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ASTERIUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 373.
ASTERIUS, drives the Vandals out of Gallicia into the south of Spain, 420. ASTERIUS, TURCIUS RUFUS APRONIANUS, consul of Rome, 494.
ASTI, or ASTA, besieged by Alaric, 403excommunicated by pope Gregory X., for leaguing against Charles, k. of Naples, 1273-taken by John Palæologus, inarquis of Montferrat, from Robert, k. of Naples; the expelled Ghibelins restored, 1339-taken from the Visconti by the marquis of Montferrat, 1356-obtained by John Galeazzo, count of Vertus, 1378.
ASTLEY, lord, attempting to join k. Charles I. at Oxford, is routed at Stow-on-theWold, Mar. 21, 1646.
ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE burnt, Sept. 17, 1794-again, Sept. 2, 1803-again, June 8, 1841.
ASTOLFO, k. of Lombardy, 749- makes himself master of the whole exarchate of Ravenna, and threatens Rome, 752surrenders it to Pepin, 754-breaks his engagements, and attacks Rome; on the approach of Pepin, he withdraws his forces and is besieged in Pavia-is compelled to execute the former treaty, and give up Commachio, 755 killed by a wild boar, 756. ASTORGA, taken by Almansor, 983-recovered by Alfonso V., 1010-its Library purchased by the Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh, 1826. ASTRACAN, acquired and visited by Peter the Great, 1722.
ASTREA, the planet or asteroid, discovered by Hencke, Dec. 8, 1845. ASTROLABE, one of La Perouse's ships,
last heard of, 1788. See PEROUSE, LA. ASTROLOGERS, Chaldæan, driven out of Italy, B.C. 139.
ASTRONOMICAL CANON. See DIONYSIUS. ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS, Commence
ment of, at Babylon, B.C. 2234 (2230 H., 2233 C.)-tables of Alfonso X., k. of Castile, framed, 1253- Rodolphine, commenced by Tycho Brahe, 1580-continued by Kepler, 1601.
ASTURES, revolt, and are subdued by Augustus, B.C. 25.
ASTURIAS, the Gothic fugitives collect and defend themseves in the, 713-another band arrives from Cantabria, 722. See GOTHS in Spain.
ASTURIUS, Consul of Rome, 449.
ASTYLUS, Crotoniensis, Olympic victor,
B.C. 488. ASTYLUS, Syracusiensis, Olympic victor, B.C. 484.
ASTYPHILUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 420. ASYLUM, Infant Orphan, at Wanstead, first stone laid by Prince Albert, 1841. ATACINUS. See VARRO.
ATAIDE, Luis de, revives the waning power
ATHALARIC, son of Eutharic and Amalasontha, 523-becomes king of Italy, 526 -d. 534.
ATHALIAH, queen of Judah, B.C. 884-d. 877. ATHALIE." See RACINE. ATHANAGILD, k. of the Visigoths; makes Toledo his capital, 554-d. 567. ATHANARIC succeeds Hermanric, the Gothic chieftain, and concludes peace with Valens, 369-resigns his command to Fritigern, 376-visits Theodosius at CP., Jan. 11, 381-and dies there, Jan. 25.
