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“Dem's the nicest vairses, I tink.”

There growed out in snow-white vool the shining -how he was glad, how it was dear to him, when shields of he got to write the first letter of her name, and after- Ain't there a word you say spinned ? ” wards to learn his Ingeborg, that was to Frithiof -spinned gold ; red as the lightning flew the lances more than the king's honor.

of the war, and stiff of silver was every armor. But is he in the winter evening, with his soul fierce, But as she quickly is weaving and nicely, she gets by the fire's beam was reading of bright Walhalla, a the heroes Frithiof's shape, and as she comes farther song, a song of the gods

into the weave, she gets red, but still she sees them "Vell, dat's the mans ; vat's the vomen's?"

with joy. "Goddesses ? "

But Frithiof did cut in walley and field many an I " Vell, dat's it."

and F in the bark of-a song of the gods and goddesses' joy, he was tink- “He cut all round. Wherever he come, he cut ing, Yellow is the hair of Freya. My Ingeborg- them two."

“Vat's a big field called when it is all over -the trees. These Runes is healed with happy and ripe?”

joy, just like the young hearts together. “ Yellow?"

When the daylight stands in its emerald"No,"-a shake of the head.

(Here we had a long halt, Katrina insisting on -is like the fields when easy waves the summer wind saying" sınaragd,” and declaring that that was an a golden net round all the flower bundles. ... English word; she had seen it often, and " it could

But the king's daughter sat and sung a hero song, not be pronounced in any other way"; she had seen and weaved glad into the stuff all things the hero it in “ Lady Montaig in Turkey,”—“she had loads have done, the blue sea, the green walley, and rock- of smaragds and all such things.” Her contrition,

when she discovered her mistake, was inimitable.]


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MR. SCHUYLER, lately United States min- who were the real depositaries of power in ister to Greece, Roumania, and Serbia, and the United States; if we could lay aside for perhaps still more generally known as former awhile the literary theory of our constituconsul and secretary of legation in Russia, tion and of its workings, which has been delivered in 1885 a course of lectures at Johns taught to us from childhood, and look only Hopkins' University, and at Cornell, upon at the practice of our representative instituour consular and diplomatic service; and later tions, as they have been modified, and, as in the same year, another course upon the it were, solidified during the last twenty-five uses of our diplomacy to commerce and nav- years ; if we should study the facts alone, as igation. These two courses of lectures are if there were no written constitution, we now published as a book, under the title of should find that in the last analysis, the govAmerican Diplomacy.

ernment of the United States, in ordinary The chapters which evidently composed peaceful and uneventful times, is a nearly irthe first course are “The Department of responsible despotism, composed of five or State," "Our Consular System,” and “ Dip- six men, working under and through constilomatic Officials.” The first of these chap- tutional forms, and subject only to the penters opens with a suggestive statement of the alty which is always exacted for very grave position of the Secretary of State, which se- mistakes. These six men are : the Presicures interest from the outset : "If we were dent of the United States, who is, it is true, to put ourselves,” says Mr. Schuyler, " in the elected by the people, but only from two place of an intelligent foreign diplomatist, or three candidates proposed by partisan anxious to discover for his own purposes conventions, as the result of intrigue or the

failure of intrigue; the Secretary of State 1 American Diplomacy. By Eugene Schuyler. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1886. For sale in San and the Secretary of the Treasury, named Francisco by A. L. Bancroft & Co.

