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The slaughtering operations for the season of 1888 were 763,900 head of cattle in the Argentine Republic, and on the banks of rivers, 452,250 in Uruguay, and 396,000 in Rio Grande, constituting a total of 1,622,150 head.
Harbor Improvements.-The Argentine Congress approved Engineer Manero's plans, and voted $10,000,000 for the construction of a new port. the work on which is begun, and will consist first, of a canal 328 feet wide and 21 feet deep below low-water level, prolonging the Balisas river for the entrance of large ships; a basin of the same depth will be constructed for vessels remaining but a short time, and four other docks or basins also of the same depth, whose wharves will have a total length of 264 feet; finally, a maritime basin of equal depth, and 4,692 feet long will be made. All the masonry will be of asphaltum blocks and brick. Separate storehouses will be built for imported goods and goods to be exported, which will occupy a total area of 3,280 feet by 164 feet, and have a capacity of 10,963,900 cubic feet. All the wharves will be provided with loading and unloading appliances.
Waterworks.—On June 23, 1888, the Government accepted the propositions of Messrs. Samuel B. Hale & Co., to complete the waterworks of the city, which will involve an outlay of $21,000,000. The toll per house per month is to be $6.
Viticulture. The area under culture with vines in 1887, was about 2,700 hectares of 2 acres; and the wine-production amounted to about 6,000,000 gallons, worth $1,500,000. The vine-growing is chiefly in the province of San Juan, which produces grapes enough to make 250,000 hectolitres of wine. One winemaking establishment-that of Marenco and Ceresoto exports 25,000 hectolitres annually, its cellars, factories, etc., covering a space of 30,000 square yards, and occupying, during vintage-time, between 350 and 500 operatives. There are several similar concerns in the province, which exports 80,000 hectolitres per annum. The vines cultivated are Monas, Mollat, and Uva de Viña; Bordeaux vines have also been procured from Chili, the wine therefrom resembling Burgundy more than Bordeaux.
Quarantine.—In August, 1888, the governments of the Argentine Republic, Uruguay, and Brazil concluded a convention regulating uniformly among them the rules that henceforth are to be observed respecting quarantine as between them and as regards other nations, together with the sanitary inspection service.
The Falkland Islands.-The Argentine Republic has renewed its claim to the Falkland Islands, now held by Great Britain. These isl ands are in the South Atlantic Ocean, between 51° and 53° south latitude, and between 57° and 62° west longitude. They consist of the East Falkland, area 3,000 square miles; the West Falkland, 2,300 square miles; and about one hundred small islands with an area of nearly
1,200 square miles. Mount Adam, the highest ground in the colony, rises 2,315 feet above the sea. The Falkland Islands were discovered by Davis in 1592, and visited by Hawkins in 1594. In 1763 they were taken possession of by France; subsequently they were held by the Spaniards until 1771, when they were for a time abandoned, and the sovereignty of them was given up to Great Britain. In 1833 they were taken possession of by the British Government for the protection of the whale-fishery. In 1884 the population was 1,640. The revenue in 1885 was £10,438, and the expenditure £7,598; the imports in the same year amounted to £48,314, and the exports to £97,846.
ARIZONA. Territorial Government.-The following were the Territorial officers during the year: Governor, C. Meyer Zulick; Secretary, James A. Bayard; Treasurer, C. B. Foster; Auditor, John J. Hawkins; Attorney-General, Briggs Goodrich, who died in June, and was succeeded by John A. Rush, by appointment of the Governor; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Charles M. Strauss; Commissioner of Immigration, Cameron H. King, succeeded by Thomas E. Farrish; Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, James H. Wright; Associate Justices, William W. Porter and William H. Barnes.
Finances. The debt of the Territory is now somewhat over $600,000. Of this sum, $350,000 had been funded into bonds by the Legislatures previous to 1887, and the Legislature of that year provided for the funding of $200,000 additional by the issue of bonds to that amount. These bonds were sold at par in the following November to the Bank of Arizona. The same Legislature raised the interest on Territorial warrants from eight to ten per cent., and increased the poll-tax from $2.00 to $2.50. The assessed valuation of the Territory in 1887 was $26,313,500. For 1888 there has been a gain of $1,000,000 in Maricopa County, and $500,000 in Yavapai County alone.
Education. The school system is not yet effective in drawing a proper proportion of the youth of the Territory into the public schools. The average daily attendance during the scholastic year ending in 1885 was but 3,226, although there were 10,219 children of school age in the Territory. That is, only 31 children out of every 100 attended school during that year, although the total expenditures for public schools amounted to $138,164.83. For the year ending in 1886 the showing is but little better, as the Territory disbursed $135,030 with the result of securing an average attendance of 35 out of each 100 children. The reports for 1887-'88 indicate improvement, but there is still an evident need of a compulsory school law.