ATHANASIAN FAITH defended at the Council of Carthage by Eugenius and the other African bps., 484-they are banished to Sardinia by Thorismund, 497. ATHANASIUS, instigates Alexander, bp. of Alexandria, to call a council against Arius, 321-distinguishes himself as secretary to Alexander, at the Council of Nice, by his vehement opposition to the Arians, 325-elected bp. of Alexandria, 326-favours the monastic system, and patronizes Antony, 328-disregards the vote of the Arian council of Cæsarea for his deposition, 334-the synods of Tyre and Jerusalem proceed violently against him-he has an interview with Constantine at CP.; the sentence of deposition is not enforced, but he is obliged to reside at Treves, 335-returns to Alexandria, 338 -deposed by the synod of Antioch, and takes refuge at Rome, where he introduces the monastic system into western Europe, and recommends its adoption, 341 -supported by a synod held at Rome, 342 -his restoration is voted by the general council held at Sardica, 347-his cause is supported by Serapion, bp. of Thmus, 348 Constans threatens to restore him by force-he is permitted by Con stantius to return, and received by the Alexandrians in triumph, 349-calls the monk Antony to Alexandria to assist in
the conversion of Arians, 352-condemned by the western bps. at the Council of Arles, 353-deposed by the Council of Milan, 355-being expelled by violence from Alexandria, retires among the monks of Thebais, 356-restored on the death of George of Cappadocia, but his power exceeding that of the civil governor, he is again banished, 362-returns to Alexandria, 363-d. May 2, 373. ATHANASIUS II. See ALEXANDRIA, bi
See CONSTANTINOPLE, pa
shops of. ATHANASIUS. triarchs of. ATHELARD, abp. of Canterbury, 790-d. 803. ATHELNEY, Alfred withdraws into the isle of, 878. ATHELRED, abp. of Canterbury, 870-d.888. ATHELSTAN, k. of England, 924-gives his sister in marriage to Sihtric, with a part of Northumberland, 925 Sihtric dies, and his lands revert to Athelstan, whose supremacy is acknowledged by Constantine III., k. of Scotland, Howel of the West Welsh, and Owen of Monmouth -his sister, Eadhild, is married to Hugh the Great, count of Paris, 926-another sister, Eadgith, marries Otho, son of Henry the Fowler, 930-victorious in Scotland, 933-assists in establishing Louis IV. in France, and Alan in Britanny-totally defeats a confederation of the Scotch and Irish, with the Danes of Northumberland, at Brunanburh, 937d. Oct. 22, 940.
ATHELSTAN, son of Ethelwulf, receives from his father the government of Kent, Essex, and Sussex, 836-repulses the Danes at Sandwich, 851. ATHELSTAN, sent on missions to Rome and India by Alfred, 883. ATHENEUM, and other clubs in London, erect splendid buildings for the reception of their members, 1829. ATHEN EUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 536. ATHENAEUS, of Naucratis, author of the Deipnosophistæ, d. 194. ATHENAGORAS, the Christian Platonist, addresses his "Apology" to the emperors M. Aurelius and L. Verus, 168. ATHENAIS, daughter of the philosopher Leontius, married to Theodosius II.; takes the name of Eudoxia at her baptism, 421. See EUDOXIA. ATHENODORUS, a preceptor of Octavius, made gov. of Tarsus, B.C. 30-teaches the Stoic philosophy there, A.D. S. ATHENODORUS, a pupil of Origen at Cæs
area, 232. ATHENODORUS, supports the rebellion of Longinus in Isauria, is captured and put to death, 497.
ATHENS. See ATTICA. Arrival of Cecrops from Egypt, B.C. 1556 (1558 H., 1433 C1.)-reign of Cranaus, 1506 (1508 H., 1383 Cl.)-of Amphictyon, 1497 (1499 H., doubted by Cl.)-Panathenæan, or Panhellenic games instituted, 1495 (1481 H.) -reign of Erichthonius, 1487 (1489 H., doubted by C1.)-of Pandion, 1437 (1439 H., doubted by Cl.)-of Erectheus, 1397 (1399 H., 1383 C1.)-the Athenians instructed in agriculture by Eumolpus, 1383 (1384 H.)-he introduces the Eleusinian mysteries, 1356.
Reign of Cecrops II., 1347 (1349 H., 1343 Cl.)-of Pandion II., 1307 (1309 H., 1300 Cl.)-of Ægeus, 1283 (1284 H.)-of Theseus, 1235 (1236 H., 1234 Cl.) -of Mnestheus, 1205 (1206 H., 1205 Cl.)-of Demophoon, 1182-of Oxyates, 1149 (1150 H., 1148 Cl.)-of Aphides, 1137 (1138 H., 1134 Cl.)--of Thymates, 1136 (1138 H., 1133 Cl.)-of Codrus, 1065 (1092 H.)-on his death, archons appointed; Medon, his son, the first, 1044 (1070 H.) See the list of archons in the Tables; their names may be found at their respective places in this Index. Their rule limited to ten years; Cherops, the first, 752-to one year; Creon, the first, 683.
Solon gives his code of laws, 594-visit of Anacharsis, 592-comedy introduced, 562 usurpation of Pisistratus, 560flight of Solon, 559 Pisistratus banished, 554-restored, 548-again banished, 547-regains his power, 537 tragedy introduced by Thespis, 535-Pisistratus collects a public library, 531d. 527-his son, Hipparchus, succeeds him -Anacreon and Simonides arrive, 525Chorilus writes tragedies, 523-Platea under the protection of Athens, Hipparchus assassinated, 519-his brother Hippias succeeds, 514-expelled, with all the race of Pisistratidæ, and Solon's form of government restored, 510.
