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upside down, c with a tail attached, etc., most valuable and indispensable features of would be a new alphabet.” Either that he a good system. is uncandid enough to express an adverse He has also given currency to the hackopinion concerning systems with which he neyed remark of newspaper writers unfamiliar is not acquainted, or that his article was with short-hand, that "it will often make sad penned in short-hand, which, he says, "fairly havoc with his long-hand (spelling).” This is runs away with thought-snatches it hot and just as credible as that the study of arithmetic sizzling from the furnace, and strikes it into will make sad havoc with the study of gramshape before it has time to cool. Any- mar, or that skating will make sad havoc thing thus composed will require revision with the ability to swim ; for there is as much and correction."

connection or dependence in the one case To illustrate his idea that the system as in the other. If you find any one laying makes no difference as to the efficiency of his bad spelling to his knowledge of shortthe writer, he instances Mr. Bonynge of hand, it will be a safe venture that he had New York, who writes Gurney's stenogra- floundered over many a hard word before phy. But he inadvertently admits that "he short-hand tripped him up. scribbled like a perfect demon," and it is Here is a wild statement: “You must be certain that it would require a "perfect de- able to decipher thousands of outlines, difmon," or at least a phenomenal writer, to fering only very slightly in appearance, at succeed with such a perverse system.

He least half of which [say one thousand) each describes the Englishman's writing as “like stand for any one of about thirty different a dilapidated picket fence.” Any rapidly words” (that is, thirty thousand words reprewritten short-hand would appear so to the sented by one thousand outlines]. common eye, and his whole description of This writer has said some good things, the stenographer's notes is just what one and it is only to be regretted that much would expect to hear from a person entirely recklessness of statement detracts from the unskilled in short-hand, who first observes a good effect of a serious and candid asserpage of any reporter's fast notes. “There tion. It only remains to recapitulate. was not a vowel sound to be found in pages, We agree with the writer thatand there was little phrase-writing," which 1. Short-hand is not likely to be superwould be equally true of a phonographer's seded by machinery. notes. He could read his notes rapidly, 2. An ordinary degree of proficiency is but this writer afterwards found that “nearly comparatively worthless, and that, generally all the best reporters did very much the speaking, it will pay only the professional resame thing." From these reporters he porter for the labor and time required to "learned some important things.” If he learn it, and retain it, (though this writer would define what he means by “niceties," checkmates his own statement afterwards, it would be more practical, and would teach when he forgets himself and says, that “it is the unwary learner what to take, and what a grand thing for the lawyer, the editor, and to leave behind. The fourth thing he learned the author, and all who do much writing to was that one can best make one's own ab- be read by themselves”). breviations." Really, this is calling upon 3. The reading of short-hand requires as the bird to fly before his wings have passed much practice as the writing of it, or more. beyond the state of pin-feathers (for he is But how can this be done, if you

“raise telling things important to the learner); he is your speed from seventy to one hundred calling upon the child to walk before he can and fifty words a minute, writing upon one creep-in short, is asking the mere pupil to spot of paper"? exercise a power that is gained only by long 4. The reporting style of short-hand is experience--the devising of a system of con- not fitted to supersede long-hand. A system tractions that will not conflict-one of the may yet be produced that will be capable of doing so. I see no reason why a system one- 9. It does involve mental discipline of half or one-third as long as long-hand, just as the most valuable character, requiring, as it legible, and with greater facility of acquire- does, the most rapid thinking on the spur of ment, cannot be invented.

the moment, and the most thorough knowl5. It is certainly a great aid to composi- edge of the language in which the reporting tion, and a quickener of thought when thor- is done. To hope for first-class results, one oughly familiarized.

must be naturally bright of intellect, and of 6. The context furnishes the means of a good verbal memory. The memory of correct reading

sight must be good, for good spellers in the 7. It is important to waste no time on ordinary Roman alphabet will be found to the “corresponding style,” but go at once be ready readers of short-hand. The study to the reporting style.

requires drudgery, but something else beI disagree with the writer as follows: sides, and the drudgery will not appear