Land Claims. On this subject, the Governor says, in his annual report: "Surveyor-General Hise, in his recent report to the Land Department, says there are Spanish and Mexican pri
vate land claims pending in his office covering 5,195,348 acres. The early settlement of these grants is in every way desirable, in order that such claims, if any there be, as are just may be confirmed, and such as are fraudulent may be rejected, and the honest settler who in good faith located upon and paid the Government for his land may peacefully enjoy the same. The proposition before Congress to transfer these claims to a special court created for this purpose, if passed, or any transfer of the settlement of these claims from the Interior Department and Congress to the judicial arm of the Government, can not fail to work incalculable hardship to our settlers, and consequent damage to the Territory."
Irrigation. It is claimed that in the past few years over $2,500,000 have been expended in Arizona in the construction of irrigating-canals, and that in the next year at least $1,500,000 more will be expended. Great activity and enterprise is being shown throughout the entire southern portion of the Territory in locating water-rights, taking out canals, and reclaiming desert lands. The most extensive and successful irrigating canals are to be found in the Salt River valley, where canals over 200 miles in length and reclaiming about 225,000 acres are now in operation, and nearly 100 miles more are in process of construction. In Pinal County, along Gila river, canals designed to reclaim over 200,000 acres are being constructed. In the counties of Pima, Cochise, Graham, and Yuma, the reclamation of land is not so extensive, but beginnings have been made. On the Little Colorado and its tributaries, in the county of Apache, about 20,000 acres are under cultivation, while in the Verde valley, Yavapai County, about 2,500 acres have been restored.
Stock-Raising. The following is the number of cattle and their assessed value for 1888, in the various counties, as returned to the Territorial auditor.
To this total should be added Pima County, with 94,735 cattle, valued at $1,012,290. Mining. The product of gold and silver for Arizona in 1887 is reported by Wells, Fargo, & Co. at $5,771,555, a slight decrease from the previous year. In November, 1887, a vein of gold of exceptional richness was discovered by two miners in Yavapai County, on Hassayampa river, about twelve miles from Prescott. Over $10,000 were taken from this mine in a few weeks, and an organization of
capitalists was soon made to develop the property, which is called the Howard mine.
Railroads. For 1888 the total number of miles of railroad assessed in the Territory was 1,053 41, valued at $7,317,930.57, a slight increase in the total assessment over the preceding year. No new lines have been constructed during the year. The Territory needs a greater number of north-and-south lines meeting the two great trunk lines passing through the Territory east and west. The following shows the details of the assessment for the year: Atlantic and Pacific, 393-41 miles, assessed at $7,282.03 per mile; total valuation, $2,862,136. Arizona Mineral Belt, 30 miles, at $5,706.33 per mile; total, $171,190. Arizona Narrow-Gauge, 10 miles, at $5,200 per mile; total, $52,000. Arizona and New Mexico, 41 miles, at $4,502.22 per mile; total, $184,591.13. Maricopa and Phoenix, 34-45 miles, at $7,000 per mile; total, $354,650. Prescott and Arizona Central, 73.3 miles, at $5,151.62 per mile; total, $377,613.75. Southern Pacific, 383 miles, at $7,500 per mile; total, $2,872,500.
Political. The Democratic Territorial Convention met at Tucson on September 5, and renominated as delegate to Congress, Marcus A. Smith. Candidates for the Territorial Assembly were also nominated. The convention took an unusual position in refusing, by a vote of 30 to 34, to pass a resolution approving the national and the Territorial administration. Two weeks later the Republican Territorial Convention met at the same place, and nominated Thomas F. Wilson for Delegate, together with a ticket for the Legislature. Resolutions were adopted accepting the national platform, condemning the Democratic administration in the nation and Territory, and embracing also the following:
We condemn the pernicious practice of the present Administration in appointing men who are not only non-residents, but who are total strangers to the great natural, mineral, agricultural, and other resources of the Territories, as well as the important function and duties of the high offices whereof they are incumbent; and in this connection we respectfully invite attention to the custom at the present observed (we believe heretofore unheard of in America) of creating a horde of spies, ferrets, and blackmailing emissaries called "special agents," who, under cover of law and the pay and support of the Government, make it their business to obstruct and retard the honest settler and miner from developing our great resources and filling this Territory with thrifty and happy homes. This system now in vogue in Arizona is equalled in iniquity, if at all, only by the British plan of espionage in Ireland.