Distracted by factions, 508-assists Aristagoras and the Ionian cities with a fleet, 500-withdraws, 499-Miltiades returns from the Chersonesus, 493-war with Egina, 491-battle of Marathon, Sept. 28, 490. See GREECE and PERSIA.-Death of Miltiades, 489-Aristides banished, 483-Athens taken by the Persians, and abandoned, 480-retaken and despoiled by Mardonius; Aristides, recalled from exile, gains the victory at Platæa, and the Persian fleet is defeated at Mycale by the archon Xanthippus, 479-Athens rebuilt and fortified; theatre of Bacchus built, 478-becomes supreme in Greece, 477-the power of the Athenians extended to Thrace by Cimon, 475-banishment of Themistocles, 471.
Pericles first takes part in public affairs, 469-death of Aristides, 468Naxos subjugated, and the victories of the Eurymedon gained by Cimon, 466Athens adorned with public buildings by Cimon and Pericles,464-Thasos reduced to subjection and cruelly treated, 463Cimon banished; the power of the Areopagus reduced, and the common treasury brought from Delos by Pericles, 461war with Corinth; the Athenians defeated at Tanagra by the Lacedæmonians, 457-Cimon recalled; victory over the Boeotians at Enophyta; the long walls completed, 456-Tolmides sent to assist the Egyptians - Ægina taken, 455 Perdiccas of Macedon joins the Spartans against Athens; expedition of Pericles against Sicyon and Acarnania, 454-a five years' truce among the Greek States settled by Cimon, 450-death of Cimon, 449.
Athens the principal seat of Greek philosophy, literature, and art, 448-the Athenians break the truce, and are defeated at Coronea, 447. See ATTICA. -A truce concluded for thirty years, 445 the most flourishing period of Athens, under the management of Pericles, 441-sends a colony under Lampon to build Thurium, in Italy, 443-the Parthenon, Propylæa, and Odeum, built by Pericles and Phidias, 442-siege of Samos by Pericles; performance of comedy prohibited, 440-the statue of Minerva by Phidias placed in the Parthenon, 438-a colony under Agnon sent to Amphipolis; the prohibition of comedy repealed, 437-the Poikile adorned with paintings, 436-the assistance rendered to Corcyra by Athens leads to the Peloponnesian war, 433-sea-fights off Corcyra; Aspasia, Phidias, and Anaxagoras, are accused of impiety; the latter returns to Lampsacus, and Phidias to Elis, 432-the Athenians are accused of having broken the truce; the war begins. See ATTICA.
Alliance with Sitalces, k. of Thrace, 431-plague at Athens; the Athenians repulsed at Epidaurus, 430-death of Pericles; conquest of Potidea; siege of Platæa, 429-siege of Mitylene, 428conquered, with all Lesbos; an auxiliary force sent to support Leontium against Syracuse; a faction at Corcyra attempts to break the alliance with Athens, 427-Nicias defeats the Lacedæmonians at Tanagra; victory of Demosthenes at Olpa; pacific overtures of the Peloponnesians rejected, 426Pylos taken, 425-the island of Cythera
taken; Thucydides, defeated in Thrace, loses Amphipolis, 424-he is banished; truce for a year; Alcibiades comes forward in public, 423.
Hostilities renewed; the Athenians, victorious in Thrace, offer peace, which the Peloponnesians refuse; number of citizens in Athens, 20,000, 422-peace of Nicias, 421-Alcibiades negotiates an alliance with Argos; Amphipolis retained by the Lacedæmonians, 420-hostilities renewed; the Peloponnesus invaded by Alcibiades, 419-victory of the Lacedæmonians at Mantinea; Argos withdraws from the alliance, 418-intellectual pursuits not interrupted at Athens by the war, 417- the island of Melos conquered, 416- expedition to Sicily; Alcibiades, recalled, takes refuge in Sparta, 415war in Sicily, 414-Decelea fortified by the Lacedæmonians; disastrous close of the Sicilian expedition, 413-desertion of the allies of Athens; her reserve fund applied to the expenses of the war, 412.