8. Authors of systems are not necessarily very irksome, unless, like the discontented unreliable advisers on the subject of short pendulum, one is always thinking about hand; which he virtually admits, for he says it. that one system is as good as another, and 10. One hundred and twenty words a he certainly is not prepared to say that no minute can be reached in a year by a persystem is good. A good system can mate- son fit for the profession of short-hand, with rially shorten the labor of acquirement, and two hours each day, rightly used; and much increase the ease of retaining short-hand, sooner if more time is devoted to it under a just as surely as a language represented by a good teacher. It will always pay well to phonetic alphabet is more easily acquired employ a good teacher, and push the acthan a language in the hieroglyphic stage. quirement of the art to a conclusion with And other things being equal, a writer can earnest effort. The marked advance attaindo more work and better work with a sys- able in this way will go far toward neutraliztem which is simple, scientific, and practical ing any feeling of irksomeness, and will tend than with its opposite, and to deny this is to to keep the mind at the pitch of enthusiasm dispute a truism; and to determine which through the most difficult portions of the is best, systems must rest on their own study. Do not fritter away time and effort merits, regardless of who made them, or in “practicing one hour a day for five years," where they came from. We are thankfully losing much that is gained by such a dilatory past the age of receiving opinions on author- process, but let each feature recur before it ity. So the work is not the “same, whether shall have faded from the memory. Thus the words be built up of arbitrary signs for catch and stereotype the art in the least the letters, as in stenography proper, or of possible time, and fortify the mind with arbitrary signs for the sounds, as in pho- the best safeguard against despondency--the nography," but very much less in the latter knowledge that you can do something. Re

All short-hand cats may be gray in porters are generally employed in some spethe twilight, but in the light of clear concepcial line of business, and require to be very tion some will be found much brighter col- fast only in that particular line. Speed in ored than others. Indeed, we can safely other lines of reporting than that engaged in leave the writer to refute himself on this would be of no use, for it would soon be point, for he says in another place: "Do lost. Speed can only be kept up in any line not waste any time on the 'corresponding of reporting by constant practice in that line. style, but go at once to the simplest out- A law reporter is not necessarily a good lecline by which a word can be made out,” ture reporter, or a sermon reporter a good which is admitting that there may be an business amanuensis, or either of these for advantage in the system, some systems ex- the other. celling in this particular respect.

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11. An "old stubbed pencil, which is



never sharpened,” is of no special advantage 14. It is not safe to omit "the, of, a, and, in writing short-hand.

ing, etc.” 12. A learner is totally unfit to “make 15. Do not wait to know your own charhis own abbreviations,” and should avoid acter before you begin the study of shortthe fatal mistake of attempting it.

hand, because you may not be a good judge 13. It is not safe to “discard all vowels, of your character until after you have ator all use of position,” unless a new system tempted it; and should you fail, the expebe invented which is independent of such rience will be of earthly and heavenly benefit, aids, and which will probably be geometric- in freeing you of some conceit. But the ally much longer than the best systems in advice of a good reader of character might use.

be valuable.

Roscoe L. Eames.



The Johns Hopkins University is now publishing Two paragraphs from the many illustrations he a series of monographs on American Institutional gives of this system are of local interest to Californians: History, as an experiment in encouraging co-opera- “There is nothing in the wanderings of peoples tion in research throughout the country. Colleges, or in the history of the Errantes Scholares of the journals, and local societies are to be the sources Middle Ages which rivals the migrations of the modfrom which valuable papers will be taken to add to ern scholar. In 1875, the year President Gilman the series. The six already selected for the series came eastward to Baltimore from the University of (noted in our review columns of this issue) are California, whither he had been called in 1872 from all Johns Hopkins papers, (including Mr. Free- a professorship in Yale College, a student who that man's introductory one, which was the result of his year graduated from Berkeley came eastward by the visit to the University); but the hope is, that other advice of his teachers, and wandered, like a veritable colleges, societies, and even isolated students, will fahrender Schüler, from one institution to another fall in after the series has thus been started. The idea until he reached the University of Leipzig, upon the is to have local institutional history studied on the historic border between the Teuton and the Slave. ground in as many different parts of the country as At the same time, the newly appointed President of possible, thus bringing, “upon the sound economic the Johns Hopkins University was wandering over principles of division of labor and scientific co- Europe, visiting the chief educational institutions of operation,” a rich mass of data into the hands of Germany, France, and England, with a view to the students, upon which to found an intelligent com- transmigration of ideas from the Old World to the prehension of national history. Of course the fun- New. In 1876 the American student ... damental theory is that the individual community is turned to his native land to enter upon a philosophithe integer, of which the nation is a complex, not a cal fellowship at the new university, the president of fraction of which the nation is the integer; and that which had been inaugurated . . on the 22nd national history only becomes intelligible through of February of that year. .... The Californian local. There can be no rational dissent from this student, who had been schooled in German univerdoctrine, and the whole field of study it opens up is sities for one year, studied for two more years at of fascinating interest; but our present purpose is to the Johns Hopkins University, and then took his comment not on the special historical object of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with this significant series, but on the more general, indirect object-its thesis, “The Interdependence of the Principles of tendency to help on the habit of student co-operation. Human Knowledge. He was then called across

