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152 teachers, and 3,609 pupils; that there were 19,375 volumes in the libraries of 17 of these institutions, and that the total value of 23 of the institutions was $1,072,140. The religious statistics of these people were as follow: number of district associations, 300; of churches, 10,068 of ordained ministers, 6,605; of members, 1,155,486; of Sunday-schools, 3,304; with 10,718 officers and teachers, and 194,492 pupils; number of baptisms last reported, 48,212; value of contributions-for salaries and expenses, $230,445; for missions, $23,253; for education and other objects, $47,900. Forty journals are edited and controlled by colored Baptists.

The meetings of all of these societies for 1888 were held in succession at Nashville, Tenn., beginning on the 18th of September. They were followed by a special meeting of the American Baptist Home Mission Society to consider its work among the colored people. At a united session of the African Missionary Convention of the Western States and Territories and the Foreign Missionary Convention, a plan was reported for the unification of the foreign missionary work of the two bodies, and for co-operation with the Missionary Union. It provided for the formation of a new society, to be known as the American Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, into which the existing foreign missionary societies should be merged; and for cooperation with the Missionary Union on a plan which should allow the independence of each society while securing mutual consultation and assistance. The plan received favorable consideration, and was referred to the Executive Board of the societies and churches for

discussion during the year. At the moetings of the National Convention and the Home Mission Society, papers and addresses were presented respecting the common objects in which the two bodies were interested. A resolution was adopted by the former body pledging co-operation with the American Baptist Home Mission Society in its work for the colored people.

II. Free-Will Baptist Church.-The statistics of this church, as tabulated in the "Free-Will Baptist Register and Year - Book" for 1888, give the footings: Number of yearly meetings, 48; of quarterly meetings, 183; of churches, 1,531; of ordained ministers, 1,314; of licensed preachers, 167; of members, 82,686. The latest general statistics of other liberal Baptist bodies, similar in faith and practice to the Free-Will Baptists, are those given in the "Liberal Baptist Year-Book" for 1884, and are summarized as follows: Original Free-Will Baptists of North Carolina, 8,232; other FreeWill Baptist Associations in the United States (besides those affiliated with the Free-Will Baptist Church), 4,958; General Baptists, 13,225: Separate Baptists, 6,329; United Baptists, 1,400; Church of God, 40,000 (see "Church of God" in another part of this

article); Free Christian Baptists of New Brunswick, 10,777; Free Baptists of Nova Scotia, 3,415; making, with the members of the Free-Will Baptist Church, 171,022 of similar faith.

The educational institutions of the FreeWill Baptist Church include Hillsdale (Mich.), Bates (Lewiston, Maine), Rio Grande (Gallia County, Ohio), Storer (Harper's Ferry. W. Va.); Ridgeville (Ind.), and West Virginia (Flemington, Taylor County) colleges, and six preparatory seminaries. The reports of the benevolent societies are for 1887. The receipts of the Education Society were $3,600; and the total amount of its three invested funds was $9,908. The receipts of the Home Mission Society were $8,108; its permanent fund amounted to $11,125. The sum of $5,667 had been raised and expended for home missionary work by five yearly meetings and the Central Association. The society sustained missions at Cairo, Ill., Lincoln, Neb., Oakland, Cal., Worcester, Mass., Harper's Ferry, W. Va. (with Storer College), and in the Western States. The church at Hampton, Va., had become self-supporting. The receipts of the Foreign Missionary Society were $15,244; the amount of its Permanent fund was $10,103; of its Bible-school fund, $18,360; and of the Bible-school hall fund, $63. Its missions, which are in Bengal and Orissa, India, returned 24 missionaries; 578 communicants, with 37 additions by baptism; 2,672 Sunday-school pupils; and a native Christian community of 1,229 persons. In the day and other schools were 3,628 pupils, of whom 407 were classed as "Christian,” 1,481 as “Hindu,' 118 as Mohammedan," and 1,622 as "Santal."

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III. The Brethren, or Tankers.-The annual meeting of the Brethren, or Tunkers, was held in North Manchester, Ind., in May. The convention declared against the wearing of mustaches and the trimming of hair by barbers; cautioned members in respect to taking oaths; and warned members living in Western States against writing flattering reports concerning their crops and financial success unless they were sustained by facts. It also reaffirmed its previous declarations against the use of tobacco; decided that applicants for membership should promise to refrain from the habit; and directed that ministers who chew or smoke should not be allowed to assist in church adjudications. An arrangement was made for giving help to poor congregations in Denmark and Sweden.

