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why the chicken broth was not served, and I told her because Dr. Parker had not ordered it. She said he had, because she saw where he had written the order for it. Then we had some talk about what he had written the order on. I never told Mrs. Evans that I did not remember having a conversation with Dr. Parker on the subject of ordering cbicken broth, for I did. Mrs. Evans niisunderstood me, I suppose, just as Dr. Parker must bare misunderstood ber when he says she asked him to order chicken broth that she might find out whether it would be furnished. I don't doubt that Dr. Parker wrote an order at that time for chicken broth and showed it to Mrs. Evans, but no one else ever saw it, and it amounted to nothing.
In regard to the shortage of milk, Mrs. Lincoln and some of her supporting witnesses endeavor to give the impression that the milk in our hospital is continually short, and that patients are allowed to suffer for the lack of it, all through mismanagement or hard-bearted economy on my part. Gentlemen, that is not so, and in snpport of my statement I refer to the claily requisitions of the cook for milk, from May 8, 1893, to April 1, 1894. These show the amounts called for to fill the orders from the different wards each day and the amount of milk delivered, and are certified as correct by the cook. The figures represent quarts, not cans, as is printed. From these you will see that out of a great many thousand quarts called for, all but about 400 have been delivered. The only continued shortage you will find are sis days in May, where it is slight, and fourteen days in December, where it is considerable ; but at no time has a patient suffered for the lack of milk. Whenever we have found that milk was running short we have always purchased some from the city, sometimes as much as ninely quarts a day. We have never practised economy by cutting dolla milk, as I consider milk about the cheapest article of diet we have.
When we sold milk to Raiosford Island and the boardivg. house we bad plenty and to spare left.
You will see that from our milk record. Our surplus we were accustomed to give to the inmates in the institution for their tea, coffee, or shells.
I understand that the question of supplying wilk to the patients has been a veving one, for years past. I kuow that I made four, yes, five investigations of this milk question in the first nine months I was on the island, making some improvements in our methods of distribution and accounting; and I am happy to say that since Dec. 27, 1893, when our present system was adopted, we have never had even the appearance of a shortage of milk in our hispital, and this is one improvement which cannot be credited to the heat of this investigation. I think I can explain to you how the present rumors of shortage
Our milk supply, coming mainly from cows on the island, is lialile to considerable variation from day to day, according to the weather, and, as it comes twice a day, we are liable to have to wait either night or morning for part of our milk. Let me illustrate : If seventy-five quarts of milk were required to fill morning orders, and there were but fifty quarts left in the milk, room from
the preceding night's supply, when they were sent out we would be twenty-five quarts short for a wbile, but half an hour later, when the milk came from the barn, the total requisition would be filled, and there would be no real sbortage. It was our custom, at ove time, to send the milk to fill the morning and noon requisitions to the hospital in the morning. At noon the milk would often fall short, and the cook be obliged to send to the milk-room for an additional supply. It took some time to fill these extra requisitions, and the patients were obliged to wait for their rations; and it was from these occurrences, which were inore or less frequent, that the reports started of continual shortage of milk in our hospital.
The ration allowed for a patient, when not otherwise stated, is one-lialf pint, measured in a measure, and not by the eye. As for giving skimmed milk to the patients, it has never been done to my kpowledge. The infants are given milk directly from the barn, except at noon. I never knew of over three quarts of cream being taken from the milk in twenty-four hours, and that amount was taken from nearly 200 quarts of milk. If we had set the milk and skimmed it, we ought to have gotten forty quarts of cream. There never has been a day when you could not go into the hospital and find a mug of wilk by the bedside of some patient with good cream on it, where it had stood untasted for an hour or so.
