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ávéμov, as the wind did not suffer us, lit. unto it, i. e. to approach Cnidus, to take shelter in the harbor there, which would have been their first preference. They adopted, therefore, the only other alternative which was left to them. 70068άw does not occur in the classics. zoos cannot well mean further, as some allege, since they would have had no desire to continue their voyage in that direction, even if the weather had permitted it. — ὑπεπλεύσαμεν -- Σαλμώνην, we sailed under Crete towards Salmone, a promontory which forms the eastern extremity of that island. It retains still the same name. An inspection of the map will show that their course hither from Cnidus must have been nearly south. Having turned that promontory, they could find a north-west wind as much opposed to them in navigating to the westward as it had been between Myra and Cnidus; but on the other hand, they would have for a time a similar advantage: the south side of Crete is a weather-shore, and with a north-west wind they would advance along the coast, until they reached that part of it which turns decidedly towards the north. Here they would be obliged to seek a harbor and wait until the wind changed. The course of movement indicated by Luke tallies exactly with these conditions. - μódis — avτýr, · μόλις and with difficulty coasting by it, viz. Crete, not Salmone, since the former though not so near, is the principal word. Besides, Salmone was not so much an extended shore as a single point, and at all events did not extend so far as the place where they stopped. — ɛis—huevas, unto a certain place called Fair Havens. No ancient writer mentions this harbor, but no one doubts that it is identical with the place known still under the same name on the south of Crete, a few miles to the west of Cape Matala. The plural refers to the fact perhaps that it furnished two or more good places for anchorage. Nautical authorities tell us that this is the furthest point to which an ancient ship could have attained with north-westerly winds, because here the land turns
suddenly to the north. ᾧ Λασαία. Here ἐγγὺς governs ᾧ as an adverb. r, was, incorporates the notice with the history without excluding the present; see 17: 21, 23. Kühn. § 256. 4. a. Lasaea is otherwise unknown. Ancient Crete abounded in cities, every vestige of which, in many instances, has been swept away.
V. 9. ἱκανοῦ χρόνου we are to reckon from the commencement of the voyage. On leaving Palestine they expected to have reached Italy before the arrival of the stormy season, and would have accomplished their object, had it not been for unforeseen delays. ὄντος — τοῦ hoós, the voyage, its further prosecution, being now, at this advanced season of the year, unsafe. hoòs is a later Greek form for lov. Win. § 8. 2. b; St. § 22. 2. Sià — nageλyλvvéru, because even παρεληλυθέναι,
the fast was now past. xai has here an explicative force that is, to wit, and adds this clause to the one immediately preceding, in order to fix more precisely the limits of the on which occurs there. See Win. § 57. 2. c. τὴν νηστείαν denotes the fast κατ ̓ ἐξοχήν, which the Jews observed on the great day of expiation, which fell on the 10th of the month Tisri, about the time of the autumnal equinox. See Lev. 16: 29. 23: 27. Jahn's Archaeol. § 357. Philo also says that no prudent man thought of putting to sea after this season of the year. The Greeks and Romans considered the period of safe navigation as closing in October, and re-commencing about the middle of March. Luke's familiarity with the Jewish designations of time rendered it entirely natural for him to describe the progress of the year in this manner. It was not on account of the storms merely that ancient mariners dreaded so much a voyage in winter, but because the rains prevailed then, and the clouds obscured the sun and stars on which they were so dependent for the direction of their course. See on v. 20. — nagývɛi, exhorted them, viz. to remain here and not continue the voyage. That this was his object although not stated in so many words, may be inferred from the argument which he employs; see also v. 21.
