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The word Shin was used by the first translators, Morrison, Milne, and Marshman, and is still preferred by many; against it, however, there has been, and is, violent opposition; but what to put in its place, its opposers are at a loss to determine. The truth is, it seems to me, there is no other word it stands, I think, precisely where the word God does in English, sis in Greek, and is in Hebrew. The word Shin has great extension, and this has given rise to this opposition; but this very extension makes it (as the case is) the word, and the only word. You will understand this extension, if you take, instead of the GOD, the Latin-derived word divinity, the noun, in its various shapes and forms abstract and concrete, adjective, adverb, etc., and then we can say in good English, the soul divine, divinely fair, etc. etc. What is secured to the English by all these changes in the form of the word, the Chinese have secured to them by position and structure, and without mistake."



A Philological and Exegetical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles by H. B. Hackett, Professor of Biblical Literature in the Newton Theological Institution, will soon be put to press, and will be published in the spring of 1851. It will make a volume of 350 or 400 pages. Its aim will be to give a full exhibition of the meaning of the text, supported by the best critical authorities. Some questions of special difficulty will be discussed in an appendix. The Commentary on the last two chapters, inserted in the present number of our journal is much more copious than that which will appear in the volume. In the latter the results only of extended investigations will, in most cases, be given. The friends of biblical learning and of a correct knowledge of the Scriptures, may confidently expect from Prof. Hackett the rich fruits of a long and patient examination of this portion of the Bible.

Rev. W. C. Fowler, late Professor of Rhetoric in Amherst College, has been, for several years, engaged on a literary work, which is now published. It is entitled, "The English Language in its Elements and Forms. With a History of its Origin and Development, Designed for use in Colleges and Schools." It is printed by the Harpers, in a volume of 675 pages octavo. The paper, type, etc., are all which could be de


Miscellanies, Theological and Literary.


sired. It will be seen to be on the first glance a very elaborate and comprehensive treatise. It discusses in eight parts the origin and history of the English language, its phonology or sounds, orthographical forms, and etymology, logical forms, syntax, rhetorical forms, and prosody or poetical forms. Prof. Gibbs of Yale College, who has long been well known, as an able and successful student in comparative philology, has written about 130 pages of the volume, principally in that department of etymology, which treats of the derivation of the language. The author acknowledges his special obligations to the treatises of Dr. Latham. A work of this general character has long been a great desideratum in our colleges and higher seminaries. We may offer more extended remarks hereafter.

We have before us the first two volumes of the great work of Col. Chesney, entitled, "The Expedition for the Survey of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, carried on by order of the British Government, in the years 1835, 1836, and 1837." The four volumes will contain 14 maps and charts, 97 plates, besides numerous wood-cuts. Vol. I. contains 798 pages, including an Index of 58 pages; Vol. II. contains 778 pages, including an Index of 72 pages. The author had previously, by command of the British government, surveyed the Red Sea, the Euphrates from its source to its mouth, the rivers of Susiana, and the country between the banks of the Euphrates and the Mediterranean. The results of his researches in relation to the relative advantages of the routes from England to India, by the Red Sea and the Euphrates, were laid before the government. This led to the Expedition to determine the possibility of navigating the Euphrates by steam, which left England, Feb. 10, 1835. The two iron steamers, the Euphrates of 50 horse power, and the Tigris of 20, were transported from the Orontes to Bir on the Euphrates and commenced the descent, March 16, 1836. The number of officers, interpreters, passengers and seamen was 70. The expedition reached Basrah in June, 1050 miles by the windings of the river. The first volume is wholly introductory and of a topographical, geographical and statistical nature, including descriptions of the Tigris, Euphrates, Armenia, the Russian provinces, Assyria, Afghanistan, each of the provinces of Persia, each of the districts of Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Arabia; the contents of the second volume are historical, tracing the great events, sacred and secular, which have occurred in these regions, from the beginning to the present time. Among the concluding topics are the Intercourse between Europe and Asia, Literature and Science of the East, Ancient and Modern Commerce, Architecture, Sculpture, Boats and Hydraulic Works, etc. The appendices contain valuable official papers, with some of the results of the labors of Major Raw68

VOL. VII. No. 28.

linson and others in deciphering the inscriptions, etc. On some future occasion, we shall endeavor to give a more extended account of this immense work. The narrative part, describing an expedition through regions, once trodden by mighty conquerors, and portions of them by inspired prophets, and now yielding back at the call of science, long buried treasures, must be crowded with interest.

