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as little to do with our criminal trials as But in all cases, let no one have authority does the question of heredity. Let us, then, to discharge an insane convict before the have a law to this effect, that insanity shall expiration of his term because he seems to be no barrier to a conviction, and that it be cured; nor let the Governor have, in shall not modifiy the sentence of the con- such cases, a power of pardoning. victed. Let us, since insane convicts will What would result from such a change in require a different treatment from the sane, our law, is clear. The plea of insanity, establish a prison for the insane, to which since it could bring no mitigation of the insane criminals may be sentenced as others penalty, would never be resorted to as a are to our State prison at San Quentin. sham defense to a crime; while, against And if an oversensitive community shrinks really insane criminals, society would at from depriving an insane murderer of a last be having an adequate protection. wretched and profitless life, let it satisfy its One great abuse would disappear from the hesitation by reducing the penalty of courts; one great danger would be removed such criminals to imprisonment for life. from so ciety.

Harold Wheeler.


“LEAVE me the glory of dying poor,” ex- of men who had passed through fiery trials, claimed Luigi Carlo Farini, when his coun- and who, none doubted, were ready to transtrymen wished to reward his services with a late their bold words into equally bold deeds. substantial token of gratitude; and this Cin- Among that assemblage of rare men whom cinnatus-like reply of the modern dictator we call the makers of Italy, and who have was quite in keeping with the conduct of all, with one or two exceptions, been laid in the other distinguished men who were his their graves, there was none more noble, associates in working out the national in- loyal-hearted, and self-sacrificing than the dependence of Italy. They were all cast gallant soldier who is the subject of this brief in the antique mold, and gave a hun- chapter; and when the record of these dred such proofs of the purity of their eventful years comes to be written by the motives and the heroic spirit which animat- impartial historian-if such a thing there ed them.

be—one of the brightest pages of his story "Nations," said d'Azeglio, when called will be that on which is inscribed the name upon by Austria to surrender the Lombard of Alfonso La Marmora. rebels—“Nations, like individuals, should Owing to various causes, he has not been perish rather than dishonor themselves; we sufficiently appreciated outside his own will not abandon our Lombard brothers— country, and has sometimes been misunnot to save Piedmont from annihilation.” derstood and maligned even there. The "If you

wish a war to the death, be it so,” calumnious attacks of which he was the obsaid Victor Emmanuel to Marshal Radetsky; ject late in life were not without effect on the "sooner than submit to such conditions, I public mind. As generally happens in such would lose a hundred crowns.” And Cavour, cases, people give more heed to the accusawhen speaking of the cession of Nice and tions than the defense; and to foreigners Savoy, said, “I am ambitious only of serv- who were not interested in following the case ing Italy, and for this end I willingly put in to the end, there remains a vague impression jeopardy my fame and popularity."

that there was some spot upon the fame of a These were not the idle vaunts of inex- man wh as a soldier and a statesman, carperienced youth: they were the utterances ried his chivalrous loyalty to the point of


imprudence. “I have always believed,” said secret councils and private correspondence he, “that truth and sincerity are the best of Cavour and La Marmora. securities for a good and sound policy. Signor Massari, as in the case of his other Neither will I be told that the deceptions biographies, ignores his hero's private life: and equivocations of others give one the he is most careful to relate every particular right to deceive and equivocate.”

