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Monuments of the Mississippi Valley.


have indeed been slow in their work, provokingly slow, as we have heretofore thought. But slow as they have been in organizing the institution, yet these men have by no means been dilatory. This is manifest from the novelty, the extent, the difficulties, and the excellence of the work achieved. God himself did not organize his own vast and beautiful world in a day. But when done, it was enough that his own omniscience could pronounce it all very good.

The pamphlet at the head of this article affords a very clear and extended view of what has been done and what is contemplated in the plan of the institution. But we have not space for even a sketch of its contents. Suffice it to say, for those who may yet need the information, that it is no part of the design of this institution to afford an academic training to young men. In strict accordance with the design of its founder, it is shaped for the twofold purpose of increasing and diffusing knowledge among mankind. And this is to be done by stimulating and aiding all sorts of research for useful knowledge, and by diffusing the results as widely as possible. No branch is excluded, in which the boundaries of knowledge can be extended. The walks of art, science, literature, astronomy, geography, ethnology, invention, are all included in its plan. In particular cases, men are to be aided in their investigations by affording them the means and implements. And when discoveries or improvements are made, these are to be published to the world for the general good, and the publications either sold (at cost, we believe), without copy right, or given to colleges and other important institutions, or exchanged with literary and philosophical societies for other publications.

Public lectures are to be given at Washington, during the sessions of Congress, where is also to be a library of rare books, and an extensive


This first volume of its Contributions is a very happy illustration of the design of the Institution, and a pledge of its future usefulness. We have here the results of great and patient research into a subject of profound interest to us as Americans, and to the whole literary world, the exist ing monuments of that almost fabulous race of men who inhabited our country before the present race of Indians. Who were they? Whence did they come? And whither have they gone? These are indeed questions on which our two laborious investigators have hardly touched. They do not indulge themselves much in the formation of theories. But they have done much in bringing to light the mighty works of these aborigines, and have thereby showed us what they were -- a race, to whom the savages found here by our ancestors cannot be compared. And yet, strange as it may seem, we are almost led to conclude, by a study of these monuments, that either these barbarians vanquished that more civilized race in spite of all their strong fortifications, and drove them south

towards Mexico, or else that the ancient race unaccountably degenerated into such savages as were here found by the Europeans. Either supposition is, a priori, alike improbable. The former, however, finds some analogy in the conquests of the northern hordes in Europe and Asia.

A large part of the mounds as yet thoroughly examined, are in the State of Indiana, where they are found in the greatest number. The ancient population of that region must have been much more dense than could be sustained by the chase; and the remains of art found in the mounds, lead to the belief of a considerable degree of civilization, though by no means so great as it was in Mexico and Peru. One portion of the mounds were evidently for fortifications; another, for places of worship; and another, for sepulchral monuments. In the last, the remains of a human body, sometimes nearly an entire skeleton, are found at the bottom. The form, height, and extent of the mounds, in different cases, are very various. The greatest skill is displayed in the structure of the fortifications; and they are on much the largest scale, often enclosing many acres, and fitted, by a provision for water, etc., for sustaining a long siege and sheltering the population resorting to them.

In order well to understand any of these structures, drawings are indispensable. Accordingly, the volume before us contains 48 lithographic plates and 207 wood engravings. They are well executed, and are amply sufficient for the purpose. Indeed the mechanical as well as the far more important part of the whole work, is admirably done. The book cannot fail of proving a lasting honor to the Institution and to our country.

This work would probably not have been published at all, had it not been for this Institution. The expense would have been too great, with the limited sale that could be anticipated, for private adventure or for any of our literary societies. From the permanent fund of this institution, amounting to more than $650,000, and yielding annually about $40,000, and if managed, as hitherto, with strict economy, there will be ample means for the like issue of future works; and with the plans already formed for procuring important works, and from the spirit and enterprise already roused, we may well anticipate the preparation of a series of volumes that will meet the expectations that the present is so well fitted to inspire.

More space has already been devoted to this brief article than can ordinarily be afforded to notices of publications which are not more immediately connected with the main design of this journal. But while thus compelled to omit much of what we should gladly say, we cannot close without expressing our grateful and increased confidence in the talent, assiduity, and faithfulness of the two officers on whom is devolved the chief labor of conducting the affairs of the Institution, the Secretary, Mr. Joseph Henry, and the Assistant Secretary and Librarian, Mr. Charles C. Jewett.

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DR. THOLUCK'S Exposition of Christ's Sermon on the Mount, in the English translation, of Menzies, is in the Andover press, and will be published in the beginning of the Spring. It is regarded by the author, we believe, as his most finished work, and is one of the finest specimens we have of a full, learned, and Christian Commentary, eminently instructive for theological as well as biblical students - Rev. Joseph B. Felt of Boston, long known as one of our most indefatigable antiquaries, has in preparation an Ecclesiastical History of New England, in two vols. 8vo. The first vol. is in a state of considerable forwardness. A Translation of the Church History of Prof. Karl Hase of Jena, by Prof. Blumenthal of Dickinson College, and Rev. C. P. Wing of Carlisle, is in press at Philadelphia. In the original it is an octavo of 615 pp. The first edition was printed in 1834; the fifth and last in 1844. For remarks on the value of this work, see B. S. vol. V. 432. On page 611 of our last vol., we alluded to the publication in London of an English translation of Dr. Nitzsch's System of Christian Doctrine. We observe in the Eclectic Review, an article from which it appears that the translation is so inadequate and erroneous as to be nearly worthless.