IV. Church of God.-The distinctive doctrines of the Church of God, as given in brief in its "Year-Book" for 1888, are:

That the believers in any given locality, according to the divine order, are to constitute one body; that the division of believers into sects and parties, under human names and creeds, is contrary to the spirit and tutes the most powerful barrier to the success of letter of the New Testament Scriptures, and constiChristianity.

That the believers of any given community, organ

ized into one body, constitute God's household or family, and therefore should, according to the teachings of the New Testament Scriptures, be known by


the name of Church of God."

That the Scriptures, without note or comment, constitute a sufficient rule of faith and practice; that creeds and confessions of faith tend to divisions and sects among believers.

That there are three ordinances of a representative character, equally binding upon all believers, namely immersion in water in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; the washing of the saints' feet (see Christ's example, precept, and promise); and the eating of bread and drinking of wine in commemoration of the sufferings and death of Jesus.

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The Year-Book" gives the statistics of sixteen annual elderships, as follow:


When or- No. of No. of
ganized. ministers. members.

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dership, which meets every three years. The next meeting will be held at North Bend, Iowa, in June, 1890.

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Baptist Congress.-The seventh annual Baptist Congress was held in Richmond, Va., Dec. 4, 5, and 6. The Hon. J. L. M. Curry presively the discussion of the questions laid down sided. The purpose of the meeting was excluin the programme, with entire freedom in the expression of opinion. The first topic to be considered was "Education." respecting which "How far shall the papers were read on State Educate?" by Prof. B. Puryear, "Common vs. Parochial Schools," by the Rev. P. S. Moxom and by the Rev. Walter Rauschenbusch; and the discussion was continued by the Rev. Norman Fox, D. D., Prof. W. C. Wilkinson, and Prof. E. H. Johnson. The subject of "Temperance" was discussed in papers on 2,000 High License," by the Rev. Wayland Hoyt, D. D., and "Prohibition," by the Rev. H. A. 1,600 Delano, who was supported by other speakers. Other topics discussed were "A National Divorce Law," by the Hon. A. S. Bacon and the Rev. Norman Fox, D. D.; "The Limits of Immigration," by the Hon. J. G. Sawyer, Rev. H. A. Delano, Rev. L. W. Crandall, Rev. 500 George E. Horr, Jr., Hon. E. N. Blake, F. M. Ellis, D. D., H. McDonald, D. D., and other speakers; "Romanism: its Relation to Scientific Thought," by A. J. Rowland, D. D.; "Its Political Aspects," H. McDonald, D. D., and others; "Mohammedan Propagandism,” by the Rev. F. S. Dobbins, Norman Fox, D. D., and other speakers; "Christian Science," Rev. G. E. Horr, Jr., W. E. Hatcher, D. D., and Dr. T. T. Eaton; and "The Purity of the Church-—Terms of Admission," by E. T. Hiscox, D. D., and "Nature and Discipline," by F. M. Ellis, D. D., and W. W. Boyd, D. D.










The total number of members, including 6,000 scattered, is estimated to be not less than 29,683 S. M. Smucker, LL. D., estimates it at 30,000

The educational institutions are Findlay College, Findlay, Ohio, incorporated in 1882, opened for students in 1886, and now returning a faculty of 13 members and upward of 170 students; and Barkleyville Academy, Barkleyville, Venango County, Pa., chartered in 1884, having property valued at $6,000, and returning an average attendance of about fifty pupils. The periodicals of the church include a weekly general religious newspaper and two Sunday school journals. The Central Book Store was established in 1885, and balanced its accounts on the 30th of April, 1887, at $20,657. The General Missionary Society was organized in 1845, and has conducted successful missions in different parts of the United States. The missions among the Cherokee Indians in the Indian Territory return 424 members, 9 organized churches, 4 Sundayschools, 10 preachers, 12 preaching appointments, and 2 meeting-houses, with a third in building. The subject of establishing a foreign mission has been considered by the General Eldership, but nothing definite has yet been accomplished in the matter. A fund has been accumulated by voluntary contributions from the Annual Elderships, of more than $600.

The general and highest legislative and judicatory body of the Church is the General El

V. Baptists in Great Britain and Ireland.-The "Baptist Handbook" for 1888 gives the following statistics of the Baptist churches in the United Kingdom: Number of churches, 2,764; of chapels, 3,701, containing 1,198,027 sittings; of members, 304,385; of Sunday-school teachers, 46,786; of Sunday school pupils, 458,200; of local preachers, 4,118; of pastors in charge, 1,860. It was estimated that the churches from which no returns had been received would add 10,000 to the list of members.

