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another's. But such people as Uncle Jake, “You mean prejudice, Aunty. But don't who, you know, is too lazy to even brush the bother your simple old heart any more over flies off his bowl of buttermilk and bit of that matter. There are bad people and bacon and hoe-cake-such as he would be good, consistent and inconsistent, everywhere, good-for-nothing, shiftless, worthless creatures and will be to the end. You know what anywhere, and it is a merciful thing there are the Bible says about the wheat and tares those who feel it to be their duty to clothe growing together until the harvest-time and feed them.”
don't you, Mauma ? Wiser heads than yours “Yes, chile, Jake am a lazy coot, fo' fac'. and mine are puzzling over the prolific quesMy ole man say he neber take off de suit obtion of what is to be done with you and clo'es marse gib him in de fall, till he creeps your race. But let them ponder and plan. outen it in de spring fo' to get inter de as they will, it is, after all, only God's purpose new shirt and trousers he gets fo’ de sum- concerning you that will prevail; and you can mer.
But jus' s'posen de brack man be trust him, can't you, Aunty, to do that for smart up dar whar yo'cum from, honey, an' you and yours which is best and wisest? make a heap ob money fo’ hese'f, whar am He will permit and he will restrain until out he gwine fo' to spen' it? Wha' comfort am of all this confusion of blood and strife good dar in gwine anywhars ef yo’ mus' keep in shall be wrought. O, how we should dede dark corners all de time? De darkey spair in these dark, sorrowful days, when the like plenty ob sunshine-neber get too much whole land is full of aching, bleeding hearts, -neber quite happy 'dout it. No, honey, if we could not feel that, high over all, he I 'pinionate dat fo' a cullud pusson to hab reigns unchangeable and just. The result to money in he own pocket don'count like it which all eyes are now looking, all hearts do when he am money in somebody else's seeking to foreshadow; the pregnant future pocket; an' I knows fo’sartin dat dar hain't from which so many are eager to lift the dat feelin' 'gin us down hyar dat the norf- veil, but which is mystery all, to us-has been erns hab and kin't seem to get ober, de bery known to God from the foundation of the bes' ob 'em. It all cums, I 'low, from deir world; and in some way, in the midst of not bein' fotched up ʼlong side ob us. Dey much present sorrow and darkness, his work kin't seem to forgib us fo' habin' brack skins is going on, making all ready for the eternal an’ kinky ha'r. Ef dey had been rocked to morning.” sleep ebery night ob deir libes when dey was Wondering why I had been permitted to babies and little chil'ens on some brack make so long a speech without interruption mammy's lap, been sung to sleep, cuddled from the garrulous old soul within, I leaned close to some fond ole brack heart, in arms back from my seat on the door-step, and ez was allus open fo’ 'em night an' day, an' peeping inside the door, beheld Lamb standdun grow'd up playin' 'long wif dat mammy's ing just behind me, leaning against the doorown little brack babies an' chil'ens, an' fed way, his face wearing a serious, thoughtful from de same breas', been watched ober an'expression. His eyes were fixed on the waited on all deir days, jus' ez I hab dun blue heavens above with an intentness of ober Mis' Lucy and her chil'en, and her expression almost startling ; so full were they mudder's afore her, dey wouldn't act so much of prayer, that the earnest soul looking like dey smelt pisen in de air ebery time a forth from them seemed to have entered the brack pussun cum a nigh 'em. O, l’se very presence of his Maker, and there stood hearn tell ob de airs dey gibs dersel's. Dey's pleading his cause with impassioned imporgot a nat'ral verjuice agin us. You's lived tunity. so much among us down hyar, comin' an' But Phillis, with her head laid back on goin' eber sence yo’ was a little un, dat de the window-sill, her apron thrown over her verjuice am not so deep wif yo', mebbe; but face, her pipe dropped to the floor, and her dey mos’ly all has it mo' nor less.”
arms hanging down each side of her, was fast asleep, and giving utterance to an unmistak- than the one we the next day laid in its able snore.
