45 Representatives were farmers, 18 lawyers, 7 merchants, and 30 engaged in other occupations.

The following resolutions, touching affairs of the national Government, were adopted by both branches of the Legislature:

Joint Resolution instructing our Senators and request

ing our Representatives to adhere to the policy of the loyal people of the Republic as adopted by Congress. Whereas, the events which have very recently taken place, and are now transpiring at the Federal capital, are such as distinguish times of great national peril; and whereas, it is the right and duty of the people of the State, when occurrences like the present are pressing upon them, to give utterance to their will and to strengthen and support those upon whom the responsibilities of the occasion directly rest:

Be it resolved by the Assembly, the Senate concurring, That our Senators in Congress are instructed, and the members of the House of Representatives from this State are requested to adhere with unflinching firmness to the policy of the loyal people of the Republic adopted by Congress; that they resist, by all constitutional, just, and efficient means, any and all attempted usurpation of power by any officer of the Government; and that in this they discharge their whole duty as guardians of the rights and liberties of the people of the country. Resolved, That we declare our confidence in the patriotism and statesmanship of Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War; that we admire the courage and constancy with which he successfully resists the unwarranted attempts at executive encroachments; that we approve the action of the United States Senate in restoring him to the office from which he was unjustly suspended; that it is the desire of the citizens of the State of Wisconsin that he shall remain in the War Office so long as the country is in danger from the conspiracies of its enemies, whatever be their character or position, and that we honor General Grant for that obedience to law which prompted him at once to surrender the office of Secretary of War to him upon whom it was conferred by our martyred President.

Resolved, That the Governor of the State is hereby requested to transmit an attested copy of the foregoing to each of our Senators and Representatives in Congress, to the presiding officer of each House of Congress, and to Hon. Edwin M. Stanton.

A. M. THOMSON, Speaker of the Assembly. N. M. LITTLEJOHN, Pres. of Senate pro tem. Approved March 6, 1868.

LUCIUS FAIRCHILD, Governor. Resolutions were also adopted asserting in the strongest terms the right of expatriation, and demanding protection for American citizens abroad, whether native or adopted. The constitutional amendments proposed by the Legislature of 1867 were both rejected. One of these proposed to confer the right of suffrage on women, and the other authorized the State to give its aid for the construction of railroads. The most important measure of the session was a new assessment law providing for a State Board of Assessment composed of the Senate

and the Secretary of State, who are to meet biennially on the third Wednesday of April, and, from statistics furnished by the Secretary of State, determine and assess the relative value of all property subject to taxation in each county. The Secretary of State shall then apportion the tax levied for the year, among the counties pro rata, according to the valuation made by the Board of Assessment. The supervisors of each county are required to assess and determine the value of property in each town and city, and determine the tax levied for county purposes. Each town is to have three assessors, and all property, real and personal, to be assessed at its actual value, the assessors determining the value, and having power to examine witnesses on the subject. The chairman of the Board of Supervisors, clerk, and assessors of each town, or mayor, clerk, and assessors of each city, constitute a Board of Review, to hear and determine any errors made in the assessment, and to make the necessary corrections. This Board of Review is to meet on the last Monday in June, following the meeting of the Board of Assessment in April.

The Democratic State Convention was held at Madison, on the 19th of February, and candidates were nominated for Chief Justice and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. These were the only State officers to be chosen this year. Charles Dunn and E. Holmes Ellis were nominated. Presidential electors were also nominated, and delegates appointed to the National Convention which was to meet in New York on the 4th of July. A motion, that a committee of seven be appointed to report res olutions, was opposed on the ground that the only officers to be nominated were judges, and resolutions "would not help their election, or be appropriate." Mr. Ernest, who proposed the committee, thought that, if ever there was a time when the Democracy ought to speak out, it was now. There would not be another convention until after presidential candidates were nominated, and it was incumbent on the Democrats to denounce in fitting terms the outrages Mr. Ernest's perpetrated upon the country. motion was nevertheless laid upon the table, and no platform was adopted.