Baptist Union of England and Wales.-The annual spring meeting of the Baptist Union of England and Wales was opened April 23 with an address by the Rev. Dr. Clifford on the general subject of the condition of the faith. Particular interest was attached to the question of the relations of the Union with the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon, who had withdrawn from connection with it (see "Annual Cyclopædia" for 1887), because he regarded its practice as too tolerant of persons holding and teaching doctrines of questionable orthodoxy. The Council of the Union, a kind of executive committee, consisting of one hundred members, had, in December, 1887, appointed a committee

to visit Mr. Spurgeon, and "deliberate with him as to how the unity of our denomination in true love and good works may best be maintained." This committee reported to a subsequent meeting of council, Jan. 18, 1888, that Mr. Spurgeon had declined to discuss the question of his action toward the Union, and that he could not see his way clear to withdraw his resignation; but that he had furnished a statement embodying the following conditions:

In answer to the question what I would advise as likely to promote permanent union in truth, love, and good works? I should answer: (1) Let the Union have a simple basis of Bible truths; these are usually described as "evangelical doctrines." (2) I know of no better summary of these than that adopted by the Evangelical Alliance, and subscribed by members of so many religious communities for several years. The exact words need not be used of course, but that formula indicates the run of truth which is most generally followed among us, and should be so followed.

He had, however, declared that he would not undertake, on these conditions being complied with by the Union, to rejoin it, but would await results. The question was again considered at subsequent meetings of the council, and a declaration was adopted which was intended to define the attitude of the Union in relation to the questions at issue, in terms that would be acceptable to Mr. Spurgeon. This declaration was brought before the Union at the present meeting, and after discussion and the consideration of amendments, was adopted in the following terms:

That while expressly disavowing any power to control belief or restrict inquiry, yet, in view of the uneasiness produced in the churches by recent discussions, and to show our agreement with one another and with our fellow-Christians on the great truths of the Gospel, the council deem it right to say: Baptized into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, we have avowed repentance toward God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ the very clements of a new life; as in the supper we avow our union with one another while partaking of the symbol of the body of our Lord broken for us, and of the

blood shed for the remission of sins.


The Union, therefore, is an association of churches and ministers professing not only to believe the facts and doctrines of the Gospel, but to have undergone the spiritual change expressed or implied in them. This change is the fundamental principle of our church The following facts and doctrines are commonly believed by the churches of the Union: The divine inspiration and authority of the Holy Scriptures as the supreme and sufficient rule of our faith and practice and the right and duty of individual judgment in the interpretation of it; the fallen and sinful state of man; the Deity, the incarnation, the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, and his sacrificial and mediatorial work; justification by faith-a faith that works by love and produces holiness; the work of the Holy Spirit in the conversion of sinners and in the sanctification of all who believe; the resurrection and the judgment of the last day, with the eternal blessedness of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the


As an historical fact, the last half of this statement has generally been accepted by the great majority of the Union in the usual sense; but from the first, some, while reverently accepting all divine teaching, have accepted other interpretations, which seem to

them consistent with it, and the Union have had no difficulty in working with them.

This action was not accepted by Mr. Spurgeon, who declared himself "one outside of the Union," and having no right to have anything further to do with its creeds or its declarations. "All has been done that can be done," he said, "and yet without violence we can not unite; let us not attempt it any more; but each one go his own way in quiet, each striving honestly for that which he believes to be the revealed truth of God. I could have wished that instead of saving the Union, or had been to conform everything to the word of even purifying it, the more prominent thought the Lord."

The Irish department of the British and Irish Home Mission was transferred to an executive committee in Ireland. Resolutions were adopted declaring that the question of ment, and ought to be no longer postponed; disestablishment in Wales was ripe for settleand deprecating any further extension of state aid to denominational schools.

The autumnal meetings of the Union were held at Huddersfield, beginning October 1. in connection with the Union showed that the Dr. Clifford presided. The report on the funds whole amount invested up to the close of the last year was £116,554, showing an increase of about £3,000. Annuities amounting to £5,216 were paid every year. The Augmentation fund was £500 short, and the Education fund required increasing. A minute was adopted renewing the protests of the Union against the maintenance by the state of "the system of sectarian elementary schools," and reiterating the declaration that "a really national system of undenominational day-schools can alone supply the educational needs of the country without violating the rights of conscience." Meetings were held in behalf of the Baptist Foreign Missions and of the British and Irish Home Missions; and prepared papers were read and addresses delivered on various subjects of denominational interest.