bearing on his life as a citizen, soldier, and To those who were really interested in the statesman, but he is silent on the subject of question—to whom La Marmora's name was the family relations. This reserve is the dear—abundant evidences of his integrity more unaccountable, because the reasons have been presented within the last six years; which controlled the biographer's pen in the and there constantly comes to light some case of his late king did not exist in La fresh bit of intelligence which places him Marmora. His severe and lofty character always higher in the esteem of his country- hardly presented any perceptible undipped men. Yet within the last six months “An vulnerable part over which a loving friend Old Diplomatist” in Prussia revived exploded would wish to throw a mantle. But in animadversions and insinuations; and I have treating of contemporary men, Signor Masheard travelers in Italy say, when the name sari's excessive delicacy prevents him alludof La Marmora came up, “By the bye, was ing to matters of a private nature, and even there not something unpleasant about dis- public questions might have been handled patches?” I have no intention of here en- with a freer and bolder touch without offense tering on the dispute between General La to the laws of good taste and gentlemanly Marmora and his powerful and malignant bearing towards opponents. But this, after enemy who embittered the last few years of all, is a good fault, seeing that political a laborious and self-sacrificing life, dedicated writers are too apt to err in an opposite from beginning to end to the service of his direction; and the absence of personalities country. The story has been told at length and display of party animus strike the reader by the General himself, in his books, “A favorably. Little More Light” and “Secrets of State.” What is wanting in this book is supplied Our space only permits us to take a brief by the soldier-like frankness of Captain glance at the contents of two new books Chiala, intent only on showing all sides of which treat of his life. 1

his noble friend's character, careless of who On the first anniversary of La Marmora's might get hurt in the process.

When one death, last year, his friend Captain Chiala wants to glorify one's hero very much, conpublished the “Commemorazione,” which temporary heroes must be squeezed against contained the most interesting and impor- the wall somewhat. But Signor Massari's tant part of his correspondence—a most at- polytheism forbids such a course; his deities tractive little volume, which many readers are all equally sacred to him, and, unlike would prefer to the more pretentious Life just Captain Chiala, he does not depress one to now issued by the famous biographer Mas- exalt another. sari, who has a high reputation in the literary world, and dedicates his talents to lives of Alfonso Ferrero, fourth son of the Margreat men. This last is an important work, quis della Marmora and Prince Masserano, and however familiar the reader may be with was born in 1804. In those days there was the historical events of the last thirty years, but one profession for a high-born gentlehe will still find a considerable quantity of man whose property did not furnish him with untrodden ground opened up to him in the sufficient occupation even: when it was no

matter of necessity to make a profession of 1 Alfonso La Marmora : Commemorazione. Firenze: arms, every Piedmontese noble thought it 1879.

Il Generale Alfonso La Mari Ricordi Biogarific: right to give his son the education of a solPer Giuseppe Massar. Firenze: 1880.

dier, and Camillo Cavour, as well as the

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future general, had to pass some years in the permission of the king, hastened to take the military academy. Alfonso was the fourth city by storm, and seize Garibaldi and the brother of the La Marmora family who en- other republican leaders. Under his wise tered the army, and though they were all and firm rule, obedience to the laws was distinguished for ability as well as courage, enforced without harshness. He carried he was the most illustrious. He modestly it with such a high hand that the Austrian held Alessandro-famous as the founder of bayonets had not the shadow of a pretext the Bersaglieri-to be his superior, but for intervening, and the King of Naples exAlessandro himself was proud to serve under pressed his admiration of the General to the his younger brother.

Sardinian ambassador. Azeglio, then prime Of all the numerous friendships made by minister, trying to guide the almost shattered La Marmora at the military school, and car- ship of state from the rocks and quickried through life, the most tender and inti- sands of military despotism and red-repubmate was that of Dabormida, a soldier like licanism, was much amused that the old himself, and like him also intensely patriotic enemy of Piedmontese liberty should see and devoted to the house of Savoy. Both anything to admire in one of its defenders. Dabormida and La Marmora were employed "Dearest cousin," he writes in his playful at different times to instruct the princes manner, “I am filled with envy that the Victor Emmanuel and Ferdinand, and this King of Naples should admire you and not strengthened the tie which already bound me; as it was the bombardment that pleased them to the throne of Sardinia. When not him, I fear I have no chance of winning his near each other, they corresponded con- esteem.” In another letter he says: “You stantly, and their letters are written with the have done the work of a brave man, and I careless freedom of attached brothers who congratulate you. You have fought for concealed nothing from each other. While Genoa, and not against Genoa; it would be they were both quite young, Dabormida an injustice to that city to confound it with prognosticated that Alfonso was a rare man, the canaille who had taken possession of it.” and would bring honor to his country.