The Republican Convention assembled st Madison, on the 26th of February, and nominated L. S. Dixon and Byron Paine for reelec tion as Judges of the Supreme Court. After the nomination of electors, and the appoint ment of delegates to the National Convention at Chicago, a series of resolutions was adopted. These declare an unalterable devotion to the principles of the Republican party; deplore the necessity which compelled the House of Representatives to impeach President Johnson, but express thanks for the prompt action of that body, and claim that the vital interests of the Republic require that the disturbance of the public peace caused by the wanton acts of Mr. Johnson should be ended by bringing him

to trial as soon as the ends of justice will permit; they express implicit confidence that Congress, in this crisis of the nation's affairs, will maintain inviolate the Constitution and the laws, and vindicate their authority, and that a loyal people will sustain their representatives, if need be, by the sword. They furthermore express their appreciation of the inestimable value of the services of General Grant in suppressing the rebellion, and declare that he has shown a capacity for civil affairs and a statesmanlike comprehensiveness and breadth of intellect fitting him, above all others, in the present crisis, to be a President who shall restore peace and order, insure the execution of the laws, and secure economy in the administration of public affairs. They finally assert it to be the duty of the Government to protect citizens abroad, native or adopted, and to demand the instant release of any citizens detained by any foreign government who have not committed any crime in the country where they are imprisoned. The following dispatch was sent from the Convention:

E. M. Stanton: Stand by the War Department,

and we will stand by you.

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The validity of the law of 1865, authorizing a tax of 1 per cent. on the shares in national banks, was tested in the Supreme Court of the State in February, and the law was sustained by the decision of Chief-Justice Dixon.

The valuation of real and personal property as determined by the Board of Assessment for 1868 is $244,440,774, showing an increase of $47,589,613.03 over that of the preceding year. The receipts into the public treasury from all sources, during the fiscal year ending with September 30th, was $982,870; the expenditures during the same period amounted to $946,518.65, leaving a surplus of $44,956.65. The State debt has been reduced $27,000 during the year, and now amounts to $2,252,057, most of which is due to the school-fund. Sixteen banks are now doing business in Wisconsin, under the State banking laws, with an aggregate capital of $525,000, and an outstanding circulation of $15,453. The office of Bank Comptroller has been abolished, and the duties

formerly pertaining to the position now devolve on the State Treasurer; $60,000 were derived by the State from the taxation of national banks under the law of 1865, which was pronounced constitutional by the Supreme Court. The total productive school-fund of the State amounts to $2,205,486.83, and yields an income of $178,238.78. The whole amount expended for school purposes during the past year was $1,791,940.52, or $7.19 for each pupil registered as having attended school. The State still holds 461,461 acres of land unsold, the proceeds of which will go to increase the principal of the school-fund. The number of schools in the State was reported at 5,000, attended by 249,007 children.

The Normal Schools, at Platteville and Whitewater, are in a flourishing condition, and the erection of buildings for a new Normal School at Oshkosh has already begun. The State has a Normal school-fund amounting to $625,294, which yields an annual income of $67,776. There are also 810,667 acres of land for sale for the benefit of this fund. The num

ber of pupils at these schools during the year was 316, of whom 143 were in the normal department. The State University is represented to be in a flourishing condition, and great need is felt of additional buildings. Some change has been made in the organization of the institution, and several new instructors have been appointed. Departments of" Agriculture" and "Military Tactics and Engineering" have been added, and General W. R. Pease has been detailed by the War Department to take charge of the latter. There were 316 students in attendance during the last academic year, about one-third of whom were young ladies. The following items show the financial condition of the university :

Total productive University fund..
Total productive Agricultural College fund...
Dane County bonds belonging to this fund..
Receipts of the University fund income 1868..
Disbursements.

Balance in this fund..

Disbursements of experimental farm fund....