V. 10. εwo, I perceive, have reason to think; a judgment which he had formed in view of what they had already experienced, as well as the probabilities of the case, looking at the future. The revelation which he afterwards received respecting their fate, he announces in very different terms, see v. 22, 23. He may be understood here as declaring his own personal conviction that if they now ventured to sea again, the ship would certainly be wrecked, and that among so many some of them at least would lose their lives. - ὅτι — — τὸν πλοῦν. There is a union here of two different modes of expression. The sentence begins as if μéλhɛ ó nλovs was to follow, but on reaching that verb the construction changes to the infinitive with its object as if on had not preceded. See Win. § 45. R. 2. Such variations are so common even in the best writers that they are hardly to be reckoned as anacoluthic - μerà —— Squías, with injury and much loss. This sense of the first noun, though uncommon, appears to be justified by Pind. P. 1. 140, and, as Bengel suggests, refers more particularly to the ship and its appurtenances. The second noun extends the affirmation to their lives as well as the ship; since we do not speak of life in such a case as being injured but as destroyed or lost. This distinction obviates the objection that the words when rendered as above are tautological. Kuinoel thinks that pois may denote the violence of the storm, or of the sea which they would have to encounter. He cites tõr öμßoor vßois, imbrium injuriae, Joseph. Antt.
3. 5. But the term in this passage has no such limiting adjunct as it has there. Meyer understands it of the presumption, rashness, which they would evince in committing themselves again to the deep. If we assume that meaning here, we are to retain it naturally in v. 21; and it would be there a term of reproach which we should not expect the apostle to employ in such an address.
V. 11. ἑκατοντάρχης Luke interchanges with ἑκατόνταρχος as in v. 6. In some manuscripts a uniform termination prevails. Both forms are current in classical Greek.-top xvßɛorýty, the steersman, whose authority in ancient ships corresponded very nearly to that of captain in our vessels. — r@ vavzλhow, the owner, to whom the ship belonged. Among the ancients the proprietor instead of chartering his vessel to another, frequently went himself in her and received as his share of the profit the money paid for carrying merchandise and passengers -- τοῖς — λεγομένοις changes the object of the verb from that of a person to a thing; comp. 26: 20.
V. 12. άvevðérov, not well situated, inconvenient. The harbor deserved its name undoubtedly, (see v. 5) for many purposes, but in the judgment of those to whose opinion it was most natural that the centurion should defer, it was not considered a desirable place for wintering. The question was not whether they should attempt to proceed to Italy during the present season, but whether they should remain here in preference to seeking some other harbor where they might hope to be more secure. In this choice of evils, the advice of Paul was that they should remain here; and the event justified his discernment. oi nhɛíovs, the majority. Their situation had become so critical that a general consultation was held as to what should be done. -xảxEiDev, also from there, as previously from other places, v. 4: 6. eis Poíviza, unto Phoenix, a town and harbor in the south of Crete, a little to the west (see v. 13) of Fair Havens. The palm-trees in that region are supposed to have given occasion to the name. Forbiger (Handb. v. 3. p. 1038) thinks that this place is the modern Anopolis, near Aradena. Still other places on the south of Crete as Lutro, Sphakia, Franco Castello, have been supposed to be the ancient Phoenix. They are not far from each other. Mr. Smith decides in favor of Lutro. I do not find that the direction in which Luke says that the harbor opened, is urged as offering any difficulty in regard to the identification with any one of these places. -ẞhénovra zagov, looking towards Lips and Choros, the points from which the winds so called blew, viz. the south-west and north-west. So most critics understand the expression. The intermediate point between those winds is west; so that the harbor would have faced in that di
rection, while the opposite shores receded from each other towards the south and north. Mr. Smith, as stated above, is of the opinion that the Phoenix of Luke is the present Lutro. That harbor, however, opens to the east. To reconcile Luke's statement with this circumstance, he understands κατὰ Λίβα— Χῶρον to mean according to the direction in which those winds blew, and not as is generally supposed whence they blew. "Now this is exactly the description of Lutro, which looks or is open to the east; but having an island in front which shelters it, it has two entrances, one looking to the north-east which is κατὰ Λίβα, and the other to the south-east, κατὰ Χωρον.” But it is hardly safe for the sake of such a coincidence to depart from a usage of the language so well established as that on which the common interpretation rests. No violence, it is true, would be done to the preposition by understanding it as he proposes; but such a sense in connection with nouns like those which accompany it here, needs to be proved by surer examples. The expression κατὰ κῦμα καὶ ἄνεμον, which he adduces from Herod. 4. 110 is not parallel; for äveμos does not belong to the class of proper names or nouns equivalent to proper names such as the Greeks were accustomed to employ in geographical designations. The passage from Arrian's Periplus of the Euxine is equally inconclusive. To translate xaz' voor there before the east wind, is to assume the point in dispute. The context presents no reason why that expression should not be understood in conformity with the ordinary sense of such phrases, viz. towards the point whence Eurus blows, not whither.