With regard to this, the most interesting thing in the continent to his Alma Mater, to become an the two numbers already issued is the appendix on assistant professor in literature and philosophy. “Co-operation in University Work ” (by Dr. Her- From that frontier-post, his contributions to the bert Adams, the editor of the series), that closes the 'Californian,' the ‘Berkeley Quarterly,' and the second. He calls attention to “that curious system Journal of Speculative Philosphy'came migrating of intercollegiate exchange which has developed so east ward. 'Mind-stuff' and other ‘Realities' pushed rapidly of late in America.” In this system he finds across the sea, marched into England from the one of the most encouraging signs of the times, in West, and effected a certain intellectual conquest, its tendency to cordial relations and mutual help by publication in a very special philosophical among the institutions of learning of the country. journal known as “The Mind.' ... And


Dr. Royce himself has again migrated eastward, local interest, is a very good thing for the strong and having been invited to a position as lecturer upon fourishing schools, in keeping them supplied with philosophy in Harvard College, as substitute for material; but it is more than a good thing for the Professor James, who has again wandered to weak, outlying stations and the communities surEurope.

rounding them. A community like our own, where “At the same time Dr. Royce was returning east- the claims of the intellectual life are represented by ward, Dr. Stringham, a graduate of Harvard Col- but few, among a population in part indifferent and lege, and afterward a fellow of the Johns Hopkins in part hostile; where every man counts, and whatUniversity, then traveling fellow of Harvard, was ever intellectual stores he can bring with him count; returning westward from the University of Leipzig where the sense of working against odds has proto his old home in Kansas, to push on thence to his duced a lamentable habit of despondency among new western home in the University of California, those working in all branches of intellectual effort;where he has accepted a professorship in mathemat. such a community cannot but receive the greatest ics. And now a student from California, bearing benefit from anything that increases either the conletters from the faculty of the institution at Berkeley, sciousness or the fact of solidarity with those engaged has come eastward to Baltimore, leaving an associate in similar effort elsewhere. As a mere matter of editorship of the San Francisco ‘Bulletin,' for the feeling, it is worth a good deal to have the pessi. sake of discovering for himself an old world of mism of him whom circumstance is against, temscience. .... A student from Professor Howard's pered by the optimism of him whom circumstance Seminary in Nebraska has also come eastward to is with. The consciousness of lookers-on who are continue his western studies. He represents, more- on one's side is an actual force; it is said that in the over, a comity of scientific associations first estab. Harvard-Yale base-ball games, success is so sure to lished at German universities between his American Yale at New Haven, and to Harvard at Cambridge, instructors. And with the student from Nebraska that the only decisive games are played half-way cɔmes a regent of the Nebraska University, a gradu. between, at New London. But besides this moral ate of Amherst College, who, although a man of effect of co-operation, there is much definite service middle age, has entered the same seminarium with that comes constantly from the stronger party to the his western protege."

weaker in any co-operative bond. Moreover, our Elsewhere:

largest and most vigorous American centers of intelThe career of Mr. Cook well illustrates the lectual co-operation are now in relations of mutual way in which modern science is conveyed in per- helpfulness with the European; thus drawing the sonal forms from one country or one university. remotest member of an American system into vital center to another. Graduating from Rutgers College connection with the whole world's work. The in 1872, he taught and studied for a few years in this pamphlets that have served as our text are an effort country, and then went to Göttingen, afterward to toward this result in the one matter of institutional Leipzig In 1879 he was called to Baltimore to history; but we have dwelt thus long on it as an teach early English, of which, in America and in illustration of a principle that may as well be Germany, he had made a specialty. In 1881 he applied in many other directions. The principle, went to England to study with Professor Sweet; then observe, is to use the great universities, like that at back again to Germany, where at Jena, in the sum- Baltimore, as receiving and distributing points, so to mer of 1882, he took his Doctor of Philosophy, speak; while local colleges, journals, and societies with a thesis on the Northumbrian Dialect, approved form the media by which the research of individuals, by Professor Sievers. It is probable that his previous however isolated, may reach these depots, and be university connections with Baltimore, together with put into the common intellectual stock of the world other influences proceeding from English and Ger- -in which they, at the same time, in return, be. man experience, had some bearing upon his imme- comes sharers, as indicated in Dr. Adams's closing diate call to a professorship in the University of paragraph: California. Thus from the region of Saxe-Weimar, By organized co-operative effort, American stuor, as Freeman says, 'that make-believe Saxony dents can establish organic relations with European which is really Slavonic,' a knowledge of early universities, Old World societies, foreign magazines English was borne across real Saxon land, across the of a special character, scientific appliances for publiocean, across a continent, to the most remote home cation, both in this country and in Europe-in fact, of the English people; a home which Charles Kings with the whole complex of modern science, into ley called 'a New World beyond a New World.' which no individual student can possibly find his

... It is interesting to see scientific Markgrafen way without scientific associations."
like Cook and Sievers stationed upon the modern

The following rather droll burlesque of our nation

al methods is clipped from the official report of a The co-operation of scholars and of schools, illus- recent meeting of the Board of Supervisors of Alatrated by these and numerous other instances of less meda County :