During La Marmora's residence in Genoa, La Marmora gave himself up with a per- as royal commissioner, he met a rich Engfect fervor of enthusiasm to the improve- lish lady, Miss Bertie Mathews, whose acment of the Piedmontese army, and in order quaintance he had already made in Turin. to study the best military systems he traveled Why Miss Mathews should have prefe a great deal. In the war of 1848 he be- to be bombarded and held under martial haved gallantly; and in a critical moment, law among the revolutionists of Genoa, inwhen Charles Albert's life was threatened by stead of remaining in the pleasant and peacethe mob of Milan, he broke through them ful capital, does not appear. But there she with admirable presence of mind and sang was; and when the smoke of battle had froid, called together a handful of troops, cleared off and the amenities of life were and returning to the palace, carried off the renewed, this young lady became an imporking to a place of safety.

tant element in it as far as the General was When Victor Emmanuel ascended the concerned. He was too modest a man to throne, in 1849, he confided to his former suspect that he had made so easy a contutor the dangerous and delicate mission of quest, but he was not insensible to her restoring order to Genoa, the republican attractions; and he surrendered himself all party having made that city the seat of their the more willingly to his inclination because operations. La Marmora, fearing that the his sister had praised her warmly, and reprefifty thousand bayonets which Austria had sented her as endowed with so many excelso kindly placed at the disposal of King lent qualities that she would be a treasure of Victor, and which he had politely declined, a wife. When order was restored in Genoa, might be put in motion, even without the Miss Mathews returned to Turin, and there

VOL. I.-12.

very devout.

the General found her, when summoned by manuel, related to him the following: A order of the king to take his place in the Spanish ambassador once asked Henry IV. Cabinet as Minister of War. Difficulties had of France to tell him something of the chararisen before he had made her an offer of acter of his ministers. The king thereupon his hand. Miss Mathews was a recent con- summoned them one by one into his presvert to Romanism, and, like all converts, ence. The first who entered was the Chan

La Marmora had heard that cellor Silbery, and to him the king observed: she was fanatically devoted to the Jesuits— “I am very uneasy to see the state of this a serious objection in the wife of a minister ceiling over my head, which threatens to of Victor Emmanuel—and as domestic hap- cave in.” piness was much disturbed at this time by the “Sire," replied the minister, “we must interference of the priests, he was troubled consult an architect, and let him consider not a little; but he finally got over the diffi- the matter; but there is no occasion to culty, and married her. For a time the hurry." wife's allegiance was divided, and much To Villeroy, the second minister; the king unhappiness was the consequence; but ulti- addressed the same remark, and he, without mately La Marmora reigned without a rival even looking up, answered at once: on his throne. They never learned to agree “Sire, you are right; it is enough to on ecclesiastical questions, but this notwith- frighten one.” standing, they were bound together by a Thirdly came the President Jeanin, and mutual affection warm as it was constant. when he was applied to about the ceiling, he

La Marmora and d'Azeglio were cousins, answered: and kindred in soul as in blood; they worked “I do not know what your Majesty means; together amicably in the ministry, and when the ceiling is very good.” d'Azeglio desired to bring strength to the “What,” cried the king, “do you not see party by inviting Cavour to take a seat in those cracks, or do I labor under a halluthe Cabinet, and the king objected, La Mar- cination?” mora gave his Majesty no peace till he had “Be tranquil; the ceiling will last longer consented to the appointment. To Victor's than we," was the blunt reply. objection that Cavour would rule everybody, When he was gone, Henry said to the and drive his colleagues out of office if they Spaniard: "Now, you know my ministers. stood in the way of his projects, the General The Chancellor never does what one wants, replied:

Villeroy always says I am right, and Jeanin “Sire, that may happen; but it is of no says what he thinks, and he thinks well; as consequence to us whether we continue you see, he does not flatter me." to be ministers: it is of vital importance that Victor Emmanuel, smiling at the story, we should now bring fresh strength to the said he would try the experiment on his government.”