The storm; it rages for many days, and all hope of safety is destroyed. Vs. 13-20.
V. 13. vñonvevőavros dè Nórov, Now when a south wind blew moderately. After passing Cape Matala, the extreme southern point of Crete and only four or five miles to the west of Fair Havens, the coast turns suddenly 'to the north; and hence for the rest of the way up to Phoenix, a south-wind was as favorable a one as they could desire.86 avres-xExpaτηxéva, thinking to have gained their purpose, regarding it as already secured. It was somewhat less than forty miles from Fair Havens to Phoenix. With a southern breeze, therefore, they could expect to reach their destination in a few hours. ἄραντες sc. τᾶς ἀγκύρας, having weighed.-άσσον-Κρήτην, they coasted
'See Forbiger, Handb. v. 3. p. 1033. It retains still the ancient name.
by Crete, lit. nearer sc. than usual, i. e. quite near. This clause as we see from the next verse, describes their progress immediately after leaving their anchorage at Fair Havens. It applies, therefore, to the first few miles of their course. During this distance, as has been suggested already, the coast continues to stretch towards the west; and it was not until they had turned Cape Matala that they would have the full benefit of the southern breeze which had sprung up. With such a wind they would be able just to weather that point, provided they kept near to the shore. We have, therefore, a perfectly natural explanation of their proceeding in the manner that Luke has stated.
V. 14. Mɛr' — où пolv, After not long, shortly. The tempest, therefore, came upon them before they had advanced far from their recent anchorage. They were still much nearer to that place than they were to Phoenix. It is important to observe this because it shows what course the ship took in going from Crete to Claude ;ἔβαλε – zvqorizós, a typhonic wind struck against it, i. e. the ship. Some critics, as even Kuinoel, De Wette, Meyer, refer avτns to Kontv. But how can we understand it in that way, when it said in the next verse that they yielded to the force of the wind and were driven by it towards Claude, which is south-west from Fair Havens ? It is impossible to admit that view, unless we suppose that in the course of a few moments it blew from precisely opposite quarters. The opinion of others appears to be more correct that the writer's mind at auris was upon the ship, and that he uses that form of the pronoun because the mental antecedent was vavs which actually occurs in v. 41, though aholov is Luke's ordinary word for that idea. Comp. Win. § 65. 7, Bale may be taken as intransitive, (Raph. Annott. 2. p. 197) or as others prefer, may imply after it avtór; see Butt. § 130. N. 2. TVpoovizós describes the wind with reference to the whirling of the clouds occasioned by the meeting of opposite currents of the air. Pliny (Lib. 2. c. 48) in speaking of sudden blasts says that they cause a vortex which is called "typhoon;" and Aulus Gellius (Lib. 19. c. 1) mentions certain figures or appearances of the clouds in violent tempests, which it was customary to call "typhoons." This term is intended to give us an idea of the fury of the gale; and its name, ɛvoo, xúlov as the word should most probably be written, denotes the point from which it came, i. e. Euroaquilo as in the Vulg., a north-east wind. This reading occurs in AB, which are two of the oldest manuscripts, and in some other authorities. It is approved by Grotius, MillBentley, De Wette and others. Lachmann inserts it in his edition of the text. The internal evidence favors that form of the word. A