by the President as his colleagues and asso

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ciates, rather than his advisers and servants, for "new and inexperienced men, appointed confirmed by the Senate, which never refus- solely for partisan political services "—to the es its approval except for causes of the most disaster of the service. scandalous nature, or for reasons of extreme The importance of the “thoroughly trained partisan feeling ; the Speaker of the House and skilled subordinates " is thus as apparent of Representatives, who is elected as such as that of a competent Secretary. This is by his fellow.congressmen at the dictation especially important in the foreign represen. of a clique, or as the result of a compromise tative corps. No one can be appointed to between the factions and the personal am- the British consular service, unless he has bitions of the dominant party; the Chair- passed an examination showing an accurate man of the Standing Committee on Appro- knowledge of the English language, a fluent priations, and the Chairman of the Standing command of French (the common language Committee on Ways and Means, both ap- of European diplomacy), a fair knowledge of pointed by the Speaker, leading men in Con- the language in use at the port to which he gress, and generally his rivals for the Speak- is going, of British mercantile and commerership.”

cial law, and of such arithmetic as is neces“This grave conflict between actual prac- sary for making up his tables and reports. tice and constitutional theory,” he attributes He must, in most cases, remain at least three to the working of the rules of Congress; and months in the Foreign Office, to learn its referring the reader to Mr. Woodrow Wil- methods; and he is expected, besides, to give son's book on Congressional Government evidence of courtesy, tact, decision, and to for further analysis of it, goes on to speak have knowledge of the law of nations. For more specifically of the Secretary of State, admission to the French consular service, who "by hasty action, by an intemperate or one must be French, between twenty and ill-timed insistence on national or individual twenty-five years of age ; "must have a dirights, by even a want of tact or a hasty ploma as bachelor of arts, science, or laws,” word . . . may embroil us with other pow. or else be a graduate of one of nine specified ers, may involve us in the political compli- technical schools, or hold the commission cations of other continents, or may bring of an officer in the active army or navy. He upon us all the evils of a foreign war. By must then pass examination on the governan ignorance of precedent, by an act of good mental systems of France and other counnature, or in an impulsive moment, he may tries; general principles of international, give up rights that we have jealously claimed commercial, and maritime law; the history for a century . . . By the negotiation of a of treaties, and political and commercial getreaty he may ... draw the country into a ography; the elements of political economy, scheme of annexation, saddle us with a col- and English or German. After three years' ony, or the protectorate of a distant country. service he must pass another examination In fact, our Secretaries of State have been of the same nature, for promotion. Other habitually very cautious, but “the possibili- governments exact like preparation. For a ties of what an enterprising and inexperi- United States consul, it is not even required enced Secretary, ignorant of foreign coun- that he should be able to read and write the tries, might do for us, unless he were sur- English language correctly; and as may be rounded by thoroughly trained and skilled easily imagined, our national dignity is somesubordinates, are such as to make this branch times seriously wounded by the inability of of our government worthy of special study." some consul-appointed entirely without One Secretary, whom the author names only qualification, for partisan services—to appear as “the one who remained the shortest with decent credit beside those of other natime in office," but who is easily recognizable, tions at the same port. in the six days of his incumbency changed Not only our failure to exact any preparathe majority of this corps of subordinates, tion for the service, but our inadequate re


muneration, puts the national dignity at a sides salaries from $5,000 to $12,500 to condisadvantage as compared with other nations. suls.general, and sometimes as high as $6,000 From the Secretary of State down, the sala- and $7,500 to consuls, it gives permanent ries in our service are such as make it impos- tenure of office, and prospect of promotion sible to preserve the appearances that are and of pension. Thus any young man may expected of the position. It is becoming enter upon the service, with reasonable hope notorious that, since it has become necessary of coming to the highest salary and best pofor the Secretary of State to offer so much sition in time, if he shows himself compehospitality, it is impossible for any one to tent; and the result is a most desirable and take the place who is not able and willing efficient corps. It will be seen that a little to supplement his salary of $8,000 from his more liberality, and an extension of civil serindeperdent fortune. Consuls-general re- vice examinations to this department (with ceive from $2,000 to $6,000, consuls from a requirement of good English, of French, $

a , $1,000, with permission to engage in busi- of the necessary knowledge of arithmetic, ness, to $4,000 (only one receiving $4,000, of commercial and international law, of treaand $2,500 being a high average). Most ir- ties, of our own government, and of the lanregular fees are now abolished, and the reg- guage and government of the country to ular fees are counted on the salary; so that, which the candidate wishes to go) would not in fact, the expense of the service was, until only raise the efficiency and dignity of the last year, more than covered by the fees. corps greatly, but would also open an honorIn 1883 the government received a surplus able and safe career to many young men, of nearly fifty-six thousand dollars, and in and put a stop to the hordes of consulate1884 of over thirty-six thousand. The Brit- seekers at Washington that now supply abunish service costs about three hundred and dant material for newspaper scoffing. fifty thousand dollars more than ours : be