Like all of her race I ever grave, in the grove of oaks where the buryknew in their southern homes, be they young ing place of the blacks had been set apart. or old, recognizing no present necessity All through the years
friend's marfor either physical or mental activity, she ried life, Phillis had thus far been her faithhad let fall her eyelids, and sleep that had ful attendant, seldom beyond call night or no haunting care or responsibility for the day, and always ready with affectionate zeal morrow to baffle its invitings spread its wing to serve and wait, proving herself in all above the weary form and wrapped it in its times of sickness or sorrow a soothing minoblivion.
ister and unfailing dependence. In her I stole quietly away, leaving her to rest arms the two lovely daughters of the houseundisturbed, remembering that she was old, hold, just as they reached early womanand her strength broken, and hardly equal to hood, had breathed their last, being lovingly the labor her present position in the house- tended as far into the dark valley as human hold entailed.
love might make itself felt by this true friend, A few hours later, just as the sun was while the mother lay prostrate with grief. sinking from sight, Lamb appeared at the Through all her deep sorrow over the death veranda where the family were gathered, of her husband, which quickly followed that and with some hesitation and uneasy of her children, this same true heart had glances at his mistress, said he would like to been a full and overflowing fountain of symspeak about Phillis. “Something strange," pathy and watchful care for the stricken one. he said, “has come to her, Miss Lucy, an' No wonder, then, that my friend was loth to I'se feared it is death."
believe that death had stilled forever its genWith a grievous cry my friend sprung up, erous throbbings; that no cry from her sad and together we hurried to the kitchen. life for comfort would ever again reach it. Phillis lay just as I had left her hours before, With her own hand she planted the turf and appeared to have passed from sleep to above the grave with flowers; and at its death without pain or consciousness. She head and foot Lamb placed a crape myrtle, had, indeed, as she foreboded, performed whose beautiful pink clusters were in life her last service for us. She had left us, but Phillis's special delight, and whose rich blosnot, as she predicted, for the weary toil of soms every summer after fell thickly upon the cotton field; but of the new life upon the green turf above her, as the breezes which she had entered, who that has passed whispered and swept among the branches of beyond has ever returned to tell ?
the grand old oaks, whose steadfast hearts A more devoted heart was never buried were fit emblems of the one moldering to from out this eager, striving, selfish world dust beneath their shade.
Sara D. Halsted.
ON CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIENTAL THOUGHT.
THE East and West are enigmas to each loves of Zeus, in the beautiful home of his other. To the native of the Orient the mother, Maia, the daughter of Atlas, and of sound that comes from the Occident is like the olden time when the gods were born the note of a pibroch; that which comes and the world was young.” from the East is like those tones which This is intended to be but a sketch-an Hermes awoke upon his tortoise lyre, when attempt to grasp merely some of the salient he swept its chords and evoked strains of points of the operations of the Oriental wonderful sweetness as he “sang of the mind; and will, therefore, perhaps lack that unity of design which it would possess if duced the harmonious tongues of the South, devoted merely to the consideration of some while contact with nature in her harsher particular school of eastern philosophy. moods has fostered a more emphatic and
The two principal opposing characteris- less euphonious utterance in the vigorous tics of the Oriental and Occidental mind dialects of the North. are most compendiously summed up in the We may first advert to philological peculterms “subjective” and “objective." The iarities as illustrative of the complexity of western mind is pre-eminently objective, which we have spoken. energetic, and direct in its operations. The By the European a grammar is considered poetry of Wordsworth, who was a true a necessary evil, to be mastered as quickly Oriental in sentiment, is perhaps the nearest as possible, so that one may enter the harapproach that is made in English verse to vest fields of the literature to which it is a an expression of the eastern quality. We key; but it is characteristic of the Hindu may look on every side for a competent ex- that he regards the complexity of the Sanpression of its opposite, but hardly any- skrit, the most elaborate and artificial lanwhere more successfully than in the trumpet- guage in the world, as a positive recommentones of Scott. Pick out a stanza anywhere, dation. “He views in it an evidence and a and it will exemplify this fact; for example: pledge of the sacred and unapproachable "Fair Margaret, from the turret head,
character of the tongue which he venerates Heard, far below, the coursers' tread,
as divine. To him the study of its intricate While loud the harness rung,
grammar is an end, complete and satisfying As to their seats, with clamor dread, in itself. He wanders with delight in its The ready horseman sprung ;
