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under modern systems of financial exchange. Thus an Irish landlord living in France receives his rental through bills of exchange, not in bullion, and these bills represent in the end the value of exports from the United Kingdom into France; otherwise, the remittance could not be made. While the absentee therefore consumes French goods for the most part, he aids in creating a demand for a corresponding amount of British goods, so that his tenants are benefited as much as if he had remained at home. It must be confessed that this argument is not altogether satisfactory from a practical and common-sense stand-point, but it served its purpose in its day. The fact is that the legitimate profits made by the tradespeople and others patronized by the absentee accumulate in and about his foreign residence, whereas, if he had remained at home the benefit would have accrued to his own dependents, and the wealth of his native land would have been correspondingly augmented. A just conclusion would seem to be, then, that while absenteeism does entail a certain loss upon the home property, the loss is not fairly represented by the gross income derived from the estates. There are numerous channels through which partial compensations return to the source whence the income is derived.
Granting a good disposition on the part of the land-holder, it is no doubt desirable to reduce absenteeism everywhere to its lowest terms, especially in a country where there is practically no middle class, as is measurably true of Ireland. The disposition to relegate the duty of supervision to an overseer or agent is always objectionable, since too often such agents are not on good terms with the tenants and strive only to increase their own percentages while securing as large returns as possible for their principals.
In free countries enforced residence is of course out of the question, but where the laws are just and properly administered there is little danger that absenteeism will be sufficiently general to affect the welfare of the community. Where it has through past mismanagement become a crying evil, the remedy lies in the slow result of reformatory measures rather than in any arbitrary or revolutionary proceedings.
ABYSSINIA, a monarchy in Eastern Africa. The ruler is King John or Johannis, who is usually spoken of by his title of Negus. The territory directly subject to him is about 130,000 square miles in extent, with a population of not more than 2,000,000 souls. It consists of a high plateau, of the average elevation of 7,000 feet above the sea, which is nearly surrounded by the low-lying provinces of the Soudan. The tributary kingdom of Shoa has an area of 16,000 square miles, and is much more fertile and populous than Abyssinia proper, containing 1,500,000 inhabitants. The King of Shoa has recently occupied Harrar, which extends to the southwest, south, and east of
Abyssinia, with an area of 700,000 square miles, peopled by Gallas, Somalis, and other tribes, which are practically independent.
The Army. The military forces are commanded by Ras or generals, who are at the same time governors of provinces. The most powerful general is Ras Aloula, ruler of the northern part of the kingdom, who invaded the Soudan and fought a battle with Osman Digma, and afterward attacked the Italians when they attempted to establish posts in the hills back of Massowah. His army numbers about 50,000 infantry and 8,000 horse, and is armed with 18,000 Remington rifles that were captured from the Egyptians, and 500 Wetterli rifles from the Italians at Dogali. The army of the Negus is of the same strength in point of numbers, but has only 10,000 rifles. Another army in the west consists of 20,000 warlike troops with 4,000 rifles, and finds employment in guarding against incursions of the Soudanese. King Menelek, of Shoa, with his subordinate Ras Diurgué, has a force of 80,000 infantry with 50,000 rifles, besides a large body of cavalry, making a total force to resist invasion of over 200,000 men, one third of whom are armed with breach-loaders, and the rest with muskets and spears. The artillery consists of 40 pieces, 30 Krupps having been taken from the Egyptians, besides machine-guns.
The Difficulty with the Italians. The Abyssinians are Christians, and their archbishop, called the Abuna, is selected and ordained by the Coptic Patriarch at Alexandria. This circumstance and the former possession by the Egyptian Government of the port of Massowah, which gives the Abyssinians their only access to the sea, gave rise to frequent contentions between the Negus and the Egyptian Government. When the Soudan was evacuated, the British Government promised freedom of trade through this port in return for Abyssinian aid in extricating the garrisons of Kassala and other posts in the Soudan. The Italians, who in 1885 established themselves in Massowah and on the adjacent coast, with the acquiescence of Great Britain, were not bound by this guarantee. The Negus suspected an intention on the part of the Italians to conquer and colonize his territory, and resented restrictions that they imposed on trade.