Mrs. Lincoln states that the standard of cleanliness in the hospital is far below what it ouglit to be, and that personal cleanliness in the care of patients is not enforced. This is a matter of opinion in which I do not entirely agree with Mrs. Lincoln. In answer to her, and all other accusations of the same kind, I can tell you what we do, and our rules have always been the same: Every floor in the institution and buspital is scrabbed once a week, swept from once to half a dozen times a day. The dining-room floor and halls are scrubbed three times a week. Every inmate is bathed at least once a week, and given a clean change of clothing. All our bed-lineu is changed once a week, and we have patients in the hospital whose hedding and clothing are changed half a dozen times a day. Dirt is somewhat a matter of accident. I have seen the hospital floor very clean, and gone out two hours later and found it covered with pieces of straw and lint. Shortly after that I found it clean again. Cleanliness depends, in an institution, ipon discipline. If I can't stop a man from spitting on the floor, from going out and coming in with mud on bis shoes, and doing various otlier things, I can't expect to keep to the highest standard of cleanliness. Our women's wards are tire equal in cleanliness to any hospital wards in the country. Our male wards will compare not unfavorably with others of the kind, but I will say frankly that at ove time I was not very well satisfied with them, and that I bave continually endeavored to raise their standard. glad if Mrs. Evans thought she saw an improvement. It is encouraging.
The statement is made that the quality of the food is not what it should be for the sick, and that too little care is taken in the repparation of the food for the well. Mrs. Lincoln could not have
I am very
meant that to apply to my management, for she testified that at the only meal she was ever present during my time the soup was excellent. As to quality, I wish to say that over three-quarters of the articles of food furnished for inmates are used on the othcers' table — also my own and as to its preparation, I can speak from experience and say I have never seen it prepared in anything but a careful manner. I have seen a large majority of the meals served while in preparation. I have eaten of the food served to the inmates many, many times, and have never found it so but what I could bave sat down and made a good meal, in fact I bave made several lunches. Mention bas been made of a sinkmixed pudding and much made of it. Let me tell you a few things about it.
When I went to Long Island I found that a wooden sink in the kitchen was used for washing meat and soaking beans. I thought it had been put there for that purpose, and naturally loo, for I never saw it used for anything else except to scald out tios, and there is a large soapstone sink for other purposes.
If inmates relieved themselves as in a spittoon I never knew it, and they must be curious people who would do such a thing knowing that they eat food prepared in it five days in the week.
To show you what I thought of this sink and the propriety of using it for the purposes we do I will say that I am in the habit of drawing my Sunday ration of baked beans from the inmates' bean-pots; that I often eat their meat; that I ate a portion of nearly every brea. pudding that was served, and always found them good. The pudding referred to was sour because the bread was sour because of any trouble with the place in which it was mixed.
It was amusing to me at times to listen to Mrs. Lincolu giving her testimony ou Long Island, showing how little she really knew. Let us take, for example, to show into what errors partial knowledge may lead one, the question of towels. She says on the day she took the count there were 159 mep using eight roller towels, that these were all they had, and that there had been a recent improvement under the new deputy, meaning Nr. Stimson; whereas there were formerly four there were now eight. She refers to the wash-room off Ward 3. Now, what are the facts? Let us start back to the fall of '93 when we first began to sleep men in that ward. At first we had but two towels, then as the number of men increased, 'four, then after the ward was full and we began to sleep men in the chapel, these men had to wash in this same room, and more towels were added for them until we got up to eight, these last ordered by Smith, the old, not Stimson, the new, deputy. It we liad had more men and Mrs. Lincoln bad come at the time she might have found ten or twelve towels. If she had gone down July 1st she would have found the number of men reduced, also the towels. There were but four. A great many of the men, especially the older ones, have their own individual towels. I know that at one time in January, 165 men out of the 497 on the island bad single towels. Every woman has her own towel, and all the patients in the hospital with enough for a change. This has always been so uuder my management. The persons who give
Mrs. Lincoln her facts are not to be relied upon, and she does not verify them. I should like to mention the fact that at one of the institutions which Mrs. Lincolo says we most closely resemble, and holds up as an example for us to follow, I saw seventeen roller towels hanging in their wash-room, and was told by the man in charge that they constituted the daily supply for 350 nen.
Mrs. Lincoln has not informed you correctly as to the time she could or did spend in the hospital. The “ Bradlee ” does not alrive at Long Island at 2.45 P.M. but rather from 3.15 to 3.45 P.M. ; ant during the winter months, when she says she is a more frequent visitor', it averages to leave for the city about 4.40. In the summer it is later. Aud ia place of being in the hospital over two hours, it is my best judgment, unless on some special occasion, she never was there over half an hour, for out of the hour and a half she has on the island she had to visit the nursery, the infirmary, and consult with her lieutenants, Coakley, Simpson, and Doran.