Baptist Missionary Society. - The annual meeting of the Baptist Missionary Society was held April 24. Mr. C. Townsend, J. P., of Bristol, presided. The income of the society had been £61,341, showing an increase from the previous year of £2,938: yet the balancesheet exhibited a debt of £5,859, which had been caused by increased expenditure. This would, however, probably be extinguished by the proceeds of legacies which would not have to go to the reserve fund. The publication of Mr. Bentley's "Grammar and Dictionary of the Congo Language was mentioned as an event of much importance. The use of the steamer "Peace" for the purpose of Mr. Stanley's expedition to relieve Emin Pasha (contrary to the policy of the society not to participate in enterprises that might have a military aspect) was shown in the report to have been unavoidable, because the suffering follow

ers of the explorer had to be got out of the country. An offer of £15,000 had been made by Mr. Arthrington, of Leeds, to the society, in conjunction with two other missionary societies, for the purpose of carrying the Gospel to the tribes on the banks of the Amazon and its tributaries; but its acceptance would have involved heavy and permanent additional expenditure, and it had, therefore, been declined.

The income of the Baptist Zenana Mission in India had been £6,586. A deficit of £288 was returned.

The Bible Translation Society had published, or assisted to publish, new versions of the Bible or parts of the Bible translated by Baptist missionaries in fourteen languages of India, China, Japan, Ceylon, and West Africa. Its receipts for the past year had been £2,817. The chief items reported in the expenditure were grants of £1,600 to the Baptist Missionary Society for translations, £300 to the "Mission Press" at Calcutta, and £250 to colporteurs in India.

Baptist Union of Wales.-The statistics of the Baptist Union of Wales, reported at its meeting in August (held in Cardigan), showed that the number of churches and mission-stations had increased from 663 in 1872 to 797, and the Sunday pupils from 61,167 to 100,330. Five thousand four hundred and fortyeight persons had been baptized during the year. Resolutions were passed concerning Welsh "legislative needs" (of which disestablishment was declared to be one), condemning the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Education, and approving the society for the utilization of the Welsh language.

VI. General Baptist Association. The one hundred and nineteenth meeting of the General Baptist Association of the New Connection was held in Derby in April. The Rev. W. H. Tetley presided. The summary of the statistics of membership showed that the total number of additions by baptism during the year had been 2,236, and the net gain of members 113. The report of the building fund showed that its capital amounted to £6,332 and its receipts for the year had been £1,399, while loans had been made to the amount of £850. Since the fund was instituted more than £18,000 had been granted in loans to the churches. The receipts for foreign missions were £8,107. The debt of the fund (£800) was reduced by £700. Action was taken in favor of an Association book fund.

BAZAINE, FRANÇOIS ACHILLE, French general, born in Versailles, Feb. 13, 1811; died in Madrid, Spain, Sept. 23, 1888. He was the son of a French officer, and after leaving the École Polytechnique he joined the Foreign Legion in 1831, and served five years in Africa, rising to the grade of first lieutenant, and winning the cross of the Legion of Honor on the field of battle. He went to Spain in 1837, and fought in two hard campaigns against the Carlists, returning to Algeria as captain in 1839. He

saw much fighting during the next nine years, and when the Foreign Legion, organized as a brigade of infantry, was sent to the East in 1854, he was appointed to the command. He greatly distinguished himself before Sebastopol, and after its capture was named military governor of the place, and promoted to be general


of division. In the Italian campaign of 1859, he commanded a division in the attack on Melegnano, where he was wounded, and in the battle of Solferino he took a conspicuous part. He was given a high command in the French expedition against Mexico, distinguished himself by brilliant and energetic tactics, and on the recall of Marshal Forey in 1863 succeeded as commander-in-chief. He received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor, having been made a commander in 1856, and in September, 1864, he was promoted Marshal of France. His vigorous aggressive strategy drove President Juarez into a corner of the country. The fortress of Oajaca surrendered in February, 1865, the garrison of 7,000 men laying down their arms. He also organized a barbarous but effective system of guerilla warfare. Bazaine married a wealthy Mexican lady, and soon afterward misunderstandings arose between him and the Emperor Maximilian, who suspected the French general of lukewarmness in his cause, when fortune bẹgan to turn in favor of Juarez, owing, as Bazaine alleged, to the obstinate resistance of the Mexicans and the policy of the United States. Napoleon sent orders for the ultimate withdrawal of the French troops, and when Bazaine was suspected of a design to make himself emperor instead of Maximilian, he dispatched Gen. Castelnau to arrange the evacuation.