The 4th Number of the Studien u. Kritiken for 1850, has the following articles. The first is on the handling of the doctrine of the Trinity in sermons, by Prof. Sack, of Bonn. His aim is to show that, on the one hand, an essentially church value and a permanent living character of the doctrine of the trinity, is independent of its strongly enstamped dogmatic forms, and on the other, that the sermon as a genuine sermon, which rests on the Scripture, gains a firm and pure church support by a vital reference of its main points to the Divine Trinity. In the second article, Prof. Grimm, of Jena, vindicates the genuineness of the epistles to the Thessalonians against the attack of Baur. It is an elaborate discussion of 64 pages, and closes with the words, "That so long as the opponents of the genuineness can adduce no better reasons, we hold fast to the unbroken church tradition." The preacher, Hauff of Waldenbach, offers, in the third article, some remarks on Ps. 119, 62: 3, and Is. 64: 8. The Washing of the Disciples' feet by Christ, in respect to its Sacramental value, is the title of the fourth article, by Prof. William Böhmer of Breslau; "That the Protestant church has not recognized the washing of the feet by Christ as a sacrament, is an offence against the Holy Scriptures, which is the more striking, as this church sees in the Scriptures the source of her Christianity, and the only standard of her faith and practice." The next article is a review by Wächtler of Essen, of Göbel's History of the Christian Life in the Rhenish Westphalia. Three works on the Waldenses by Schmidt, Monastier and Herzog, the first two in French, the last in Latin, are reviewed, in the fifth article, by C. U. Hahn. The last article is an extended " opinion of the theological faculty of the university of Heidelberg on the Plan laid down of organization of the Evangelical church of the Palatinate." This Plan was adopted in the stormy period of 1848, "proceeding on the broadest basis after the model of a political election, depressing as far as possible the spiritual and conservative element, and bringing out the secular and progressive element." This opinion of the theológical faculty, written by Ullmann, was prepared at the request of 76 clergymen and laymen.

The ninth volume of Ritter's History of Philosophy treats of philosophy in the revival of letters, and during the ecclesiastical movements from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century. It describes the position


Miscellanies, Theological and Literary.

which philosophy in modern literature bears to philology, theology, mathematics, natural science and Christian life. - A third edition of J. A. Bengel's Gnomon Novi Testamenti a Commentary on the entire New Testament, edited by his son, has lately been published at Tübingen. Dr. H. A. Meyer is preparing a Commentary on the Apocalypse, to complete his Critico-Exegetical Commentary. It is not mentioned who will write the Commentary on the Hebrews and the seven following epistles. The first volume of Hengstenberg on the Apocalypse contains 632 pp. and closes with the twelfth chapter. The first part of the second volume is published. The second part, which concludes the work, will appear in a short time.


The university of Breslau had in the summer semester, just closed, 780 students, a diminution of 39 from the winter; Giessen, 438, an addition of 8; Halle, 636, a diminution of 16, 335 in theology; Marburg, 307.