We demand the removal of the Apache Indians from the Territory.
cient money to construct reservoirs for water-storage It is the duty of Congress to appropriate suffiin this Territory and for the development of artesian water, the benefits of which would enhance all values and bring to the treasury fourfold return.
At the November election the Democratic ticket was successful by about the usual majority, and a majority of the Democratic candidates for the Legislature were elected.
ARKANSAS. State Government.-The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Simon P. Hughes, Democrat; Secretary of State, Elias B. Moore; Treasurer, William E. Woodruff; Auditor, William R. Miller; Attorney-General, Daniel W. Jones; State Land Commissioner, Paul M. Cobbs; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Wood E. Thompson; Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, Sterling R. Cockrill; Associate Justices, William W. Smith and Burrill B. Battle.
Mining Excitement.-The State Geologist, in a letter to the Governor, in August, says:
There has long been a popular belief that gold and silver existed in paying quantities in the State of Arkansas. During the last few years, notably since 1885, a great many people have become excited upon the subject of the occurrence of the precious metals about Hot Springs, and through the country west of there. This excitement culminated in 1887-'88. In some portions of the State it reached such a pitch that almost every man abandoned his usual occupation to stake off claims and turn miner. Every unfamiliar rock was regarded as a valuable ore or an indication" of something, and these delusions have been kept alive by assayers, some of whom were, perhaps, sincere, but some of them certainly fraudulent. These same assayers and their dupes have been so successful that they induced capitalists and business men, both in and out of the State, and especially the visitors to the Hot Springs, to believe in the value of the region for mining purposes to such an extent that during the last two and a half years companies have been incorporated under the laws of Arkansas with a total capital stock of more than $111,000,000 for the purpose of working the supposed gold and silver mines and ores of the State.
After a careful assay of ores from all the socalled mines, the geologist fails to find more than two silver deposits that could by any possibility be successfully worked. Of the alleged gold-mines he says: "It is very doubtful whether a single one of them has ever legitimately returned a single ounce of gold. . . . The future of Arkansas, as a mining State, must depend upon her coal, iron, manganese, antimony, and possibly zinc, lead, and graphite. In these, and in oil-stone, marble, chalk, marl, and buildThe geology of the ing-stone she is rich. State is not favorable for the production or mining of the precious metals."
Immigration. The natural resources of Arkansas have long failed of development, from lack of population, but the necessity of attracting immigrants to the State has not until recently been recognized. Early this year, a call was issued by the Governor for a State Convention to consider means of attracting settlers. This convention met at Little Rock, on January 31, and provided for a bureau of immigration, to be maintained by subscriptions seIt also cured by a canvass of each county. recommended to the next General Assembly the establishment of a State board of immigration. The necessity of such a board was afterward discussed and urged by the various political parties, in convention and during the political canvass.
Convicts.-The evils of the convict lease system received a fresh illustration during the
year in the treatment of prisoners at Coal Hill
Political. The first political convention of the year met at Little Rock on April 30, being held under the auspices of the Union Labor party. This convention nominated the following ticket: Governor, C. M. Norwood; Secretary of State, G. W. Terry; Auditor, A. W. Bird; Attorney-General, W. J. Duval; ChiefJustice of the Supreme Court, O. D. Scott; Superintendent of Public Instruction, B. P. Baker; State Land Commissioner, R. H. Morehead. No nomination was made for the office of State Treasurer. Resolutions were adopted as follow:
We favor such legislation as will secure the reforms demanded by the Agricultural Wheel, the National Farmers' Alliance, and the Knights of Labor.
We pledge ourselves to do our utmost to enforce: 1. Taxation of all lands held for speculative purposes at their full value.
2. A strict execution of the election laws and such legislation as will secure a free ballot and a fair 3. The consolidation of the elections, State and national.
4. A change in the convict system, the abolition of the contract system, and the working of the convicts within the walls of the Penitentiary at Little 5. A road-tax and a reduction of days for roadworking.
6. A public-school system that will educate all the people, and we favor national aid to education.
7. A law regulating mining and proper ventilation for same.
8. Laws subjecting trusts, railroads, and other cor"We favor the establishment of a labor and agriporations to State control. cultural bureau.”
This ticket relied for its support primarily upon the labor organizations, especially those of the farmers, of which the Agricultural Wheel is the most considerable in the State. It was greatly strengthened, however, by the decision of the Republicans to support it. A convention of Republicans, held in May, elected delegates to the National Republican Convention, but intrusted the selection of a State ticket to the State Executive Committee, which announced the adoption of the Union Labor ticket early in July.