Finally, at a council of Mexican notables, Bazaine declared the maintenance of the empire impossible, and on March 12, 1867, having retreated to Vera Cruz, he embarked with all his forces for France. On his arrival he was greeted with a storm of reproaches. He nevertheless retained the confidence of Napoleon III, and was made a senator and intrusted with the command of the corps stationed at Nancy, and in October, 1869, was given the chief command of the Imperial Guard.

was not arraigned till Oct. 6, 1873. The Duc d'Aumale presided over the tribunal. The marshal, who wore his full uniform and the decorations of the Legion of Honor, in reply to the charges of military incapacity in letting himself be blockaded in Metz by a force not much superior and in capitulating, and of treasonable correspondence with the enemy with the object of making himself independent of the Government of National Defense, he said that the motto of "honor and country that When the Franco-Prussian War began, Ba- he bore on his breast had been his for the forzaine had command of the Third Corps. He ty years that he had served France, at Metz as might have supported Gen. Frossard at For- well as elsewhere. He was found guilty (1) of bach, but would not move without orders. On having capitulated before the enemy in the Aug. 13, 1870, he took command of the Army open field; (2) of having agreed to terms mak of the Rhine, with which he checked Gen. ing his command lay down their arms; (3) of Steinmetz at Berny on the following day, al- having entered into negotiations with the enelowing Napoleon and his staff to retreat in my before doing all that duty and honor desafety. He retired on Metz, perhaps in order manded; (4) of having surrendered a fortified to detain the enemy until MacMahon's army place that was intrusted to him to defend. He was formed at Châlons. If he had ordered was condemned on December 10 to death and the Imperial Guards to support Canrobert at military degradation, but in compliance with Gravelotte, the Germans might have been driv- the unanimous recommendation of his judges, en into a retreat, instead of forcing him to President MacMahon commuted the sentence retire into the citadel of Metz. His army was to twenty years' seclusion. He was incarcerthe only compact force that remained after the ated in Fort Sainte Marguerite, near Cannes, surrender of Marshals Leboeuf and Canrobert on December 26. In the following August and the capture of the Emperor. The garri- he lowered himself from a window by a rope son made many brave sorties, but each party into a boat, on which he made his escape to a was beaten back. After fruitless efforts to ship lying off the island, and reached Italy. obtain better terms, the commandant signed a From there he went to Cologne, and to Engcapitulation on Oct. 27, 1870, before a single land, and finally he took up his residence in shot of the enemy had fallen within the walls Madrid. In September, 1874, he published in of the fortress, in accordance with which his the New York "Herald" a defense of his concommand of 173,000 men marched out without duct during the war, to which Prince Friedrich their arms. His declaration that his army was Karl bore honorable testimony, and in 1883 vanquished by famine was contradicted by wit- he went over the ground again in a volume. nesses, who said that there was food, and that the men had in their knapsacks six days' rations. Accusations of treachery resounded on every side. It was discovered on investigation that he had held communication with Bismarck through a go-between named Reguier, and after learning the pretended determination of the Germans not to treat on any terms with the Government of National Defense, had allowed himself to be duped into inactivity and finally into a surrender by Bismarck, who suggested that far better conditions of peace would be granted if he kept his army intact in order to support a serious Government with which Germany could negotiate. Thus the wily diplomatist held out the hope of the restoration of the empire with German aid. After his return from captivity Bazaine published a book entitled "L'Armée du Rhin," in which he avowed that he felt no obligation to obey the Government of National Defense after the downfall of the empire, and considered himself justified in acting independently. It was not till then that he was cited to appear in August, 1871, before the Committee of Military Investigation of the National Assembly at Versailles. He offered himself for trial by court-martial without awaiting the report. He


BEDS, FOLDING. Bedsteads so contrived that they can be folded into a more or less compact form are to be found in all civilized and, perhaps, in some uncivilized lands, and are of almost as many different patterns as are the tables and chairs that keep them company. Goldsmith's familiar lines in the "Deserted Village are more than a century old :

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The chest contrived a double debt to pay,

A bed by night, a chest of draws by day, and they go to show that folding beds were not uncommon at that time. In 1888 about forty patents were issued in the United States bearing upon such articles of furniture, and a visit to any industrial exhibition or large furniture establishment affords abundant evidence that the supply keeps well up with the demand. This is largely due no doubt to the crowding of population in the large cities. Where a family occupies a flat or "apartments," the question of space becomes very important, and where a single person occupies a room, perhaps a small one, his comfort is greatly enhanced by being able to double the floor-space by disposing of the bed during the day-time.

To begin with the simpler and least expensive forms of folding beds, it may be said that ingenious mechanics not infrequently provide

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