The English Mission. The almost complete annihilation of a detachment of 540 Italian troops in the vicinity of Dogali in January, 1887, by Ras Aloula, who nearly surrounded them with 20,000 men, led the Italian Government to determine on a regular war. In the hope of averting this, the British Government to which the Negus had appealed in his difficulties with the Italians, endeavored to intercede, sending Mr. Portal and Major Beech as envoys to the Negus in November, 1887. The conditions on which Mr. Portal was authorized to offer peace were the acknowledgment of the Italian occupation of Saati, the cession of a part of the Bogos country, the conclusion of
a treaty of amity and commerce, and an apology for the attack at Dogali. On arriving at Asmara, the headquarters of Ras Aloula, Mr. Portal and his companions were made prisoners, and after many days' detention were sent on in search of the Negus, who was moving from place to place. At last they overtook him on December 5, and were well received, but accomplished nothing in the way of peace negotiations. They left him at Chelicot on December 5, and returned with letters to the Queen of England.
The Italians at Massowah.-By the beginning of 1888 the Italians had erected strong fortifications to guard against attacks either from the land or from the sea. The town of Massowah, which originally belonged to Turkey, and was annexed by Egypt in 1866, is built on a coral island, about two thirds of a mile in length, in the Bay of Arkiko, and has but one road connecting it with the mainland. The Italians have their arsenal at Abd-el-Kader, on a promontory to the north. The army headquarters were at Fort Monkullo, four miles inland. A railroad which ran from Arkiko in the south along the coast to the arsenal, and thence to Monkullo, was extended in February to Dogali and Saati, the terminus being fifteen miles from Massowah. This line of communications was rendered impregnable, and constitated a strong base for operations in the interior. The regular garrison, or special African corps, forms a part of the permanent army of Italy, consisting in 1888 of 238 officers and 4,772 men. It is recruited by voluntary enlistment from all the regiments of the army. A soldier enlists in this service for the term of three years, and receives a special bounty. This body was supplemented by an expeditionary force that was sent from Italy in the autumn of 1887, consisting of 480 officers, 10,500 men, and 1,800 horse. There were besides 2,000 native irregulars under the chief Debeb. The commander-in-chief of the forces was Lieut.-Gen. Asinari di San Marzano. The commandant at Massowah was Maj.-Gen Saletta. The brigade composed of the African corps, under Maj.-Gen.Gené, and another brigade, under Maj.-Gen. Cagni, were encamped in the beginning of February not far from Saati. A brigade, under Gen. Baldissera was stationed in the north at Singes, where a strong fort was built on the road to Keren, while the fourth brigade, under Maj.-Gen. Lanza, was posted at Arkiko. The fortress and field artillery consisted of 160 pieces.
The Advance of the Negus.-While the Italians were making their position secure around Massowah, the Negus refrained from attacking them, expecting that the large re-enforcements from Italy would attempt to avenge Dogali by marching into his country. There he was well prepared for them. Ras Aloula's army was not far back on the edge of the plateau at Ghinda and Asmara, which places were strongly fortified. In the latter part of February King
John joined Ras Aloula at Asmara, and finding the Italian fortifications completed, concluded that it would be unsafe to attack them. The Italians having made their base secure and perfected their commissary system, sent out flying parties for the purpose of learning the country and of provoking the enemy to advance. Ras Aloula pushed out his outposts, and there were several skirmishes, the Abyssinians invariably retreating. Colonel Vigono, the Italian chief of staff, made an excursion to the Agametta plateau in quest of a suitable position for summer quarters, though there was no intention of advancing beyond Saati before another season. By March the wells were partly dried up and the Abyssinians had drained the country of supplies. The army began to diminish, many parties deserting and going back to their homes. Ras Aloula remained with a part of his forces till June, and then left for his own province.