The Democratic State Convention met at Little Rock on May 31. For more than two
months previous, aspirants for the gubernatorial nomination had been engaged in a thorough canvass of the State, two or more of them generally appearing upon the same platform in joint debate. The principal objection to Gov. Elughes, who was a candidate for renomination, rested upon the fact that a third term in that office would be contrary to precedent and would establish an undesirable practice. It was also claimed that the abuses existing in the penal institutions of the State were due in some measure to the Governor's neglect to examine their management properly. The other candidates before the people were John G. Fletcher, J. P. Eagle, W. M. Fishback, and E. W. Rector. The first ballot in the convention showed that no one had obtained a majority of the delegates, although the temper of the convention was evidently opposed to a third term. Gov. Hughes received 122 votes; Fletcher, 113; Eagle, 97; Fishback, 96; Rector, 25. A session of four days and 126 ballots were required before a choice was made. The nominee, J. P. Eagle, received on the final ballot 248 votes, against 201 votes for Gov. Hughes. Other nominees of the convention were as follow: Secretary of State, B. B. Chism; Auditor, W. S. Dunlop; Treasurer, William E. Woodruff; Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, Sterling R. Cockrill; Attorney-General, William E. Atkinson; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Wood E. Thompson; State Land Commissioner, Paul M. Cobbs.
The platform approves the national Administration, the tariff message of the President, and the Mills Bill, reiterates the doctrine of State rights, and continues as follows:
We favor liberal appropriations by Congress for the improvement of our waterways, to the end that commerce may be facilitated and rates of transportation regulated and cheapened, by bringing them into competition with those artificial avenues of traffic whose natural tendency is toward monopoly and extortion. We point with pride to the successful administration of State affairs by the Democratic party and the results that prove its wisdom and patriotism-to wit: The rate of taxation reduced from seven to five mills, the marvelous increase of material wealth of the State, which was greatly enhanced by the passage of laws which subjected the property of wealthy corporations to the payment of an equitable proportion of the cost of their own protection, on a basis of fairness to themselves and justice to the people; the liberal encouragement and fostering care extended to the cause of public education; the founding and sustaining on a basis of broad liberality the various charitable institutions of the State; and the payment of so much of the just debt of the State as has already been accomplished, with the promise of its entire satisfaction at no distant day.
We indorse the action of the Legislature of 1887 in providing for a geological survey of the State, and favor the establishment by the next Legislature of a bureau of agriculture, manufacture, mining, and immigration.
We favor a system of liberal enactment for the encouragement of railroads and manufacturing establishments, but are opposed to any exemption in their favor from the burdens of taxation, which can not be extended alike to all tax-payers and citizens.
We indorse the united efforts of liberal-minded citizens of the State, regardless of political affiliations, tion, and hereby second their invitation, extended to to organize and build up a State bureau of immigra all earnest, honest, and intelligent people everywhere, regardless of political opinion or religious belief, to make their homes in Arkansas, where a cordial welcome from the people will be extended to them, and a variety of undeveloped resources, unexcelled by any equal area on the globe, promises a generous reward for industrious labor.
The financial embarrassment of the State having been safely and certainly relieved, we favor such be effected, to the end that the State shall assume the modifications of the convict system of the State as can complete control and responsibility for their maintenance; that their labor may not be brought into open and direct competition with the honest and voluntary labor of the people, and on such a reformatory the baneful influences of contact and association with basis that novices in crime may not be subjected to
We congratulate the people upon the growth of personal temperance throughout the State, and are in
favor of the strict enforcement of the laws now in our statutes restricting the illicit sale of intoxicating liquors, believing that it affords a striking example of the beneficent effects of the principle of local selfgovernment.
On July 4 the Prohibitionists of the State met and adopted the following resolutions:
We congratulate the friends of prohibition in Arkansas on the good they have accomplished in the contest with the liquor traffic, as is evidenced by the fact that at least one half of the State to-day stands redeemed from the presence of the saloon, and nearly one half of our voters have been educated up to the point where they will, under our local-option laws, vote against license.
That the friends of prohibition feel thankful to the law, by and through which so much good has been past Legislatures for the passage of our local-option done to our people and damage to the whisky traffic; and they would suggest that if said laws were amend ed in some particulars they would be more efficient, and we would request said amendments be made by the next Legislature.
That notwithstanding we are now in full accord ors in the field, yet we will not nominate candidates with the national Prohibition party, and will put electfor the various State offices, but will do all we can to
advance the cause of temperance on the one hand and break down the liquor traffic on the other, by local option and such other means as we may be able in a lawful way to command.