We find it necessary to repeat at intervals an an- expression of some view overlooked by both, or all, nouncement that was made at the outset of the pres- the discussing parties. The long intervals at which ent series of THE OVERLAND, viz : that one object a magazine is published are of themselves sufficient of its existence was to furnish a free forum for ex- to rule it out of the field of editorial controversy ; it pression of opinion upon subjects of public policy. could be answered thirty times before it could anA newspaper, on most public questions, has its own swer again. On the other hand, it is the natural veside, and no other ; it is the advocate of one party hicle of comprehensive articles upon matters in or policy, and its own editorial pleas on its own side discussion--such articles as require considerable constitute nearly all the reader can find on the sub. time for preparation, and are so far a complete presject. Rarely, communications backing it up are add. entation of the argument as to be entitled to more ed; still more rarely, an occasional communication permanent form than the daily or weekly can give controverting its position. But the position of a mag- them. In England, we find a very considerable and azine is totally different. Its editorial expressions influential part of political discussion, upon measare, at most, only a sinall fraction of those given cur- ures of large importance, thus carried on in the " rency in its pages. Of the four representative mag- views” and magazines. There is, perhaps, less of it azines of thccountry, the “Atlantic" publishes nothing here, but it forms a proper and considerable part of but book notices editorially ; “Harper's Monthly a magazine's function. The OveRLAND announced confines editorial comment to literary and social at the outset that it offered a forum--otherwise want. topics of a general sort ; the “Century” and the ing in this State--for the hearing of both sides of OVERLAND only occasionally take editorial position any public question not of a party nature ; provided, upon some controverted point, when it either is of so of course, the papers offered were, in intelligence, in great importance as to need the union of all voices literary quality, in temper, and so forth, suitable. possible-as the civil service reform-or calls for the This was consistently our course in the matter of the


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Chinese exclusion discussion, and we had supposed Other schools, smaller, poorer, and less perfect in it thereby so well defined that we have been a little technical drill than those of San Francisco, have consurprised to find the OVERLAND commented on as sistently surpassed hers in this higher education ; and having “taken sides” in the Riparian Rights contro- her two high schools should take the lead in makversy, by publishing, over the signature of the author, ing this no longer true. without any expression of editorial opinion, a contributed article upon the subject. Let us repeat,

Correction again, we accept no responsibility for the views of TO THE EDITOR OF THE Overland MONTHLY : our contributors, beyond that implied in our having May I beg you to allow me a line or two for the judged them worthy of a reasonable hearing. Our correction of a vexatious blunder made in a foot-note issues of May and June, 1885, show that we have given to my California, p. 429? I have there accused Mr. such hearing to several sides of the Riparian discus- John S. Hittell of putting Meiggs's flight from San sion, and probably shall to more, as occasion offers. Francisco in September, 1854, instead of in October.