Mission to Shoa.-There were rumors of a rupture between King Menelek and the Negus, and the Italians, who were aware of the ambitious desire of the King of Shoa to overthrow Johannis and assume the title of Negus, sent Dr. Ragazzi in March to Shoa, by sea, with presents and offers of an alliance. But nothing was accomplished by this mission.
Peace Negotiations.-Overtures for peace were opened by the Negus on March 20, with a message to a native chief who was friendly to the Italians. Gen. San Marzano sent word that if the Negus wished to treat for peace, he must address himself to the commander-inchief. On the 28th an Abyssinian officer brought a letter from Johannis asking for peace, in which he alluded to the ancient friendship between himself and the King of Italy, and expressed regret for the course taken by Ras Aloula. On March 30 two Abyssinian chiefs were sent by King Johannis, who was then at Saberguma, about ten miles south of Saati, to Gen. San Marzano to continue the negotiations. The Negus marshaled at that point a formidable army, either for the purpose of attacking, or as a military demonstration. On instructions received by telegraph from the Italian Government the Negus was offered peace on condition (1) that he should acknowledge the Italian occupation of Saati; (2) that he should not oppose the occupation of other points where the troops could spend the hot season; (3) that he should guarantee the safety of the tribes that had sought Italian protection. On the 31st the Negus replied that he could not accept the conditions, and on April 2 he retired from Saberguma with his forces, which were estimated at 90,000 men. In April the Italian expeditionary force returned to Italy.
Defeat of Italian Troops.-Debeb, a native chief who for a time served with the Italians as a mercenary, deserted them with his followers in March, and engaged in plundering the region around Massowah. On July 31 the Italian commander-in-chief sent against him 600
Bashi-Bazouks, under five European officers, and Adem Aga, a native ally, who enlisted 200 Assaortins on the way. The latter sent information to Debeb during the march, and the Italian captain, posting the rest of his force around the village of Saganeiti, where Debeb was with 700 men, half of them armed with muskets, entered the place with 100 Bashi-Bazouks, and drove the Abyssinians out of a fort, which he then occupied. The Assaortins went over to the enemy during the fight, and the Italian irregulars fled from the fort in disorder. Those outside were panic-stricken, and the entire force was routed, with a loss of 350 men. The Italian officers, with the few who stood by them, fell fighting, and the rest were killed in flight. Before the occurrence of this reverse, Maj.-Gen. Baldissera had relieved Gen. San Marzano in the command of the Italian forces in Africa. The chieftain Debeb was a relative of the Negus, whose favor he regained with the Italian rifles with which his force of scouts were armed when they deserted with their leader to the Abyssinians. His raids during July in the Habash country, lying between the mountains and the Red Sea, grew so bold that he plundered the neighborhood of Arkiko, four miles from Massowah, before the punitive expedition was undertaken. The principal sufferers were the Assaortins, which tribe was under Italian protection. The Italian commander-in-chief hoped by the expedition to Saganeiti to encourage the revolt of the petty chiefs of the province of Tigré, who had thrown off the authority of the Negus when he withdrew his troops to meet the dervishes. Capt. Cornacchia, commanding the expedition, had orders to surprise Saganeiti by a forced march, but to withdraw if he found that the enemy knew of his approach. He failed to observe his orders as to speed and secrecy, and when he reached Saganeiti, which is seventy-five miles distant from Massowah, he allowed himself to be ambushed in the village, which had the appearance of being deserted when his force first entered.