"The Present." (Die Gegenwart.) This work, which is a continuation of the Conversations Lexicon, was noticed in Vol. VI. p. 197, of the Bibl. Sacra. We have now received 52 numbers or Hefts, making four volumes of about 700 pages each, and one third of the fifth volume. It is published by Brockhaus of Leipsic, each No. costing about 15 cents, the volume, one dollar and eighty cents. The topics discussed in the last six Nos. are as follows: Prussia at the time of its national Congress, Charles Gutzlaff; Human Physiology on the Position of existing Science; Franz von Pillersdorf; The Revolution in Venice; Hungary before the March Revolution; France and Paris in the months after the February Revolution; War of 1849 in Baden; German National Congress; Hungarian Revolution in 1848. These topics are treated with fulness of learning and accuracy of information, and a decidedly liberal spirit. We could wish that more space were given to topics of a literary, scientific and miscellaneous character, and to political subjects outside of the "Fatherland." Perhaps England and America do not belong to "The Present."


Page 626, last line, for in read for. Owing to the state of the MS. of article IV. some errors remain. Page 650, for Jacob T. M. Falkenau, read Jacob I. M. Falkenau; in line 15, dele. figure 1, and insert §; transpose lines 5 and 6 from bottom

the beginning of the preceding paragraph; line 16 from bottom insert a point in ; page 651, line 4th for Talisha read Telisha; last line for read ; 652, 8th line from bottom, omit final h in Pashtah; page 653, 4th line, read Tiph'ha for Tephha; page 654, 14th line from bottom, for Tlisha, read T'lisha.


Accents, Hebrew, 650.
Acts xxvii, xxviii, Commentary on,
by Prof. Hackett, 753.
Aeschines' Oration on the Crown,
Champlin's edition of, reviewed
by Woolsey, 426. Valuable quali-
ties of the edition, 426. Criticism
on the Notes, 427. Equality of
the archons, 429. Sense of 8,
430. Chronological difficulty, 431.
Three theories in regard to the
records, 433. Dionysia, Nomothe- |
tae, 435. The Nomothetae were
merely a court sitting on the laws,
437. Agency of the prytanes, 439.
Cirrha and Crissa distinct places,
441. Various remarks, 443. Py-
thian games in the autumn, 449.
Aeschylus, Prometheus, and Aga-
memnon, 388.

Amherst College, libraries in, 404.
Andover Theol. Sem. library, 181.
Aristophanes, Birds of, noticed, 401.
Athenaeum Library, Boston, 176.
Attributes, moral, of Divine Being,

668; Divine character analogous
to our own, 669; liability to suf-
fering in man, consistent with
God's goodness, 671; subserve be-
nevolent ends, 673; objection that
God might have made man inca-
pable of being injured, 675; occa-
sion of liability, 677; life not a
principle, but a power, 679; mind
acts on the body through the
nerves, 681; other uses of suffer-
ing, 683; number of classes, or-
ders, etc. 685; carnivorous ani-
mals, 687; man placed in fit-

ting circumstances, 689; desire of
knowledge,691; moral feeling and
outward nature, 692; goodness of
God, 695.

Attributes, natural, of the Divine Be-
ing, essay on, 328; matter in its
relation to a higher power, 329;
evidence of adaptation,330; struc-
ture of organic beings, 331; trans-
cendent skill, 332; adaptations
suppose design, 333; simple phe-
nomena more affecting than the
most labored design, 335; why
does the Creator not reveal him-
self more clearly? 337; the earth
has not always existed in its pre-
sent form, 339; successive races
of animals, 341; "Vestiges of crea
tion," 343; Babbage's Calculating
Engine, 345; nature not origi-
nating, 347; doctrine of develop-
ment, 349; an all-wise Creator,


Bähr on Solomon's temple, 390.
Baptism, Syriac words for, 733.
Baur on Amos, noticed, 386.
Beecher, Dr. Edward, on Man made

in the Image of God, 409.
Being Divine, his moral attributes,

Beza, Theodore, life by Robbins, 501;
lineage and childhood, 501; early
education, 503; his teacher Mel-
chior Wolmar, 504; influence of
the Reformation, 505; Beza's ac
quaintance with Calvin, 506; at
Orleans university, 508; Maria
Stella, 509; first years at Paris,

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