Counsel says of the investigation : “It is not an attack upon any individual, No one whom I represent, so far as I know, who is here present, has any attack to make upon any of the officers or individuals who occupy public positions. The saviug clause in that statement must be " who is here present,” for it strikes me that that which started on the high plane of humanity has since in a great measure degenerated into a personal attack upon me, aud that some of these gooid people have been used to further private ends.
The opening argument for the complainants covers twelve printed pages, the last four of which do not concern me, and in them are crowdel 27 statements that are not borne out hy facts, six stateinents of facts that were going to be proved but have not nor can they be, and several insinuations. I shall not go into their details now, but if you will compare my statements of facts with their opening you will readily pick out the ones to which I liave reference.
Our institution and hospital have been compared with Tewksbury and Blockley, always to our discredit. I wish, gentlemen, that you could visit the three institutions on three successive days and the New York almshouse and hospital on the fourth. I don't think you would come home ashamed of your own institution in any way, shape, or manner. I know I did not, and I visited these institutions for the espress purpose of comparing them with Long Island, and the only thing I envied them wils their being able to successfully enforce all their rules and regulations.
It cannot be possible that Mrs. Liucola or her friends are familiar with these institutions with which they have so freely compared us, for in conforts and surroundings we are superior to them all. The quality of our food is the same, it is as well prepared, and better served in some cases, and we have more of a variety. Our clothing is practically the same. In the number of nurses to a patient we are equal with New York, which most nearly corresponds with us in character of patients, about equal with Tewksbury, and behind Blockley. But judging from my observation of their surroundings 'and the condition of their patients, tlie ourses at Blockley are not the equal of those at Long Island. Blockley is the City Hospital of Philadelphia and corresponds very nearly to our Boston City Hospital in its medical organizatiou and class of cases admitted. I make this statement from my own observation. They have a large corps of visiting physicians and surgeons, thirty-six, I believe, with twenty house officers and a Chief Resident Physician, and a well organized ambulance service. I was informed by the Chief Resident Physician that the larger proportion of their cases were acute, which would demand more nurses than our class of patients; and yet I was told by a nurse there that there she averaged fifteen or sixteen patients, seven in berl, the others convalescing.
It has been said that our hospital fails to cure. It undoubtedly does sometimes; most hospitsls do the same. It seems to me a fair way to judye a hospital by the results obtained. I can't compare Long Island with Tewksbury, as their report does not furnish the figures, but if you will examine the City Hospital Report of 1893, you will find that they have discharged 2133 per cent. of their patients cureil, 60 per cent. relieved, and .03 per cent. norelieved. Our last report shows 52 145 per cent. of our patients discharged cured, 21.1 per cent relieved, and .06 per cent. lprelieved. I don't think I need to add any remarks to these figures.
In comparing our medical organization with that at Tewksbury, the latter was held up as a model, and you were given to understand that our's fell far below it, and was about as bad as could be. If you are at all familiar with Tewksbury, you know that with the exception of the staff of consulting physicians, the two organizations are alike. As to the personnel of the staff, it would not be becoming to me to compare them, though I should like to indorse counsel's expressed opinion of Dr. Howard, and I guess I know the doctor better than he does.
I can, however, with propriety give you the facts cepcerning our so-caller floating population of medical officers, that you may judge for yourself whether this statement is correct; namely : “Much of the time during the last year there has been no second assistant." The men were transferred to the hospital April 2 and the women April 5, 1893. Dr. Sullivan came as second assistant April 13, and remained until September 30, when he resigned to go into private practice. Dr. Parker came on that same day, and remained as second assistant until November 16, ilien lie was promoted to first assistaut to fill the vacancy caused by Dr. Dever's promotion to the position of Resident Physician at Raiosford Island. Dr. Murphy came as second assistant November 27, and served until Febrnary 12, when he resigned. Dr. Leach came to fill Dr. Murphy's place, February 13, 1891, and is still
Up to July 1, 189+, we had four internes, Mr. Bennett, Mr. Noyes, Mr. Douglass, and Mr. McKenna. These four men never had received their degrees, ils Mr. Brandeis said, inferring that it was something against us.
I wonder if he knows that at most hospitals they will not receive a man as an interne who hus