Diplomatic Difficulties.-The military governor of Massowah on May 30 imposed a tax on realestate proprietors and traders for streets and lights, and on June 1 a license-tax on dealers in liquors and food. French and Greek merchants refused to pay these taxes. In the summer, the French Government, which has regarded with jealousy Italy's occupation of Massowah, put forward the claim that the capitulations existed there, as in other Eastern countries, and that Italy was debarred from imposing taxes and exercising criminal jurisdiction as regards French citizens and protégés without the consent of France. Signor Crispi denied that the capitulations had existed there under Turkish and Egyptian rule, declared that if they had they were extinguished by Italian occupation, and asserted that, even if they still were in force, foreigners would be subject to municipal taxation, as in Bulgaria,
Cyprus, Egypt, and Turkey. In a second note he explained that the judicial system at Massowah was the same as at Tadjurah and Zeilah, declared that the occupation of Massowah fulfilled the conditions laid down in the general act of the Berlin Conference, and characterized the objections of France in the following vigorous words:
It is not from Turkey that complaints and objections reach us, but, as is always the case, from France, who has succeeded in attracting Greece into the orbit regard the pacific progress of Italy as tending to diof her demands; from France, who would appear to minish her own power, as if the African continent did not afford ample scope to the legitimate activity and civilizing ambition of all the powers.
The Greek Government at first supported the protests of France, but was brought to accept the Italian view. The Italian foreign minister characterized the course of the French Government with a severity of language not usual in diplomatic intercourse, because it seemed actuated by a meddlesome desire to interfere, since there were only two French traders in Massowah, and the capitulations had been invoked by the French consul in behalf of Greeks, who were claimed to be French protégés. After the exchange of views between the Italian and Greek Cabinets, the merchants paid their taxes, but before that occurred several had been arrested, and some of them banished as rebels. M. Goblet, in August, replied to the Italian note in a circular, insisting that France had always regarded Massowah as Egyptian and Turkish territory. France was the only power having a vice-consul there, and he had received his exequatur from the Porte. Italy had for a long time disclaimed the idea of permanent occupation, and had failed to fulfill the requirements of the Berlin Convention of 1885, by not notifying the fact of taking possession to the powers, so that they might have an opportunity to make objections. The French minister denied that the capitulations could be set aside without the consent of the powers interested, and pointed out that, in other cases, as in those of Tunis, Bosnia, and Cyprus, the power taking possession had been able to produce a treaty concluded with the protected or sovereign government. He concluded by saying that if Europe assented to the Italian procedure the French Government would take note that henceforward the capitulations disappear without negotiation and without accord of the powers wherever a European administration is established.
This discussion gave Turkey an opportunity to renew her claim of suzerainty over the western coast of the Red Sea. The Porte dispatched a circular note to the powers, declaring the Italian occupation of Massowah to be a violation of treaties, and denying that the mention of its possessions on the Arabian coast only in the Suez Canal convention implies a renunciation of its sovereignty over the Soudan. Russia, as well as France, joined in the diplomatic protest of the Porte. Germany, Great
Britain, Austria-Hungary, and Spain declared the capitulations inapplicable to Massowah. Annexation of Zulla.-One of the grounds for French remonstrances against the Italian policy in Africa was that France had some vague claims under old treaties to portions of the coast south of Massowah that Italy in 1888 added to her possessions. Italian irregulars occupied Zulla, which was nominally still subject to Egypt, and in like manner established themselves at Dissé and Adulis. In the beginning of August the Italian flag was unfurled at Zulla, and a protectorate was formally proclaimed over the district. The Italian Government, in a note to the signatories of the general act of the Berlin Conference, notified them of its action, which it declared to be only an official confirmation of a previously existing fact, and a step that was taken in compliance with the demands of the local sheikhs. The Italian flag was raised also at Adulis and Dissé. ADVENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. The statistics of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, as given in the Year-Book " for 1888, show that it consists of thirty conferences, with the Australian, British, Central American, General Southern, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, South African, and South American missions. They returned, in all, 227 ministers, 182 licentiates, 889 churches, and 25,841 members. The whole amount of tithes received during the year was $172,721. The General Conference Association is a body which has been incorporated under the laws of the State of Michigan to act as the business and financial agent of the General Conference. It will guard the financial interests of the General Conference, and is expected to furnish provisions for the care of the property, deeds, bequests, and wills that may accrue to that body, and to keep its accounts. The object of the association is in its constitution declared to be to diffuse moral and religious knowledge and