In fact, Mr. Hittell's statement, on p. 223 of his HisThe experience of the San Francisco Boys' High tory of San Francisco, actually puts Meiggs's flight in School is a matter of considerable importance to the October, and my accusation was based on a note of civilization of the community, and calls for some mine, made after a careless misreading of Mr. Hitcomment here. It was certainly sufficiently morti. tell's text. The haste with which my volume, after fying that for two years this high school-nominally it had once been completed, passed through the the principal one in the State--should have been ad- press, prevented me from comparing my notes or mitted with doubt and reluctance into the number my proof with Mr. Hittell's text, to verify my reof those privileged to graduate their pupils directly mark. The matter is very small in itself, but as I into the University. Most of our readers are aware somehow took it upon myself to correct, in passing, that the privilege was given this year only with a pub. Mr. Hittell, it is only fair that I should take back lished statement from the University of the marked de- my correction. Let me add, that I shall be deeply ficiencies which must be corrected before there could obliged for further correction of any mistakes, smal) be any great probability of its being retained. This or great, that your readers may note in my book. rebuke was merely an unmistakably emphatic asser- Errors are so easy, in work of this kind, and yet so tion of what was already well known—that the school much to be regretted, that I am anxious to correct all was in a bad condition, and fallen well to the rear that I can of my own, and ask no mercy for them among the high schools of the State. It is not worth

Yours respectfully, while to try to fix the blame for this state of affairs

Josiah Royce. upon any one : it was partly due to political faction 20 LOWELL STREET, CAMBRIDGE, Mass. in the administration of school affairs, partly to wrong placing of excellent men. The thing that is now of

Some Zuni Traditions. most importance is to note that the public has, since The Zuñis have an explanation for any question the reorganization of the school, good and sufficient asked them concerning their peculiarities, customs, assurance that it will be managed with energy and etc. Many of these are more interesting, as romansystem, and will doubtless soon regain its place, as tic flights of fancy than as truth, for they overstep far as the technically efficient administration of a the line of the possible. However the Zuñis themhigh school goes, among the foremost schools of its selves believe in their cherished traditions as sacred grade in the State.

historical facts, and relate them with an admirable

earnestness and sympathy of feeling. They have one This is good-excellent--as far as it goes. But to the effect that they, aided by the Navajoes and whether we are to look for anything better than this Pueblos, macle and put in their places the sun, moon, from the new administrators of this great moulder of and stars, finding themselves in need of light, after our future citizens, remains to be seen:

That they

an escape into the big open world from a great cayhave the power to impart to the school that higher ern of solid silver in the San Francisco mountains, educational spirit which has always been so wanting in seen far west of their pueblos. San Francisco schools—the impulse to farther learn- This self-helpful and advanced tribe of Indians say ing, the love of truth, the scholarly spirit, chivalrous that the towns (now ruins) in Rio Chaco, de Chelley, enthusiasms, disinterested aims, enlightening glimps and other cañons, were built by Montezuma, who es into the great world of thought and intellectual ac- often erected a pueblo in a single night, and who tion-we can as yet only hope. It was well said by planted corn that grew in the darkness, and was a devoted teacher of this State, that “the higher ed- ready for harvest on the following morning. In ucation" did not mean the later years of schooling building the pueblos the estufa was never forgotten, as distinguished from the earlier, but a spirit and on the altar of which he kindled a flame ever after method of education that should permeate the whole held sacred. course ; one could have the higher education in the These estufas are found in all the ruins of town or primary school, and could fail of it in the University. city throughout New Mexico and Arizona. They


are six to nine feet in diameter, and circular, having performs incantations to attest their reverence for neither window nor door, but an aperture in the roof the spirit who makes it his home. If the governor for access and egress. They contain, usually, a large is not present, this duty falls upon one of the others. fiat stone for an altar. In the estufas of the habit- On the face of the bluffs that rise so high above able and inhabited pueblos this flame was not extin- the valley to form the mesu above, are two colos. guished until the portion of Montezuma's prophecy sal pillars of sandstone, reaching nearly to the level, regarding the coming of white people from the east and, though evidently formed by nature, these had been fulfilled.

