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in writing. This he declined to do. And why? He had decided that he would be converted by the heat of the coming investigation, and within two weeks we find him in Boston making his confessions to the Board of Visitors, telling them the stories which they have incorporated in their report to the Mayor, and which they now admit are mistakes. Their report abounds in mistakes. They begin by stating incorrectly the number of men and women in the infirmary wards. They err in stating that the infirmary and nursery wards can be ventilated only by the windows. They err in stating that many of the inmates in the infirmary are bedridden. Their statements in regard to the flannel for petticoats, in regard to surgical instruments, in regard to medicines, in regard to diets, in regard to not giving milk in tea and coffee, in regard to cutting down diets, in regard to discharging patients with specific diseases, in regard to the graveyard, in regard to mistakes in identification of remains claimed by relatives and friends, are all incorrect. And why? Simply because these statements are inade upon the authority of Mr. McCaffrey and Dr. Parker. The visitors have been misled. Before they made their first visit to Long Island, Dr. Parker had laid his plans to turn them against Dr. Cogswell. He began by misrepresenting things to them, and he has continued, aided by Mr. McCaffrey, to mislead them ever since.

Dr. Parker, by his testimony, makes it clear that he knows a great many things which are not so. We shall show you that only two fire-ladders have been purchased and sent to the institution at Long Island this year, the two recommended by the district chief of the Fire Department. At the time these were procured there were already nine 25 and 40 ft. ladders in the institution, and they had all been there within two weeks as long as Dr. Parker had, and three of them had been there much longer. We shall show you that while it is true that 84 arm-chairs were sent to Long Island February 28, 1894, it is also true that 100 armchairs were sent there March 29, 1893. We shall show you that each infirmary ward is ventilated by means of three large ventilators into the attic. We shall show you that the nursery has two large ventilators through the ceiling and through the attic to the outside air. The statement that the only means of ventilating these rooms is by windows is absolutely untrue. The ventilation is good without reference to the windows.

The level to which the attack upon the present Superintendent of the Home for Paupers at Long Island has descended is unworthy of the eminently respectable people who are responsible for it. They would have you believe that he is lavish of the city's money in his household expenditure; that he keeps four servants and furnishes his private apartments expensively at the city's cost. These things are notso, and I am surprised at the effort here made to have them appear The facts are that Dr. Cogswell has never kept more than two servants, sometimes only one; that he has paid a portion of their wages out of his own pocket; and that the furniture in his private apartments is his own personal property paid for with his own money, and not by the city of Boston. I said, and I repeat, that I am surprised that such an attack should be made upon the present superin


tendent. I will not undertake to say why it is done. It may be for the reason that neither his executive ability nor his skill and standing as a physician can be assailed or even questioned by anybody, and something must be said here against him. The success of ten years' service in the Quarantine Department of this city, seven of the ten at the head of the department, is a guaranty that he possesses both executive ability and the skill and judgment of a physician equal to the best; and the conditions upon which the Board of Health consented to his transfer from the Quarantine Department to the superintendency of Long Island constitute an indorsement which few men of his age receive. At the time of his transfer to his present position, an epidemic of cholera was feared, and the Board of Health, when approving the transfer, did so with the express stipulation that in case the dreaded scourge appeared, Dr. Cogswell should be at once released by the Commissioners of Public Institutions, and again be placed in charge of the quarantine. He assumed control of Long Island at the time of the completion of the new hospital and of the separation of the management of that island from Rainsford. Of course, with the opening of the new hospital many things were in different condition from established hospitals. No one would expect a hospital just opened to be in that condition where nothing further could be suggested or desired. We shall show you that, with all reasonable despatch, the institution with its additions and changes has been improved and is continually being improved. We shall offer to you evidence of the facts as they exist, and the opinions of men who are eminently fitted to judge of these matters, and who have not only made a study of them in the abstract, but who know this very institution itself. And if comparisons are desired, we will place this institution beside any institution of the kind in this country or any other, and abide the result.

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It has been sought to put before you charges made to the Commissioners in 1891, and the attempt has been successful in a degree. In regard to such of those charges as have been called to your attention as facts we shall show you that upon investigation by the Commissioners at the time very different conclusions were reached. When Mr. Brownell declined to make an investigation for the Commissioners in 1891, the services of another gentleman were secured, and he made an examination and reported the facts as he found them. We have summoned him to testify here. And with his testimony we shall offer the statements of others well informed as to the facts at the time.