instruction by means of publishing-houses for such purpose, publications therefrom, missionaries, missionary agencies, and other appropriate and available instrumentalities and methods. Being wholly benevolent, charitable, and philanthropic in its character, the payment of dividends on any of its funds is prohibited, and its property may only be used for carrying into effect the legitimate ends and aims of its being. As reported to the General Conference the receipts of the Tract and Missionary Society for the year 1887 were $10,181, and the expenditures, $3,118. Besides missionary labor in the United States and other countries, tracts and publications had been sent by the society to South and West Africa, British and Dutch Guiana, Brazil, the West Indies, British Honduras, several places in Russia, some of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, to different points in the Southern States, and to city missions under the control of the General Conference. The society at its annual meeting recommended the circulation of a particular newspaper, the purpose of which is to oppose the "National Reform"
movement for the incorporation of a recognition of the Christian religion into the Constitution of the United States. The International Sabbath-school Association returned an income of $6,446, and expenditures of $6,038. Provisions were made at its annual meeting for the preparation of series of lessons for the years 1888-'89 on Old Testament history, The United States in Prophecy," "The Third Angel's Message, on the leading doctrines of the Bible "for the use of those newly come to the faith," and, for little children, on the life of Christ, with special lessons on "God's Love to Man" for the camp-meeting Sabbath-schools.
The receipts of the Central Publishing Association had been $412,416. The Pacific Publishing Association returned property and assets to the value of $246,949.
The accounts of the Education Society were balanced at $86,664, and its assets were valued at $58,017. The organization of departments of manual training in the schools of the denomination was approved; and the preparation of a pamphlet was directed to explain the purpose and nature of that branch of instruction.
The Health and Temperance Association had enjoyed a large increase of activity. The Rural Health Retreat Association reported a fund amounting to $21,372.
General Conference.-The General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists met in its twentysixth annual session at Oakland, Cal., Nov. 13, 1887. Elder George I. Butler presided. The conference in Norway was admitted, constituting the third conference in the Scandinavian field. The conference lately organized in West Virginia was received. The president made an address in which he spoke of the work of the denomination as advancing, notwithstanding increasing opposition. Remarkable success had attended the movements in Holland, and fields were opening, besides the United States, in South Africa, South America, and the West Indies. Immediate acts of prosecution against members for violation of the Sunday laws of some of the States had been restrained, so that none were now embarassed by them, but the current in favor of making those laws more stringent was increasing, and greater difficulties in that direction were to be anticipated. Delegates from foreign fields reported concerning the condition of their work; from the Scandinavian countries that there were in Denmark, 9, in Norway, 4, and in Sweden, 10 churches, with an aggregate membership of 810 in the three conferences. It had been difficult to furnish from the office of publication books enough to meet the demands of canvassers. The work in this branch was selfsustaining. The mission in England had been in progress for about nine years, and now returned four churches and about 185 members. In Australia there were three churches and 150 observers of the seventh day. The plan of holding mission schools in Central Europe, Scandinavia, and Great Britain for the purpose
of educating canvassers and colporteurs was approved by the conference. The subject of securing a ship for missionary work among the islands of the sea was favorably considered, but postponed on account of the lack of funds available for the purpose, and was referred to a committee, which was authorized to receive gifts during the year and report to the next general conference. A week of prayer was appointed, to be observed from December 17 to December 25, and a programme of subjects for each day's services was arranged. A committee was appointed to which were referred all questions growing out of prosecutions under the Sunday laws of the States against seventh-day observers; and it was authorized to prepare a statement properly defining the position which Sabbath-keepers should occupy in the various contingencies which may arise under the enforcement of those laws. Further resolutions were adopted on this subject, de claring that
Whereas, The teachings of Christ entirely divorce the church and the state; and, Whereas, The state has no right to legislate in matters pertaining to religious institutions, and Sunday is only a religious institution; therefore, Resolved, That we as a people do oppose by all consistent means the enactment of Sunday laws where they do not exist, and oppose the repeal of exemption clauses in Sunday laws where they do exist; that we recommend that a pamphlet be prepared (1) showing the true relation which should exist between the church and the state; (2) exposing the organized efforts now being made to unite church and state by changing the Constitution of our country; (3) showing the real effect of unmodified Sunday laws in places where they have been in force; and that said pamphlet be placed in the hands of all legislative bodies where efforts are or shall be made to secure the enactment of Sunday laws.
