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Major General George H. Thomas, from June 1, 1869, to March 2, 1870; Major General John M. Schofield, from March 2, 1870, to July 1, 1876; Major General John Pope, November 30, 1883, to March 16, 1886; Major General Oliver O. Howard, April 17, 1886, to November 26, 1888; Major General Nelson A. Miles, November 26, 1888, to September 1, 1890; Brigadier General John Gibbon, September 1, 1890, to April 20, 1891. Major General Jas. W. Forsyth subsequently commanded here, as did Major General William R. Shafter, Major General Robert P. Hughes, Major General S. B. M. Young, and Major General Arthur MacArthur.

On January 15, 1904, the Pacific Division, embracing the Department of the Columbia and the Department of California, was formed and Major General Arthur MacArthur placed in command. General MacArthur was ordered on detached service during the present year, and Brigadier General Francis Moore had command from February 15 to April 6, 1905, being relieved on the latter uate by Brigadier-General Frederick Funston (who had been ordered in command of the Division of California), and he in turn was relieved in command of the Division by Major General Samuel S. Sumner on May I, 1905.

But to revert to the question of the defenses. When one's mind recurs to artillery practice with large guns a picture arises of swarthy men with handkerchiefs knotted about their brows, very much unclothed, bespattered with buckets of gore from their companions, who are prostrated about the pieces of ordnance minus all sorts of limbs, and the "heroes behind the gun" swearing strange oaths anent shivering their timbers and blasting their toplights, but always with the lanyard in hand, fondly smacking the breech of the gun and anon sighting the massive piece ere blow

ing their opponents galley west and crooked. Alas, for the stories of naval engagements with "lay her broadside, too!" and "throw out the grapplin' irons, my hearties!" and for the "heated guns of the camp allied, that grew weary of bombarding!" "Nous avons change tout cela-" Instead of the strange oaths is delicately adjusted mechanism; in lieu of the breech-smacking gunner with his telescopic eye, is a problem in geometry, and instead of a mass of dismembered artillerists are several clerical-looking men who handle levers and wheels and all species of dynamic motive power, and subject to whose calculations the huge gun ascends into the open and fires its shot, returning again to the abyss for re-preparation for another loading and adjustment.

How, then, are these fearful implements of modern warfare handled, and how is the range found of an advancing hostile vessel or vessels? This question, of course, recurred to the author, and he accordingly sought out Lieutenant Colonel Sedgwick Pratt, Inspector General and Artillery Inspector on the staff of the Commanding General, for exact data and information, particularly about the aggregate number of guns whereon we must rely to drive off any foe who may be attempting to effect an entrance on our shores or to destroy the city by long-range artillery practice. And here are a few preliminary figures for the information and amusement of the reader. The 12-inch gun hurls a projectile weighing 1,000 lbs; the 10inch gun one weighing 575 lbs.; the 8-inch gun one weighing 300 lbs., and the 6-inch gun one "hefting" 100 lbs. Commonly speaking, the effective range of a gun is 1,000 yards per inch, the 12-inch and 10inch guns having a destructive potentiality of 12,000 and 10,000 yards respectively; the 8-inch gun is effective at 8,000 yards, but so is the 6-inch gun, because of the greater

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involved in the ascertainment of the distance of a vessel, either by vertical or horizontal triangulation, and the accompanying diagram will explain the mode, with the help of the subjoined elucidation.

A base line, say 2,000 yards long, is laid out from a point of vantage for observation at A B from each of which points a due south line is made to D C. At the approach of an inimical vessel the lines bearing DA E, CBE are taken with instruments at A and B. This data is telephoned to the battery commander's station (G), which may be located at any convenient point, and he, on a plotting board with two long arms points these arms (according to the telephoned data) and by their point of intersection the required data of range and bearing are determined. He then, in turn, telephones the instructions to the men at the guns, and they point the guns accordingly. The gun is mechanically discharged and lowered into the pit, where a similar performance is re-enacted.


In the event of the observing sta

tion being on an elevation, diagram RR will readily render the modus operandi comprehensible. At the station (K) by transit the direction K M is taken (the "dip" or decline being also readily ascertained), the height (KL) being known, the range (L M) is determined, due allowance, of course, being made in the direction K L for the stage of the tide. This mode is termed vertical as distinguished from the former-horizontal-position finding.