12,755 acres of University land, valued at... 219,737 acres of agricultural lands (unsold), valued at......

.$199,433 14

14,488 40

11,000 00

27,658 38

31,129 49

2,148 43

5,313 41 $291,171 25 31,885 00 274,671 00 .$306,556 00

Total valuation of these lands....... Wisconsin boasts no less than ten "colleges," two of which are exclusively for males, two for females, and six for both sexes indiscriminately.

The benevolent institutions of the State are in a very satisfactory condition. The Insane Asylum has been enlarged, and now accommodates 350 patients, but there is pressing need of still further accommodation, and the Governor has recommended the erection of a new institution of the kind. asylum is a fine structure, and well adapted to the purposes for which it was built; 355 patients have received treatment during the past year, at a cost to the State of

The present

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$61,320.12. There have been sixty pupils at the Institution for the Blind during the year, at a cost for current expenses of $13,299.95. An extension of the building is in progress. At the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, 95 pupils have been in attendance, and the attempt to teach the dumb to speak is attended with an encouraging degree of success. The buildings of this institution, with workshops, etc., are now complete. The current expenses for 1868 amounted to $33,365.38. There is a Home for Soldiers' Orphans, which affords protection to 300 children, but many applications have been received beyond this number, and further accommodations are contemplated; $40,000 were appropriated to the support of these wards of the Commonwealth during the past year. A bill providing for the establishment of a School for Imbecile and Idiotic Children passed both branches of the Legislature at the last session, but did not become a law, in consequence of the failure to present it to the presiding officers for their signatures.

The management of the State Prison of Wisconsin appears to be remarkably efficient. Efforts are made to introduce several reforms and improvements. The party-colored dress has been abolished, and much is done to educate the prisoners and encourage them to pursue a better course. It is an interesting fact that, although the population of the State has greatly increased during the past ten years, the commitments to the State Prison have constantly grown less, and in October, 1868, there were only 184 convicts in that institution. There is a State Reform School, which is represented to be in excellent condition. During the past year 227 children were committed to its charge.

The new State capitol will probably be completed in the course of the coming year. The entire cost of this structure will be $528,315.60. Since 1860 the State has expended $1,200,000 in the erection of public buildings. There are now about 1,100 miles of railroad in operation in Wisconsin, and several new lines have been projected. The construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad is strongly favored in the State. A military road from Fort Howard to the Michigan line is in progress, and seventy miles have been completed and accepted by the State. The improvement of the navigation of the Wisconsin River is earnestly recommended by the Governor, as a work"clearly national in its character, reaching out to and affecting the commercial interests of many States, binding together, by a navigable channel, the Mississippi River and the great lakes, and furnishing the much-needed naval highway which will connect nearly all the navigable waters of the Union." A complete survey of the river has been made by the United States Engineer Department, and it is thought that the proposed improvements can be made at a very moderate expense.

The population of the city of Milwaukee

WOOD, ISAAC.

has increased from 275 in 1836, 1,700 in 1840, 21,000 in 1850, 45,000 in 1860, to 80,563 in 1868. The assessed value of property in the city is $39,262,452; $19,000,000 are invested in manufactures, and the trade is quite large. 4,737 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,913,328, and crews numbering 66,317, arrived at that port during the year. There are 107 vessels, with a tonnage of 20,054, owned in the city. Building improvements in the city were made during the year of the value of $3,493,710. The new court-house, which has just been begun, will be a magnificent structure, erected at a cost of $600,000. The main building is to be 824 feet front by 104 feet deep, exclusive of projections; the two wings are to be 201 by 52.6 feet, and the transverse wings 884 by 43.6. This makes the total length of front 2103 feet, and the total depth, not includ ing porticoes, 130 feet. The height of the wings is 50 feet, and that of the main building 69 feet. The height of the centre dome will be 180 feet. It is expected that the building will be completed in 1870.