perplexing mazes, and values that grammar And trampling hoofs, and iron Coats, And leaders' voices, mingled notes;
most which enters most minutely into an And out, and out, in hasty rout,
abstract analysis of the construction of the The horsemen galloped forth ;
language, apart from its practical bearing on Dispersing to the south to scout,
the literature, or even on the formation of And east, and west, and north,
his own vernacular dialect.”2 To view their coming enemies
From the same grammarian we quote the And warn their vassals and allies.” 1
following regarding the grammatical system of But the Oriental mind is intensely sub- the greatest native writer upon this subject, jective, introspective, contemplative, com- Panini : “That the reader may judge for himplex, and delighting in indirection. The self of the almost incredible brevity and climate has much to do with this. Where hopeless
Where hopeless obscurity of these grammatical the heat of the sun and the abundant aphorisms, we here present him with the luxuriance of tropical harvests combine, closing Sutra at the end of the eighth lecture, the first to drive man indoors and the as follows: ‘a, a. Will it be believed that latter to keep him there, from the lack of this is interpreted to mean, ‘Let short a be the sharp goad of necessity to spur him to held to have its organ of utterance conlabor, the mind quite naturally will turn in- tracted,' now that we have reached the end ward and feed upon itself. The influence of the work, in which it was necessary to reof climate is best known by physiologists gard it as being otherwise ?" and comparative philologists. The Aryan The rules for the combination and perrace, before it migrated to India, is well mutation of letters form a mountain of known to have been of a much lighter color difficulty; but this once passed, the gram
a than at present. It was undoubtedly white; matical system of Sanskrit is comparatively it is not even necessary to go into the de- simple. Another illustration of the Hindu tails of the proof. So with the technicalities penchant for obscurity, when clearness would of language: the milder climes have pro- better subserve one's purpose, is to be ob1 Lay of the Last Minstrel, III., XXVIII.
? Monier Williams's preface to Sanskrit Grammar.
served in the junction of all, or nearly all, the alphabet. Their introduction in any the words on a line into what is apparently form into the written text is the work of a one word ; this, taken together with the ex. latter day; the devices to imply or supply ceedingly artificial euphonic rules just ad- them are numerous and ingenious. They verted to, causes the student many years of are attached, for example, to the Ethiopic labor to enable him to pick out the separate or Abyssinian consonants in such grotesque words. The Latin phrase, “Rara avis in forms and shapes, that to acquire familiarity terris,” if Sanksrit, would appear as, “Rar- with the alphabet is a labor of the greatest avir ins terrih,” and would undoubtedly be difficulty, for some of the signs actually turn thus joined, “Raravirinsterrih."
a somersault in the attempt to indicate the The literature shares in the same ten- inherency of a vowel. The general rule in dency. The translation of the first sentence the Semitic dialects is not to represent the (an invocation or prayer to Siva) of that vowels at all, or to indicate them by means charming drama, Kalidasa's Sakuntala, reads of accompanying dots and dashes, precisely thus : " (That visible form) which (was) the as in our phonography. first creation of the Creator [i. e., water]; The fundamental distinction between pres(that) which bears the oblation offered- ent, past, and future in the Aryan tongues according-to-scriptural-rule (i. e., fire); and does not exist in the Semitic; there are but (that) which (is) the offerer [i. e., the officiat- two tenses in the inflection of the verb, one ing priest who offers the oblation]; (those) answering to the idea of the action done two (visible forms) which define the time and the other to that of the action not done. [i. e., the sun and moon which cause day and The process of reasoning, in brief, is this: night); (that) which perpetually pervades all There is great inexactness in the notion of presspace, having (conveying) the quality (sound) ent time, for the moment one says, “I do perceptible by the ear [i. e., ether]; (that) this thing,” that action has taken its place in which they call the birthplace [the proxi- the irrevocable past: there is no middle mate cause of all created things [i. e., the ground; all is past or to come. The idea is earth]; (that) by which living beings are fur- analogous to the reason for the virtual abolinished with breath [i. e., the air); endowed tion of a neuter gender from the Romanic with [manifested in, known by] these eight tongues of the south of Europe, where the visible forms Isa [the supreme lord] pre- existence of a neuter gender is considered a serve thee.” This, of course, seems much manifest absurdity—a contradiction in terms. more simple to the Hindu than to us, who But let us pursue these hair-splitting technido not think in Sanskrit, and who are un- calities no farther. It is in his treatment of acquainted with the local and religious allu- the great problem of existence and destiny sions; but the involved character of the com- that we behold the Oriental “on his native position presents an additional charm to the heath.” The West has developed no forms Indian mind.