This data furnished by Colonel Pratt being eminently satisfying and reassuring as to the competence of the various guns to dispose of any hostile force, the author asked his informant what was the total number of guns disposed at the various batteries about the bay. Colonel Pratt is a very pleasant and courteous gentleman, but on this matter he was as mute as the Sphinx. He explained, however, that his reticence on this subject was enforced by strict orders from the Commander-in-Chief. Then as to any exact data relative to the number of the guns or their relative calibre, capacity and disposition, the people of the city and State would have to be agnostic concerning. "Certainly," replied the officer. "But the armament is comprehensively adequate for all reasonably exigent purposes?" "Certainly," again answered the Colonel, "else where were the use for its installation at


all?" "But there is absolutely method whereby the location of the guns could be determined? "Well," said the Artillery Inspector, "you might take a balloon, and by floating overhead of the various batteries ascertain the location of some of them." "And perhaps become a target for some of the vigilant sentries," the author suggested. "Well," said the officer, "it is possible that that might happen to add zest to the exploration."

The author not having any dirigible balloons in his garage at present has refrained from making this aerial survey; but if any of the readers of this essay are afflicted with insatiable curiosity on the subject, Colonel Pratt's method of gratifying it is commended to their consideration..

To those who are willing to take the matter of defensive armament on faith, and the authority of competent critics, it may be asserted that San Francisco harbor is most scientifically and competently protected harbor on the Atlantic or Pacific seaboard.


Note. The author has to acknowledge the acquirement of important facts and figures from the chief clerk of the military secretaries of the Pacific Division and of the Department of California, without which this essay would have been principally surmises.

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ROM the day that he was born the buzzing of a sewing machine sounded in his ears. His father was a sweat-shop worker in the great city of New York, and he grew up in the slums of the city with other Jewish boys, spending his time in the streets until he was old enough to carry bundles of clothes and learn to run a machine to help support the increasing family.

He went to the public schools long enough to learn to read, and when he settled down to the grinding routine of a shirt maker he spent his spare minutes reading lurid colored dime novels.

The stories of western outlaws were his favorites. He devoured the tales of Indian fighting and reveled in adventures with horse thieves and cattle rustlers.

His sole ambition was to become a desperado of the long-hair type and have an outlaw name and ride a black horse and have a band of cutthroat followers.

Every night when he went to bed he lay awake for hours and conjured up pictures of himself on a wild horse, scouring the plains for Indians or lone stage coaches.

As he grew older his dreams of outlawry in the West gradually faded, until they culminated in the desire to ride a horse up Broadway and be followed by a mob of small boys cheering wildly as he and his. companions had often cheered the men in the circus parades.

After he began to run a machine he never saw the light of day outside the sweat-shop, but pushed the pieces of cloth under the hungry jaws of the machine from long be

fore dawn until late after the streets were bathed in electric light.

One cold December day he stood at the window of the shop and looked up the street. He saw a long line of mounted men wearing yellow capes, riding four abreast behind a band. He knew that it was a troop of United States cavalry. By the flaming posters scattered over the city he knew they were to ride in exhibition at Madison Square Garden.

He felt a strange longing within himself as he turned to his machine and resumed his work. All day, while the shop was filled with dust and the noise of dozens of machines, he lived in a dreamland of his own. When night came and he drew his paltry week's wages, he counted the money and considered if he should sacrifice twenty-five cents to attend the performance.

On his way home he debated with himself, and although the small amount would deplete his earnings alarmingly, he felt that that strange longing again; a longing for the open air and sunshine, the sound of martial music and the throb of a horse between his knees which he only knew in imagination.

As he pictured the line of horsemen with their bright yellow capes and blue riding breeches and gleaming sabres, he resolved to go to Madison Square that night and sec the cavalrymen. He kept the quarter when he turned over his wages to his father, and after a tasteless meal stole out of the house.

Before buying his ticket ticket he feasted his eyes upon the highly colored pictures of blue clad troopers standing on galloping horses.


Not a detail escaped his greedy eyes. He saw the foam falling from the open mouth of the horse-the recklessly poised body of the trooperthe apparent lack of effort in guiding the horse or staying on his back. He saw it all and he feit that mysterious craving again and the blood leaped through his veins.

He was admitted to the gallery. A vast crowd was inside. Two bands crashed music, the great arc lights glared, and he saw the attendants below in the tan-covered arena making the last preparations for the troop.

He heard the neigh of a horse in the basement and a ringing command. There was a rush of horses' hoofs over the stairs and the troop burst into the arena in a mad gallop, the horses wild, with excitement at the cheers of twenty thousand people.

Isaac watched in breathless amazement as the horses leaped the

"After he began to run a machine he never saw the light of day."

hurdles, the soldiers standing in their stirrups Cossack style, with a grace and dash that made the onlookers hold their breath.

He realized that this was no circus riding with gentle horses, and all the safety devices common to the circus ring; they rode with the abandon of cowboys, the swift action and go of men who were working and enjoving their work because they knew they were doing it well and did not care to do anything else.

It seemed but a few minutes to Isaac when it was all over, but he

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