WOOD, ISAAC, M. D., an eminent physician and philanthropist of New York City, born in Clinton Town, Nine Partners, Dutchess County, N. Y., August 21, 1793; died at Norwalk Conn., March 25, 1868. His father removed to New York City in 1803, and established a bookstore and publishing house the following year, which is still conducted by his descend ants. Isaac Wood, thus brought under the influence of city life and opportunities in his tenth year, early manifested a strong predilec tion for study, and soon became a pupil of the celebrated John Griscom in physical science. and of the Rev. Frederick Macfarlane in clas sical studies. Ambitious to enter the medical profession, he abandoned his first intention of taking a full collegiate course, and entered the office of Dr. Valentine Seaman, then one of the most eminent physicians of New York, in 1811, just before completing his eighteenth year. As a student he was indefatigable, often spending the whole night in medical and surgi cal investigations. He spent two years in the New York Hospital, being assistant housesurgeon from 1814 to 1815, and house-surgeon from 1815 to 1816. In 1815 he received his license from the censors of the Medical Society of the State of New York, and in 1816 his diploma from the Medical Depart ment of Queen's (now Rutger's) College, N. J. He soon became one of the physi cians of the New York Dispensary, and in 1818 a member of the Society of the New York Hospital, but did not open an office for private practice until January, 1820, when, having joined the New York County Medical Society, he commenced his life as a practitioner of medicine at his father's residence in Rose Street. He removed thence two years later to Cherry Street, and, in 1826, having been appointed resident physician of Bellevue Hospital and Almshouses, resided there till 1833, when

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he resigned, and not long after again opened an office in Pearl Street, near Peck Slip. In 1840 he removed to East Broadway, and in 1857, like many of his professional brethren, migrated up-town.

These more than fifty years of active professional life were years of great usefulness. From early life he had been a member of the Society of Friends, and possessed in an extraordinary degree their spirit of quiet yet earnest philanthropy. He was not content unless his time could be fully occupied in enterprises for the benefit of humanity, and on this account he took upon himself many positions of care and toil, which brought him no other remuneration than the consciousness of doing good. He was, as we have already said, one of the physicians of the New York Dispensary, and retained this position till 1825; in 1823 he accepted the office of consulting accoucheur to the Out-door Lying-in-Charity of the Second Ward, a position involving much responsibility and labor; in 1825 he became one of the active members of the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents, of which his father and elder brother had been the principal founders; in April of the same year he was appointed by the Common Council a committee, with Drs. Bailey, J. M. Smith, and Stephen Brown, to visit the penitentiary and report on the measures necessary to eradicate typhus fever, which was making fearful ravages there. In October, 1825, he was appointed consulting physician to the Bellevue Almshouse and Penitentiary; and in January, 1826, elected by the Common Council resident physician to Bellevue Hospital, Almshouse, and Penitentiary, where he remained for seven years, and was, as Dr. John W. Francis said in his "Old New York," ," "of signal benefit to the public interests and to humanity." He performed nearly all the important surgical operations during his residency, and in 1832-'33, during the cholera epidemic, stayed at his post, though more than six hundred fatal cases of the disease occurred among the inmates of the county institutions. He was himself attacked by the disease, and though he recovered, thanks to his temperate habits and his fine constitution, his health was so much impaired that he was obliged to resign his position, and he was not fully restored to his former vigor for five years. He was a member of the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary during this period, and for many years subsequently maintained a very high reputation as an ophthalmic surgeon, the benefits of which enured to the advantage of the New York Institution for the Blind, of which he was for twenty-five years one of the most active managers, being the consulting physician, and for several years its president. He was one of the founders of the Society for the Relief of the Widows and Orphans of Medical Men, and subsequently its treasurer and president; he was also a founder and twice president of the New York Academy of Medicine.