A valuable Memoir of the late Prof. Fiske of Amherst College, together with a selection from his Sermons and other writings, has been published at Amherst, under the editorial charge of Dr. Humphrey, late president of the College. The volume will be welcomed by the numerous pupils of Prof. Fiske and others as a worthy tribute to the memory of a good man, an able preacher, and an accurate and accomplished scholar.

The 2d vol. of Dr. Davidson's Introduction to the New Testament is published in 8vo. pp. 467, and extends from the Acts to the 2d of Thessalonians inclusive. The remaining vol. will not appear for some time. Tholuck's Anzeiger, July, 1849, remarks of vol. I.: "It can hardly be doubtful that this Introduction to the Gospels, on account of the new matter which it brings before English readers, will have a large circulation in America, as well as in England and Scotland, and will soon reach a new edition.” — A Work on the Irregular and Defective Verbs of the Greek Language, their Forms, Meaning and Quantity, by Rev. William Veitch, has been published at Edinburgh, 12mo. 316 pp. A classical friend, who has used the work, informs us that it is prepared with skill

and thorough knowledge of the subject. Dr. L. Schmitz's 2d ed. of Niebuhr's Roman Lectures is a very welcome book, and is, in part, a new work. The 1st vol., embracing the period from the beginning of Rome to the first Punic war, is wholly new. It was prepared by Dr. Isler of Hamburg, by the collation of a considerable number of MSS. Notes, and then translated into English by Dr. Schmitz, and enlarged from his own notes. In the 2d vol. 100 pages of new matter are inserted previous to the account of the death of Sertorius. At the close of the 3d vol. are eight new Lectures, carrying the history down from the death of Constantine to the overthrow of the Western Empire. The sum of £3000 has been subscribed in England to found a new College in Oxford to increase the number of well educated clergy and to render a residence there more accessible to persons of moderate means. It is supposed that £30,000 will be needed in order to lay a foundation for the education of 50 scholars.

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We regret to hear that the publication of the Halle Allgemeine Literatur Zeitung was to cease with the December No., 1849. It has been in existence sixty-five years, and under the editorial charge of a number of successive professors at Halle in the various departments of knowledge. As a literary and scientific work it has been of great worth, and as the record of the literary history of almost three fourths of a century, it will always have a permanent value. The form of the work and the method of publishing it would be viewed out of Germany as quite inconvenient. — The 10th vol. of the Exegetical Manual to the Old Testament, embracing the exposition of the Books of Kings, by Otto Thenius of Dresden, is in press. The first eight vols. cost in Germany about six dollars, and embrace the books of Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Job, Proverbs and the remainder of the Old Testament except Canticles and Daniel. De Wette's Manual, embracing the whole New Testament in 3 vols., or 11 parts, is worth in Germany, from five to six dollars. A second enlarged and improved edition of Meyer's Commentary on the first epistle to the Corinthians has just appeared. Prof. Hermann of Göttingen, has published a small vol. on Law and the Lawgiving Power in Greece.- Dr. Neander is engaged on the vol. of Church History, which embraces the period from 1308 to 1517. He is compelled to use the sight and hands of others in the accomplishment of his work. - Dr. K. F. Becker, the well known German grammarian, died at Offenbach on the Maine, Oct. 4, in his 75th year. His " Organism of the German Language," 1827, and other grammatical works, proceed on the idea that language is a part of man's organic structure. The number of students in the University of Halle in the summer of 1849, was 693; in 1829, it was 1291, of whom 934 were students of theology.



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APRIL, 1850.



By Rev. Enoch Pond, D. D., Prof. of Theol. in Bangor Theol. Seminary.

A THEOLOGICAL inquiry has been revived of late, which had been regarded as long settled, whether the sufferings of Christ were confined to his human nature, or whether the Divine nature also suffered. Did he suffer only as man, or partly, principally, as God?

It is admitted on either side of this question, that our blessed Saviour is both God and man; that he possesses both a Divine and a human nature — a human body and a human soul—mysteriously united so as to constitute but one person. It is also admitted that he suffered the just for the unjust, and by his sufferings and death made a full atonement for sin. But the question is, In which nature did he suffer? In the human only, or also in the Divine? Did he suffer only as a man, a divinely strengthened and supported man; or did the Divinity also suffer? Were his sufferings partly and if partly, chiefly those of God? This question, though necessarily one of some intricacy, is obviously one of great importance. It respects God, the Creator, Preserver, and Governor of all things the only proper object of supreme love and worship. It respects Christ, the only Saviour of lost men,the soul and centre of the religion of the Gospel. It respects the atonement, the most stupendous and astonishing of all Divine works, the only foundation of mortal hopes. Such a question should never be approached but with reverence and humility, with a deep sense of our own ignorance and weakness, and with the most earnest supplications for the Divine assistance and blessing.

VOL. VII. No. 26.

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