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full statement, we submit, as follows, the preambles which contain these acknowledgments of God :

ALABAMA.—“We, the people of the State of Alabama,

invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish the following constitution.” ARKANSAS.“We, the people of the State of

Arkansas, grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty,

do ordain and establish this constitution.”

CALIFORNIA.—“We, the people of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, do establish this constitution."

CONNECTICUT.—“The people of Connecticut, acknowledging with gratitude the good providence of God,

ordain and establish the following constitution."

FLORIDA.—“ We, the people of the State of Florida, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom,

do establish this constitution.” GEORGIA.—“We, the people of Georgia,

acknowledging and invoking the guidance of Almighty God, the author of all good governments, do ordain and establish this constitution."

ILLINOIS.--"We, the people of the State of Illinois, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberty which he hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to him for

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a blessing upon our endeavors to secure and transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generations,

do ordain and establish this constitution.”

INDIANA.—“We, the people of the State of Indiana, grateful to Almighty God for the free exercise of the right to choose our own form of government, do ordain this constitution.”

Iowa.—“We, the people of the State of Iowa, grateful to the Supreme Being for the blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on him for a continuation of those blessings, do ordain and establish a free and independent government.”

KANSAS.—“ We, the people of Kansas, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious privileges,

do ordain and establish this constitution." MAINE.—“We, the people of Maine,

acknowledging with grateful hearts the goodness of the Sovereign Ruler of the universe,

and imploring his aid and direction,

do ordain and establish the following constitution.”

MARYLAND.—“We, the people of the State of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberty,

declare." MASSACHUSETTS.—“We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging with grateful hearts the goodness of the Great Legislator of the universe,

and devoutly imploring

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or

his direction,

ordain and establish the following declaration of rights and frame of government."

MINNESOTA.—“We, the people of the State of Minnesota, grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty,

do ordain and establish this constitution.”

MISSISSIPPI.—"We, the people of the State of Mississippi, grateful to Almighty God for the free exercise of the right to choose our own form of government, do ordain this constitution."

MISSOURI.—“We, the people of the State of Missouri, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of nations,

and acknowledging our dependence upon him, dain and establish this revised and amended constitution." NEBRASKA.—“We, the people of Nebraska,

grateful to Almighty God for our freedom,

do establish this constitution.” NEVADA.—“We, the people of the State of Nevada, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom,

do establish this constitution." NEW JERSEY.—“We, the people of the State of New Jersey, grateful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which he hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to him for a blessing upon our endeavors to secure and transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generations, do ordain and establish this constitution."

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NEW YORK.—“We, the people of the State of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom,

do establish this constitution.”

NORTH CAROLINA.—“We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of nations,

and acknowledging our dependence upon him,

ordain and establish this constitution.” Oh10.—“ We, the people of the State of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom,

do establish this constitution." PENNSYLVANIA.—“We, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessing of civil and religious liberty, and humbly invoking his guidance, do ordain and establish this constitution.”

RHODE ISLAND.-“We, the people of Rhode Island and Providence plantations, grateful to Almighty God,

and looking to him for a blessing upon our endeavors,

do ordain and establish this constitution of government."

South CAROLINA.—“We, the people of the State of South Carolina,

grateful to Almighty God,

and imploring the direction of the great Legislator of the universe,

establish the following as the constitution of the Commonwealth of South Carolina."?

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TEXAS.—“We, the people of Texas, acknowledging with gratitude the grace of God in permitting us to make choice of our own form cf government, do hereby ordain and establish this constitution.”

VIRGINIA.—“We, the delegates of the good people of Virginia,

invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do propose to the people the following constitution and form of government for this Commonwealth.”

WISCONSIN.—“We, the people of Wisconsin, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, * do establish this constitution."

Here are twenty-eight constitutional preambles which, taken in the aggregate, are referred to as evidence that the State governments possess a religious character, and may, hence, evince the fact in their public school system by Bible reading and other religious exercises. The premise on which this conclusion is based consists in the recognitions and acknowledgments of God as found in these preambles. To this argument we submit the following reply :

1. There are nine States of the Union to which the argument has no application. Two of these States-namely, Vermont and West Virginiahave no preamble to their respective constitutions ; and seven of them,—namely, Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Tennessee—make no reference to God in the pre

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