Mrs. Moran and Esther J. Brown have been paraded before you to assist in making out a case against Dr. Cogswell and the Commissioners. What an exhibition! Mrs. Moran, learning of her father's death at Long Island, went there, but did not see the superintendent at all. She saw the clerk, who told her that Edward Cuddy died at Long Island, and that she would have to see the superintendent before anything could be done if she wanted the body. She never saw the superintendent, but assumed that the body was buried at Long Island and went straight

to an undertaker and employed him to remove it. The undertaker, relying on Mrs. Moran's statements, applied to the Board of Health, and a permit was issued for the removal, from Long Island to Mount Calvary, of a body which had been given in compliance with the provisions of Chapter 81 of the Public Statutes of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to anatomical science, and afterwards buried in Mt. Hope cemetery, in pursuance of a permit issued by this same Board of Health and on record in their office. If Mrs. Moran had gone to the superintendent she would not have made the mistake she did, for the superintendent would have told her all the facts. When she discovered her mistake she asked the Commissioners to pay this undertaker she had employed. This they declined to do, of course, and Mrs. Moran betook herself at once to Mrs. Lincoln with her grievance. Esther J. Brown was caught by Dr. Cogswell in the act of committing a nuisance on the lawn in front of the hospital at Long Island and by him ordered off the place. She, too, sought Mrs. Lincoln with her complaint, and you have observed the result.


The Commissioners are charged with lack of respect and courtesy to the Special Committee of Visitors appointed by the Mayor, because, indeed, the reports of the Commissioners disclose no mention of a single criticism or a single recommendation of that committee. Now, what are the facts? That committee was appointed by the Mayor, and made two reports to him, preliminary report and a fiual report. The preliminary report was made in April, 1892, was transmitted to the City Council April 18, 1892, was ordered printed and referred to the Committee on the Department of Public Institutions by the Aldermen, and has not to this day officially reached the Commissioners of Public Institutions. The final report was made June 27, 1892, transmitted to the City Council June 29, 1892, and by the Common Council referred to the Committee on the Department of Public Institutions, and has never officially reached the Commissioners of Public Institutions. These matters were thoroughly discussed by the Commissioners, and it was decided by them, and rightly, too, that it would be discourteous to the Mayor and discourteous to the City Council to make any mention in the Commissioners' report of these two reports, which were the property of the Mayor and the City Council. But, gentlemen, these two reports are themselves full of praise to the Commissioners for the respect and courtesy shown to this special committee. In its final report to the Mayor this special committee says: "Especially it would acknowledge the cordial coöperation which it has received from the Commissioners of Public Institutions and from their officials, who have all given great assistance to the committee in the performance of its duties." And why, pray, should the Commissioners refer at all to this special committee in their report? They report what they have done. If the Mayor and City Council have provided the money to carry out the plans suggested by this committee, and if the Commissioners report that they have expended the money in the way intended, what more is there to be said?

The light which they have thrown upon this spot, gentlemen,

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has show you anything but a very dark spot, and this too with the rays obscured by the smoked glass of prejudice, and the lamp filled with the oil of bitterness. By cross-examination the smoke has been wiped from the glass, but the oil of bitterness still remains in the lamp, and so affects the rays that in this light alone you cannot see the picture as it is. It remains for us, gentlemen, to show you this spot in a different light, and we ask you to look at it in the broad daylight of facts. Then and then alone can you detect the fault, if fault there be, and apply the remedy.