Mr. Keyes offered a resolution declaring the posi

The Theaters. tion of bridge tender, held by Edward La Perle, A new era of prosperity seems to have dawned

upon the theaters. For more than three years they Mr. Keyes.-I move that the resolution be have struggled against failure. The pressure of hard adopted.

times fell, heavily upon them. One after another MR. JENSEN.-I second the motion.

their managers retired, disheartened and in debt. Mr. Hanitin said that Mr. La Perle was a good But now, when a revival of our ancient business prosand faithful man, and wanted to know the reason perity is everywhere visible, a similar reaction has for introducing such a resolution.

enormously increased the patronage of theaters. It Mr. Keyes.-I don't think it necessary to is true the strange spectacle is presented of the three preser any charge. Whenever a party gets into leading theaters of San Francisco either in the hands power they try to reward their friends. I have of New York managers, or depending for their sucfriends to whom I am indebted, and I offer this cess upon the attractiveness of New York comparesolution.

nies; but the public will hardly grumble at this, so Mr. Hanifin did not think the party question long as it results in a rivalry which bids fair to keep should be raised in the board.

a fresh and varied supply of amusements before the MR. KEYES.–We are here in the interest of the public for some time to come. At the California the people. If we can put as good a man in the place new year opened appropriately for the holiday seaof the present incumbent, we are bound to do so. son with a revival of “ Michael Strogoff.” Though

The resolution was adopted by the following played for weeks last year, this judicious mixture vote: Ayes-Jensen, Fallon, Keyes, and Duster- of melodrama, spectacle, and low comedy has not berry. Noes— Bailey, Molloy, and Hanifin. lost its hold on the public; and in spite of a decided

MR. Fallon.—I move that the position of night inferiority in the performance of the rival correspondwatchman of the Hall of Records, now held by Mr. ents, the excellent mounting of the piece, the gymMalone, be declared vacant.

nastic vagaries of the Girards, the surprising graceMR. HANIFIN.-George E. Malone, the present fulness of Ariel, all had their reward. At the incumbent, was unfortunate enough to meet with an Baldwin a great success has been made by the Madaccident on July 4th, while firing a cannon.

I am

ison Square Company in Mrs. Burnett's “Esmersurprised at the action of Mr. Fallon. He knows alda.” It is a piece that cheers, but does not inethe young man and his father very well.

briate. People who ordinarily shun theaters (though MR. FALLON.--I offer the resolution to put just their number is smaller, we fancy, here than at the as good a man in his place. I have nothing derog. East) may see it with impunity. It is the simple, atory to say about Mr. Malone. Mr. Hanifin sticks domestic tale of a country girl and her North Car. to his friends, and of course does not wish them olina lover, finally triumphant over an ambitious to be interfered with.

mother and a French marquis. There are many Mr. Hanifin said he had never favored the remov- human touches in it, and the pathos is never strained, al of any one on the ground of politics since he had but is always quickly relieved by some bit of humor, been in the board.

which keeps the whole in a sufficiently low key. Mr. Fallon said that the men who held the posi. The performance was evenly good throughout, though tions suited Mr. Hanifin. Since Mr. Hanifin had the simple artlessness of Esmeralda was conspicubeen in the board the offices were controlled by ously artful. The management seems to have atRepublicans, and Mr. Hanifin had no occasion to tributed some importance to the fact that the change remove on account of politics.

from the first to the second act was effected in “just The resolution was adopted by the following forty seconds.” As a piece of scene-shifting, the vote: Ayes-Fallon, Jensen, Keyes, and Duster- change was no doubt creditable; but from an artistic berry. Noes-Bailey, Hanifin, and Molloy. point of view, nothing could well have been more

Mr. Fallon moved that Edward Cassidy be ap- out of place. At the end of the first act we are face pointed night watchman of the Hall of Records. to face with the occupants of a North Carolina farmThe motion was carried.

house, and at the opening of the second we are MR. Keyes.-I move that John McFadden be shown the same people transformed and Frenchified appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the removal in a Parisian studio. The imagination requires all of Mr. La Perle.

the usual interval between acts to accommodate itself MR. FALLON.--I second the motion.

to such a change, instead of having the time shortThe motion was carried.

ened to “just forty seconds.” But the most notable Mr. Keyes offered a resolution declaring vacant theatrical event that San Francisco has witnessed for the position of Court-house gardener, held by George several years was the recent appearance at the CaliforSimmonds.

nia of Franziska Ellmenreich in English. Here we The resolution was adopted by the following have an actress of first magnitude, enriched with the vote : Ayes-Fallon, Jensen, Keyes, and Duster training and experience of the German stage, who has berry. Noes-- Bailey, Hanifin, and Molloy. the courage to appear in English for the first time, and

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