ministers, but hastened to add, "I have my La Marmora and Victor Emmanuel, as Jeanins in d’Azeglio and La Marmora, who pupil and teacher, had often had disagree- never conceal the truth from me.” ments, and these did not cease when as sov- La Marmora and Cavour were great ereign and subject they were brought into friends, and when the latter became head of close contact. Notwithstanding, Victor had the government, La Marmora gave him his early learned to prize the uncompromising warm support. When the Crimean alliance truth and sincere devotion of the subject with England and France was proposed, he who scorned to flatter. Apropos, here is an disapproved of it strongly, and threatened to anecdote which shows that kings are not resign. But Cavour's powerful and impasalways the dupes that courtiers suppose sioned arguments carried away all obstacles; them. The French ambassador at the court there was no resisting the impetus of an enof Turin, in conversation with Victor Em-thusiasm which was fired by the inspiration

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of genius. La Marmora was not a "nail-his- of the elder brother towards the younger, colors-to-the-mast” style of hero; he loved his superior in rank and his commander.” his country a hundred times better than his This part was so painful to Alfonso’s modown opinion, and he accepted the command esty and delicate regard for others, that he of the expedition to the Crimea, resisting kept his promotion a secret all the time he firmly, however, the proposition that the was in Genoa. Piedmontese should be hired auxiliaries of “I owe my elevation over my brother to the English. His brave little army should the chances of war," he said sadly, as if it know that they fought for the honor of their were a misfortune; “my brother's merit is king and country, not for foreign pay. La greater than mine.” When he lost this dear Marmora relates all the particulars of this brother by an inglorious death, his grief was expedition in his book, "A Little More intense, but silent as that of a Spartan. Light.” He complains that his government Two hours after he had closed Alessandro's would not give him precise instructions as to eyes, he was going the round of the hospitals, how he was to bear himself towards the al- and the same evening he took part in an lies, and that he found himself in a very attack upon the enemy. The soldiers never delicate and difficult position on his arrival saw their leader but with a calm and resolute at the seat of war.

front. “He deserved to die on the battle“As I was stepping on board at Genoa,” field,” was all the regret they heard him he writes, “I said to Cavour, 'In fine, will utter. To one friend only he poured out you give me those blessed instructions?' the sorrows of his heart, in his letters to 'Exercise your wits,' he replied, embracing Turin. Dabormida was perhaps the only me.”

one of all the many who loved and esteemed Cavour, in fact, had his own good reasons La Marmora, who always understood him, for being vague. He was by nature frank, with whom no difference ever arose. He confiding, impetuous; but, contrary to his was hurt by Cavour's not having written him nature, he practiced diplomacy when it was a private letter of sympathy. necessary to his great ends. He knew his “You only,” he says to Dabormida, “have friend's character well enough to be aware understood how sorely I stand in need of that he would not undertake the command sympathy under this tremendous blow which on the condition that he was to be in any has struck me, and the woful conditions in way dependent on or subservient to the for- which we now find ourselves. If I had eign commanders; and not till La Marmora urged this expedition, I should die of rehad reached Constantinople did the premier morse; but not having any self-reproach, inform him that he was to give the prefer- thank God, I have courage to go on, and if ence to the English army when required to he gives me life, to come out honorably aid the allies. It was then too late to with- from the painful position in which we are draw from the position; and La Marmora, placed.” Then he describes the sufferings while maintaining his own dignity, behaved of his troops, and adds, with a soldier's pride, with admirable courtesy and tact towards “We can support our hardships with more the other commanders, with whom he formed spirit because we owe nothing to the allies.” cordial relations.

The victory of the Tchernaya covered His troops suffered terribly by the ravages with glory the Piedmontese army and their of cholera, by which fell disease he lost his general, and Cavour's patriotic joy was infavorite brother, General Alessandro La tensified by his friendship. When he anMarmora. “There was nothing more touch- nounced the victory to La Marmora's wife, ing,” says the French General Chazal- he wrote: “Your husband has acquired a "nothing that so well attested the honor, mil- new title to the gratitude and• affection of itary spirit, and elevation of sentiment of his countrymen. You ought to be proud to this illustrious family—than the devotion be his wife, as I am proud to be his friend.”

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