VOL. VIII.-49 A

For many years he was president of the Bellevue Hospital Medical Board. He was also one of the managers of the New York Lying-in-Asylum, and a consulting physician of the New York City Dispensary, and from 1853 also of the New York Ophthalmic Hospital. He was president repeatedly of the County Medical Society, and of the Kappa Lambda Society of Hippocrates, and treasurer of the American Medical Association for one year. During the war he was an active member of the Sanitary Commission.

Aside from these numerous positions of trust and responsibility directly connected with his profession, Dr. Wood held many others of a purely philanthropic or literary character involving much labor, which he cheerfully undertook for the benefit of others. He was for twenty-six years a member of the Board of the American Bible Society, and during twentythree years of the time on two of its most important committees. He was for many years also an inspector of the public schools, and performed the arduous duties of that position with great fidelity. He was also an active member of both the Historical and Geographical Societies. He wrote little, and was averse to any thing like display. His modesty, his quiet and practical piety, profound medical learning, and great ability as an organizer, together with his gentle and courteous manners, made his loss one which will be deeply felt by the profession and the public.

WORKS, PUBLIC. An English writer observes that "it is hardly more than thirty years since the prospectus of the London and Birmingham Railway Company, with the estimate of the rest of their proposed undertaking, at £1,800,000, took not only the general public but even Lombard Street by surprise. Yet with the example of success afforded by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, capital was soon found, not only for the London and Birmingham, but for still more costly lines; and that, notwithstanding the estimate just referred to proved to have been but about one-third of the ultimate outlay, since that time nearly £500,000,000 of money have been found for English railways alone. If the capital available for engineering undertakings has increased, within the last thirty or thirty-five years, literally from millions to hundreds of millions, what may we not expect within the next thirty or forty years?" At this time it would be impossible, within any moderate limits, to enumerate even the public works undertaken and in progress, which forty years ago would have been considered chimerical and impossible both in an engineering and financial point of view. The three public works which now most especially claim public attention are the Suez Canal, the Pacific Railroad, and the Mont Cenis Tunnel. Of the first, a description will be found under its distinctive head. But attention is to be called, in an engineering point of view, to the rapidity with

Six

which the work has been carried on by the introduction of dredging-machines. One machine is credited with 108,000 cubic metres of excavation in a single month; another with 88,889; another with 78,056 cubic metres within a like period. They have double gangs of men, and work night and day. dredges in November, in the Port Said division of the canal, raised 313,628 cubic metres; three other machines, at Ras-el-Ech, raised 214,042 cubic metres. The last new dredge of the contractors was put at work in December; and now their entire force, 60 machines, is being driven to its utmost capacity. Of the Pacific Railroad, there is little in the construction, of engineering science. The work itself can hardly be called at present more than a construction-track, but under a well-organized system it has been driven forward with great rapidity, and the mere laying of the track has more of novelty than any other branch of the construction. The following extracts from the report of the Secretary of the Interior will give the condition of the road, November 30, 1868:

At the date of my last annual report, you had accepted 490 miles of the road and telegraph line of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and the commissioners were then engaged in the examination of an additional section of 20 miles. Since that date, including said 20 miles, 330 have been accepted. The commissioners have submitted reports upon 4 additional sections, amounting to 100 miles.

The commissioners' report has just been received. A description of the location of the road is given.

The elevation at Omaha is 946 feet above tidewater, and at the head of Great Salt Lake 4,315 feet. The sum of the ascents going westward is 12,995 feet, and the consequent sum of the descents is 9,626 feet. They are of the opinion that the location of the road, as a whole and in its different parts, is upon the most direct, central, and practicable route, but that the line is not in all respects well adapted to the ground, as there are points where the full capabilities of the country have not been developed, and others where, in its details, the location is radically wrong. This has been occasioned by a desire to diminish the cost of work by the introduction of more and sharper curves than the circumstances require, although the saving in cost was but small in comparison to the permanent injury of the road. The commissioners are of opinion that the line, as built, should not be permanently adopted, and that economy and the best interests of the road require alterations and im

provements to be made.