Whereas, To quietly and peaceably do our work six days in the week, as well as to keep the seventh day as the Sabbath of the Lord, is duty toward God, and an inalienable right, and that with which the state can of right have nothing to do; therefore, Resolved, That there is no obligation resting upon any observer of the seventh day to obey any law prohibiting labor on the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday. That while asserting this right, and while practicing the principle avowed in this resolution of working the six working-days, the resolution is not to be so construed as either to sanction or approve any arrogance on the part of any, or any action purposely intended to offend or impose upon the religious convictions or practice of any person who observes the first day of the week. Whereas, we deem it essential to the proper work of the third angel's message that the true relation existing between the church and the state, and the relation that exists between what men owe to God and what they owe to civil government should be understood; therefore,
Resolved, That we recommend that this subject be made a part of the regular course of Bible study in all our colleges; and that special attention be given to it by our ministers in the field.
Resolutions were adopted declaring that Whereas, Our Saviour has laid down the one sole ground on which parties once married can be divorced; and, Whereas, The practices of society have become most deplorable in this respect, as seen in the prevalence of unscriptural divorces; therefore, Resolved, That we express our deprecation of this great evil, and instruct our ministers not to unite in mar
riage any parties so divorced; and that we exhort our own people, when about to contract matrimonial alliances, to bear in mind, and give due weight to the injunction of the apostle, "only in the Lord."
The fifth annual session of the European Council was held at Moss, Norway, June 14 to 21, 1887. Action was taken with reference to colportage; to the translation into different languages and publication of books; to the conduct of mission journals; and to the education of missionaries.
AFGHANISTAN, a monarchy in Central Asia, lying between the Punjaub and Beluchistan on the south and Russian-Turkestan on the north, with Persia on the west. The ruler is the Ameer of Cabul, Abdurrahman Khan, who has striven with some success to consolidate his authority over the semi-independent tribes that owe him allegiance, but by the imposition of taxes provoked a revolt among the Ghilzais, who are the most numerous and warlike tribe of his immediate subjects.
Internal Disorders.-The Ameer was not able to re-establish his authority over the tribes that rebelled against taxation in 1887. One of his generals, Gholam Hyder Orakzai, led an army consisting of six regiments of infantry, four squadrons of cavalry, and an artillery force of thirteen guns against the rebels in the Ghuzni district during the winter, and succeeded in inflicting some punishment on them and in restoring order for the time being. In January Abdurrahman went to Jelalabad with a force of 12,000 men for the purpose of reducing to submission the Shinwarri, Teerah, and other insurgent tribes of northeastern Afghanistan. His commander-in-chief, Gholam Hyder Khan Charkhi, had' already been operating in that country and entered into negotiations with the Shinwarris.
Mistrusting the vigilance or fidelity of the Persian authorities who had once let Ayub Khan, the Afghan pretender, escape from his retreat at Meshed, and allowed him to carry on a correspondence with the rebels, the British Government persuaded the Shah to deliver him over into its custody. He left Meshed in January, and was taken to India, and securely interned at Rawul Pindi.
In the summer Ishak Khan, the Governor of Afghan-Turkistan, showed signs of insubordination. He is a cousin of Abdurrahman, being the son of Azim Khan, who was Ameer of Cabul for a few months in 1867, and was overthrown by Shere Ali. Ishak Khan was Abdurrahman's companion in exile, and has always professed subservience to his cousin, yet he has long been suspected of aspiring to the throne. He has discharged the duties of his post with ability and diligence for eight years, and in his own province he has contributed to the success of Abdurrahman's project of uniting the several parts of Afghanistan into a single realm, and has enabled the Ameer to draw some of his best troops from the Uzbecks of Turkistan. The province has been