much resemble the human form. A tragic tradiMontezuma's mother, the bride of the Great Spirit, tion clings to these two giants. Ages before the was so beautiful that all the chiefs of the land so white man was known, a great flood swept the valworshiped her that they warred with each other in ley, overwhelming the pueblos, and drowning all, rivalry for her favor, and gave her presents of corn, both human and animal, except those that scaled wheat, skins, and precious stones; and when famine the steep bluffs and reached the mesa. Here the came to them she hastened to their relief with ample people thought themselves sase, but the water still supplies, the stores accumulated by their own liber- rose higher and higher, until the land seemed a ality, in token of their love for her. One day she vast ocean, with the mountains as islands. Their terlay down to sleep in a grove, and a drop of dew fell ror grew more intense as they watched the water-mark, upon her bare bosom, by which she became pregnant inch by inch, nearing their altitude. At length, it and bore the great and universally beloved Monte- had only thirty feet more to reach, and it would food

the mesa. The mountains were not accessible. Not There are occasionally found among them, indi- another foot's elevation was to be had. Something viduals who have light hair and blue eyes. I am must be done, and that at once, for their protection. told that they themselves account for this curious Many were so overwhelmed by the calamity, and so phenomenon, by relating a version of the well-known certain of their doom, that they did nothing but gaze legend of the Welsh prince, Madoc, whose colony, in with an uncontrollable fascination upon the flood at the iwelfth century, is said to have reached Zuñi, their seet, eleven hundred feet deep, under which after many wanderings, and there settled; disputes the highest four-story building of their pueblo, in over the possession of the Welshwomen led to the which they were so lately comfortably quartered, destruction of the Welshmen, leaving the women to in fear of foe neither in man, nor beast, nor nature's. become incorporated with the tribe.

elements, lay buried at almost as great a depth-their In the Agua Pescada, near Zuñi, is a curious fish

city, provisions, household conveniences, and comresembling a pike, which has its origin in man. Two forts gone, flocks and herds, and, worst of all, their Indians were returning from the sacred spring. One dear ones perished ; and in connection with all this of these had vowed not to taste flesh that had been

death, even to their last member, seemed unavoidable. touched by water. Passing along the bank of the Others were hopeful that the water would recede stream, they saw some game sitting on the branch ere it reached the brink on which they were collected. of a tree. One of them shot an arrow at it, and the These few cast about for a means of helpful action. body sell into the water, but was rescued. When

The need of a great offering to appease the wrath the game was prepared for eating, the Indian under of the Spirit was urged and acknowledged. Its hasty vow was over-persuaded, and ate of the meat. Al execution had become a necessity painfully felt by the most immediately his hunger was replaced by violentashen-faced participants in the council. The gove thirst, and no draught from a drinking vessel could re- ernor's son and daughter, in the beauty of their budlieve it. At last he leaped into the stream to drink ding manhood and womanhood, were the chosen his fill.

victims for the sacrifice, for the sake of which they "I cannot see!” he shouted from the water to his hoped their supplications to the Great Spirit to stay comrade, “come to me!"

the further rising of the water would be heard and The comrade, alarmed by his tone of voice as well granted. The verdict pronounced, the brother and as his words, ran toward him, but too late to drag sister were seized, bound, and pitched over the brink him from the water. He had changed into a fish. into the depths of the flood—where the sun had risen The Great Spirit had so punished him for his broken but once or twice since the happy birds soared in

altitudes of air, with a panorama beneath them of The sacred spring is near Zuñi, at the foot of a prosperous fields and merry workers, grazing kine, bluff ten to twelve hundred feet high. It is ten feet and busy thrist. The waters closed over the victims in diameter, with a low stone wall around it. On where the industry of generations lay swallowed up the surface of this stand tenajas (earthenware jars) in desolation. bottom up. These are gifts of friendship to the But the offering was not in vain. The Great spirit of the spring., None of the Zuñis ever taste Spirit appreciated the adoration of the people in sacof this water ; they would fear instant death for such rificing to him the two most loved of their children. a sacrilege When it is visited, the governor is usu- The surging element beating so ominously against the ally one of the party, and he invariably, while there, brink of the mesa grew calm almost at once, and the



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