The road, when examined, was built 890 miles from Omaha. Its construction, so far as excavations and embankments were required, was remarkably easy. From Omaha to a point 535 miles west there are no rock excavations, and the natural surface of a great portion of the intermediate country presents nearly practicable grades. From the latter point to the end of the track the work is less than on Eastern

roads of the same length, and the most difficult parts are light in comparison with roads in the Alleghany

Mountains. There is but one tunnel. It is on the bank of St. Mary's creek, 230 feet in length.

The commissioners submit the following estimate of expenditure which will be required to render the first 890 miles of the road equal to a fully completed first-class railroad. No allowances are made for work in progress or materials and equipments ordered or reported to be in transitu for delivery, or already delivered, except so far as they are placed in position

in the structures themselves-86,409,550. The cost of constructing and fully equipping the road from the mouth of the Weber Cañon to the head of Great Salt Lake-$3,515,550.

As the actual cost of this road is a matter of public interest, I deem it proper to present, in a coinst., by Jesse L. Williams. He states that the cost densed form, the estimates submitted on the 14th

of the road, as shown on the books of the railroad company, is, of course, equivalent to the contract price per mile. The actual cost to the contractors, forming an association which embraces most of the larger stockholders of the company, is shown only by their private books, to which the Government directors have no access. The calculations were, therefore, made from the most accurate available data, and the estimated cost of the first 710 miles of the road was taken as the basis for computing that of the whole line. Should the road, as is expected by the company, form a junction with that of the California company, near the northern extreme of Great Salt Lake, a little west of Monument Point, its length would be 1,110 miles. The cost of locating, constructing, and completely equipping it and the telegraph line, is $38,824,821, an average per mile of 84,977. The Government subsidy in bonds for that distance, at par, amounts to $29,504,000, an average per mile of $26,580. The company's first mortgage bonds are estimated at 92 per cent., and would yield $27,143,680. The fund realized by the company from these two sources amounts to $56.647,650, being an average per mile of $51,034, exceeding by $16,456 the actual cost of constructing and fully equipping the road, and yielding a profit exceeding $17,750,000

The Central Pacific Railroad Company, of Califor nia, have constructed 390 miles of their road and telegraph line, of which 296 were constructed and accepted since my last annual report. This company filed a map of the definite location of their road from Humboldt Wells, via the head of Great Salt Lake, to the mouth of Weber Cañon. On the 15th of May last, I gave my "consent and approval" to the l cation, as far as the head of Great Salt Lake, a distance of 140 miles. Subsequent surveys corrected the 14th ultimo they filed a map and profile from the and improved the unaccepted part of the line, and head of Great Salt Lake to Echo Summit. to which location I gave my "consent and approval."

At the date of my last annual report the Union Pacifie Railway Company, Eastern Division, had constructed 805 miles of their road and telegraph line, and miles thereof had been accepted. Since that date additional miles have been constructed and accepted

graph line of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroa
Sixty-nine and a half miles of the road and tele-
March last. About 314 miles necessary to make t
Company were completed, equipped, and accepted in
connection with the Union Pacific Railroad are under
contract and in process of grading.

Railroad Company within the past year. The
No track has been laid by the Western Pacif:
however, reported on the 15th of September last
the grading of the unfinished part of the road wod
be completed and ready for the track in a few months.
been constructed. The company report that survers
No portion of the Northern Pacific Railroad has
have not been continued during the past season for
want of a military escort to protect surveying parties.
The Southern Pacific Railroad Company
line lying between the towns of San José and Gilro
that they have surveyed only that portion of their
in the county of Santa Clara, a distance of thirt
miles. The grading is rapidly progressing. The
expect to complete this thirty miles of road by the
iron has been purchased and is in transits. They
of which $72,000 has been actually paid in, and their
1st of April, 1869. Their capital stock is $1.
indebtedness $480,000.

At the Mont Cenis Tunnel, the engineering feature is the manner in which the drills are

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