At the election on September 3, owing in part to Democratic dissensions growing out of the heated contest for the nomination, the Democratic majority was more than 2,000 fewer than in 1886. Eagle received 99,214 votes, and Norwood 84,233; a Democratic majority of 14,981. These figures do not include the votes of nine townships of Pulaski County, the poll-books for which were stolen from the County Clerk's office after the election. The Legislature chosen was overwhelmingly Democratic, the minority consisting in part of Republicans and in part of Union Labor representatives. At the same election the question of calling a convention to frame a new Constitution was voted upon. Returns from all but three counties gave 41,818 votes in favor of the convention, and 90,780 against it. The November election resulted in favor of the Democratic national ticket.
ARNOLD, MATTHEW, English critic, born in Laleham, near Staines, England, Dec. 24, 1822; died in Liverpool, England, April 15, 1888. He was the eldest son of Dr. Thomas Arnold, author of a "A History of Rome," who became master of Rugby School in 1827, and there introduced new methods of discipline and instruction that created an epoch in the educational history of England. The son, after spending some years in a private school, was sent to Winchester College for a year in order to become familiar with the traditional system of English public schools. He then entered Rugby in 1837, and in 1841 came out near the head of the school, having in 1840 won a scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford. His audacious wit and brilliant conversation won the admiration of his fellow-students. Under the
despotic but practical mastership of Dr. Jenkins, Balliol had become the hardest working college at Oxford; but, says Andrew Lang, "the Oxford of Mr. Arnold's undergraduate years was very much what Oxford had always been, a place for boating, cricket, and lounging." In his poem entitled "The Gipsy Scholar," he has embalmed the memories of those pleasant days. While he was at Balliol, Oxford was stirred with theclogical discussion. John Henry Newman was in the fullness of his popularity, and Arnold's intimate friend, Arthur Hugh Clough "took these things too hardly for his happiness." Mr. Arnold won a scholarship for proficiency in Latin the first year, and gained the Newdigate prize with an essay on "Cromwell" in the second, but obtained only a second class at graduation. In 1845 he was elected a fellow of Oriel College. His friendship with Arthur Hugh Clough of the same college is embalmed in the elegiac poem of "Thyrsis." Not desiring to take holy orders or to follow the life of a college tutor, he became private secretary of Lord Lansdowne, a leader of the Whigs, in 1847. In 1848 he published under
his initial "A.," a volume called "The Strayed Reveler, and other Poems," which shows his inherited love of Greek sentiment and form, and his early devotion to Wordsworth. These poems include "The Forsaken Merman," the exquisite pagan poem "Resignation," and "The Sick King of Bokhara," an admirable picture of Eastern life in Central Asia. Three years later, in 1851, after teaching at Rugby as assistant master for a short time, he married a daughter of Justice Weightman, and was appointed to the office of lay inspector of schools, with supervision over the schools of the British and Foreign School Society, representing the Nonconformists. The laboriousduties of a school inspector were the regular occupation of his life, and only ceased two or three years before he died. Many of his reports are preserved in the annual Blue Book issued by the Committee of the Council on Education. In these he urged, with the force of his epigrammatic and luminous style, the elevation of elementary education by such steps as existing conditions and the example of more progressive countries showed to be practicable. In 1859 he was sent to the Continent as foreign assistant commissioner to study the French, German, and Dutch systems of primary education. Eventually William E. Forster, who married Arnold's elder sister, framed a measure that established a much more rational, complete, and effective system of elementary instruction. In 1865 Mr. Arnold went on another official tour to examine into the state of secondary education abroad. His observations were embodied in "Schools and Universities on the Continent," which appeared in 1867. From that time he was possessed with the idea that the lack of organized middle-class education, such as exists in Germany and France, and the consequent ignorance of art, languages, and literature, and indifference to their refining influences, were the explanation of the dullness, vacuity, sordid instincts, blind prejudices, and moral obtuseness that characterize the middle classes of English society. He made it his task to hold up for reprobation the faults that he grouped under the name of "Philistinism," and to prove that it can be remedied by wider and better education. Five years after the publication of his first volume of poems, which were remarkable for classic finish, and therefore unattractive to the general public, he issued a second under the title of "Empedocles on Etna, and other Poems," but, soon becoming dissatisfied with the leading poem, he suppressed almost the whole edition. In 1854 he published under his name a volume containing some poems that were new and some that had appeared in the former collections, and this was followed soon afterward by another volume. These established his reputation among scholars, and in 1857 he was called to the chair of Poetry at Oxford. In 1858 appeared a tragedy after Greek models, named "Merope," which of itself was not so well received as was the remarkable essay on the principles of criticism