of religion; they all deduce their origin from There is much that is interesting in an the East. It is the congenial soil of relig. examination of the peculiarities of the Se- ious, philosophical, and metaphysical specumitic dialects. So hyper-ästhetic is the lation. There also have originated those Oriental mind, that we find the consonants beautiful myths, the unraveling of which is considered in the alphabetical representa- the glory of the modern science of compartion of these languages, the body of a ative mythology. There is something indeword, the vowels the spirit ; spirit being scribably touching in the view that we obtain something that is intangible and impercepti- from those myths of the childhood of the ble, it would plainly be a monstrous solecism human race; its joy in the presence of the to attempt an alphabetical representation of radiant sun, the giver of life and health and it; consequently it is not in accord with the strength, and its unutterable sorrow when the true Semitic theory to admit vowel signs into bright being dies in the evening, “when life to man was an alternation of joy and sorrow, sterility; for it has stood the test of expeof terror and relief”; but this vast and rience. The intense monotony of the desert charming theme lies beyond the scope of one desert, one man, one sun; the universal the present discussion.
sameness and uniformity of nature—must Oriental subjectivity found in the pure with unerring certainty point to one infinite monotheism of the Jews its loftiest expression. Father, who fails not to regard with favor Their system, which became so interwoven his creature wandering on the trackless with the very being of the state, differentiated wastes of sand. It is a remarkable fact them toto cælo from every other class of men, that all the members of the Semitic stock and consequently tended inevitably to unite located in the midst of luxuries, and in them together as a compact community, to wealthy lands where nature manifests herself the utter exclusion of all polytheistic nations. in myriad forms have personified those The semi-idolatry of the Samaritans, who varied shapes and forms, and lapsed into “feared the Lord, but served their graven the grossest polytheism. Though the five images," would admit of no harmony between principal commandments of Islamism are them and the Jews. This pure monotheism prayer, almsgiving, fasting, pilgrimage, and is characteristic of the older books of the war against the infidel, the influence of all law. The influence of Persian ideas is man- but the first has waned, and Mohammedanifest in the later books, when the Jews had ism has become, like the religious system of been thrown into contact with the dualism the Jews, one whose divine service consists of the Iranian creed; and they thereafter ex- of prayer alone. “It is a creed without a hibited a tendency to adopt the Zoroastrian priesthood or a church.” demonology, Satan appearing in the charac- We find no such cosmopolitanism in any ter of Ahriman, the arch-enemy of God, and oriental nation as in ours; for we, as Prof. not (as in the earlier Book of Job) as one of Max Muller has said, "are Semitic in our his ministers. Indeed, as Sir G. W. Cox religion, Greek in our philosophy, Roman has said, in his Mythology of the Aryan Na- in our politics, and Saxon in our morality.” tions, the notion of a being whose duty it For homogeneity is another eastern trait. was to tempt and try the hearts of men was The attempt to impose religious uniformity that he was one of the sons of God, which is in the West went down in the fire and smoke in rict consonance with the Hebrew philos- of dire and awful catastrophe.
There is not ophy, which regarded God as the author a language of the Orient into which the both of good and evil. The culminating ex- phrase " constitutional liberty ” can be prophibition of the physical attributes of Ahriman erly translated. One has not to go far to appearing as Satan is found in the Apoca- seek the cause. There can only be liberty lypse, where he is called “the Dragon, the and the appreciation of it in lands of mighty old Serpent who fights against God and his activities. Quietism and passivity do not angels.” The distinguishing trait of the an- seek it, do not require it. Despotism is the cient Persian system was a dualism “which very breath of their life. divided the world between two opposing, If we turn to India, we behold a land self-existent deities (of good and evil), while where man has more deeply pondered on it professedly left to men the power of choos- the dread problems of life, death, fate, and ing whom they should obey."
destiny than elsewhere on this sphere. In Mohammedanism is merely another form the cloisters of the Himalayas, marvelous of that intense monotheism so characteristic systems of religious philosophy have been of certain members of the Semitic stock; evolved. The Brahminical system avers and we can but regard as correct the tenet the existence of a great Soul of the World, of Rénan, that monotheism is the distinguish- an ocean of spirit ; man it regards as merely ing type of nomadic, i. e., desert-dwelling, an atom of animated matter, to which a man, or of man dwelling in the midst of small portion of this inexhaustible fountain