With the acquisition of fresh counsel you were asked to extend your inquiry to other institutions in addition to the Home for Paupers, and Brother Riley, solely in the interests of humanity, gravely presents, as his first witness, Dr. Newell, the chief of that band of conspirators of which the Mayor, on February 5, 1892, rid the public service for the public good. Smarting under the punishment administered by the Mayor, the involuntary ex-Commissioner has relieved himself of his load of hatred for the Mayor, hatred for Dr. Jenks, and hatred for everybody who in any way aided in uncovering the conspiracy in which he was engaged during his term as Commissioner of Public Institutions. We shall show you that Dr. Newell, while drawing a salary from the city of Boston, as a Commissioner of Public Institutions, was devoting his time to the organization of an attempt to get Dr. Jenks out of the chairmanship and himself into his place. He found his tools for this attempt at Deer Island. With promises to subordinate officers there that upon the consummation of the plot they should have the places of their superiors he made his allies. The men who formed the group behind Brother Riley's table, the group which you, gentlemen, dispersed for improper conduct at a previous hearing, are the same men who joined Dr. Newell in his conspiracy. Upton, Erskine, Morrill, Ryerson, all discharged officials of the Deer Island institutions, come here to support their old chief in this renewed attack on the Chairman of the Board of Commissioners of Public Institutions. This time they say they are after bigger game, the Mayor. They want you to believe that the Mayor made a mistake in removing them from office. Like drowning men they clutch at a straw. Someone has told them that now is the time to strike again at Dr. Jenks. Now, while Mrs. Lincoln with all her influence and all her energy is available as a partner in the assault, and under the skilful guidance of unpaid counsel, they boldly ask you to believe that the Mayor did not strike at the root of the trouble when he removed them all. After their testimony on the stand I hardly think it will require much more evidence to convince you that the Mayor applied the proper remedy and to the proper subjects. As to Long Island, Dr. Newell either was not acquainted with the facts or he studied to mislead. His testimony regarding the sanitary arrangements, regarding the food, regarding clothing and supplies, is absolutely unreliable. For example, his statement that two privy-vaults were all the inmates had to use. The fact is that at that very time more than twenty water-closets in the institution were in constant use by the inmates. The sanitary condition of the institution was good, and is good to-day, and

would furnish an object-lesson of cleanliness to many a well-regulated and scrupulously neat household.

Take his statement about the trees. He said Superintendent Galvin had an opportunity to purchase a large number of trees at a very low price, but was prevented from doing so by Dr. Jenks. That is not true. The trees were purchased, and when you visit Long Island you can see them growing there. You will recollect, however, that the doctor was a little mixed on this tree matter. When be first referred to it he said 30,000 trees were offered at a fair price. Later on he said 10,000 trees were offered for $30.

The reckless character of Dr. Newell's testimony, and its utter unreliability, is shown by his statement that it was a common thing for people to die at 14 Beacon street. The fact is, that during the last eleven years only one person has died there; namely, the one to whom Dr. Newell referred, and that man was sent from the City Hospital to the Home for Paupers to die, and he was so near death's door that before he arrived at 14 Beacon street the last rites of the church had been administered to him.

Dr. Newell tells you what is not true when he says that a drum to destroy vermin was purchased for Long Island. but that none was provided for Rainsford Island. Two were bought at the same time, one for each island.

Another misstatement by the doctor is that $40.000 of the appropriation was turned into the sinking-fund when it should have been used for other purposes. The only foundation he could possibly have for such a statement must be the following facts: During the year 1891-2 the construction of an additional wing for the Long Island Hospital was authorized by the City Council, and the Commissioners saved $35,000 of the appropriation for that year, which sum was transferred and used for that purpose.

When Dr. Newell says that the business of the Board was practically all done by the chairman, and little, if anything, left to any one else, has he forgotten that on the 3d day of June, 1891, he and Commissioner Devlin were appointed to draft rules for the guidance of the Board in the transaction of its business; has be forgotten that on the 5th day of July, 1891, the question of Mr. Brown's salary was referred to him; that the question of giving a permit for a base-ball game on Long Island was referred to him and Commissioner Devlin, July 14, 1891: that the application of Mr. McGarrigle for an increase of salary at the House of Correction was referred to him on the 17th day of July, 1891; that on the 18th day of August, 1891, a communication in regard to trained nurses was referred to him; that on the 21st day of August a request for an additional horse at Long Island was referred to him: that the whole question as to trained nurses was again referred to him on the 24th day of August, 1891; that on the 14th day of September, 1891, the matter of additional nurses and watchmen was referred to him; that on the 17th day of October, 1891, James White's case was referred to him and Commissiouer Devlin; that on the 27th day of October, 1891, the matter of Mr. Morrill's discharge was referred to the chairman and Dr. Newell; that on the 11th day of November, the communication from Superintendent

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