Government of the Four Hundred; its framer, Antipho, put to death; naval victory of Cynossema; Alcibiades recalled; return of Lysias from Thurium; revolt of Euboea, 411-victory of Alcibiades near Cyzicus; proposals of peace by the Lacedæmonians, 410-Lydia invaded; Pylos lost, 409-Selymbria and Byzantium taken by Alcibiades, 408 -he is again banished, 407-victory of Conon off the Arginussæ; offer of peace made by the Lacedæmonians again rejected, 406 battle of Egospotamus; destruction of the Athenian fleet, 405-Athens taken by Lysander, and dismantled; thirty governors appointed by him-Thrasybulus retires to Phyle, 404 -he recovers the city, restores the government, and the exiles return, 403Andocides takes a leading part, 402.
Expedition of Xenophon into AsiaAthens quietly repairs her losses, 401Socrates put to death, 399-Plato withdraws, travels four years, and returns, 395-victory of Conon near Cnidus, 394he harasses the coast of the Peloponnesus, rebuilds the long walls of Athens, and fortifies the Piræus, 393-defeat of Agesilaus by Iphicrates; death of Conon, 392-Andocides banished, dies in exile, 391-ten ships sent to assist Evagoras in Cyprus, are captured by Teleutias; Thrasybulus killed at Aspendus, 390Agyrrhius is sent to replace him; Iphicrates commands in the Hellespont, 389-his fleet driven from Abydos by Antalcidas the Lacedæmonian: Chabrias sent to Cyprus to support Eva
ATHENS continued. goras, 388-Androtion takes a leading part at Athens, 385.
The Athenians resolve to assist the Thebans, 379-their hostility to Sparta inflamed by the attempt of Sphodrias on the Piræus, 378-improve their marine, 377 defeat the Lacedæmonian fleet off Naxos, 376- jealous of the Thebans, make peace with the Lace-! dæmonians, but renew the war, and give the command of their fleet at Corcyra to Timotheus, 374-he defeats the Lacedæmonians, is accused of misconducting the war, acquitted, and retires into Asia, 373-the naval superiority of Athens maintained by Iphicrates, 372-alliance with the Lacedæmonians, 369-with Arcadia, 366- unsuccessful expedition against Alexander of Pheræ ; the trierarchs, who commanded it, are prosecuted, 362-failure of Timotheus and Charidemus in their attempt to regain Amphipolis, 360-peace with Philip of Macedon, 359.
Expedition against Euboea under Timotheus, 358-Social war between the Athenians and their former allies; they recover Euboea and the Thracian Chersonesus; Chabrias killed at Chios, 357 -second campaign of the Social war; Samos besieged; Isocrates counsels peace, 356-persuaded by Eubulus, they recognize the independence of the confederated States, and terminate the Social war, 355- Timotheus retires to Chalcis, and dies there, 354.
A colony sent to Samos; first Philippic of Demosthenes; the progress of Philip arrested at Thermopylæ, 352-victory of Phocion at Tamynæ, 350-the Olynthians solicit aid; Demosthenes pleads their cause; troops are sent to support them, 349-fall of Olynthus and Euboea, 347peace with Philip, 346-second Philippic of Demosthenes, 344-the designs of Philip counteracted in Acarnania, at Ambracia, and in the Peloponnesus, 343Diopithes stationed on the Hellespont, 342-third and fourth Philippics of Demosthenes, 341-he urges an application for aid from Persia, 340-the Athenians, united with the Thebans against Philip, are defeated at Chæronea, 338-Lysicles, the Athenian commander at Chæronea, condemned to death; a decree for bronze statues of Eschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the public preservation of their works, 337.
The orators of Athens are delivered to Alexander, and spared by him, 335Eschines, defeated by Demosthenes, "De Corona," retires into Asia, 330—
Demades defends his twelve years' administration, 326-Demetrius Phalereus begins to interfere in politics; Harpalus brings his stolen treasure to Athens, 325-is accused of giving bribes; Demosthenes retires to Trozen, 324comes back, and rouses the Athenians to regain their freedom; they overpower Antipater, 323-are defeated by him at Cranon; admit a Macedonian garrison; give up their orators; Demosthenes poisons himself- 3000 citizens transplanted to Thrace, 322.
The attempts of Nicanor to obtain power are defeated by Polysperchon; Demades put to death, 318-and Phocion, Hegemon, and Pythocles; Demetrius Phalereus establishes an oligarchy; census, 317. See ATTICA.-The philosophers, forbidden to lecture, leave Athens, 316-the decree repealed, and they return, 315- Demetrius Phalereus expelled by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and the democracy restored; Dinarchus banished, 307 Demochares banished, 302Lachares makes himself master of Athens; is driven out by Demetrius Poliorcetes, 299-Dinarchus returns, 292 -the Pythian games held at Athens, 290-Gorgias, archon; a statue raised to Demosthenes, 280-Anaxicrates, archon, 279-Democles, archon; the four schools of Athens are headed by Strato, Zeno, Epicurus, and Arcesilaus, 278-Pytharatus, archon, 271.
Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, 268- Diognetus, archon, 264 - Athens joins the Achæan league, 229-attacked by Philip V., k. of Macedon, seeks aid from Rome, 201-visited by Attalus I., k. of Pergamus, 200-declared free by the Romans, 188-embassy of Carneades, Diogenes, and Critolaus, to Rome, to obtain remission of a fine, 155-Crassus, while Roman prætor, hears the philosophers of the New Academy and the Peripatetics, 111-Athens, having declared in favour of Mithridates, is besieged by Sylla, 87-taken, 86-the library of Apellicon removed to Rome, 84-Cicero studies at Athens, 79-Theophimus, archon, 62-Herocles, archon, 60-Cicero sends his son to be educated there by Cratippus, 44-Horace taken from his studies at, to join the army of Brutus, 42-Antony remains there with his bride, Octavia, 39.
Dinophilus, archon, A.D. 49-Paul defends himself before the Areopagus, 52--Dionysodorus, archon, 53-Conon, archon, 56-Thrasyllus, 61-Demostratus, 65 -Hadrian, 112 - Macrinus, 116-Hadrian winters there, 122 again, and
adorns the city with the Olympeium, theatres, and other edifices, 125-presides there at public games, 126-again winters there, patronizes the learned and enlarges the libraries, 129-Hadrian again visits and dedicates the temple of Jupiter Olympius, and makes the gift of Cephalonia, 135 Herodes Atticus constructs a stadium of white marble and other splendid buildings, 143-Apuleius studies there, 149 M. Aurelius delivers popular lectures there, 176.
Plundered by some Gothic tribes, who are expelled by Dexippus, 267-Libanius declines an invitation to Athens, 352 -Julian visits, 354-355- Gregory of Nazianzus, and Basil of Cæsarea, study there, 355-Julian addresses his letter to the citizens, 361-taken by Alaric, k. of the Visigoths, 396-Justinian's edict closes the schools of philosophy at Athens, 529.
Visited by the emperor Basil II., 1019 -plundered by Roger, k. of Sicily, 1146 -made a Latin duchy by Otho de la Roche, 1204-Walter de Brienne, duke, 1308-conquered by the Catalans, who make Roger Deslau duke, 1311-Manfred of Sicily invited, 1326-taken by Nerio Acciaiuoli, gov. of Corinth, 1386 -Phranza is sent by Constantine, despot of the Morea, to negotiate for its surrender, 1435-conquered by the sultan, Mahomet II., 1456-taken by the Venetians, under Victor Capello, 1466-restored to the Ottomans by the treaty of peace, 1479-taken by the Venetians; during the siege, the Parthenon is injured by the explosion of a powdermagazine, 1687-the Greeks fail in an attempt to relieve the Acropolis besieged by the Turco-Egyptians, 1827 -becomes the capital of the kingdom of Greece, 1833-blockaded by a British fleet, 1850-occupied by a French force, 1854.
ATHENS, NEW; its aqueducts commenced by Hadrian; completed by Antoninus Pius, 140.
ATHERADES, Olympic victor, B.C. 700. ATHLONE, gen. Ginkel created earl of, 1691-destroys the French magazines at Givet, 1696. See AUGHRIM, battle of. ATHOL, the earl of, murders James I., k.
of Scotland, at Perth, Apr. 20, 1437. ATHOL, duke of, his sovereign rights in the isle of Man purchased by parliament, 1765. ATHOS, MOUNT, disaster of the Persian fleet when passing it, B.C. 491 - the foolish superstition of its monks excites a controversy with Barlaam, 1341
ATTALUS II., k. of Pergamus,_B.C. 159supported in war against Prusias by the Romans, 156-d. 138. ATTALUS III., k. of Pergamus, B.C. 139d. 133, having bequeathed his kingdom and all his wealth to the Romans. ATTALUS, appointed emperor by Alaric on the condition of his sparing Rome, 409deposed by him, 410-sent a prisoner to Ravenna, and afterwards banished to Lipari, 416. ATTENDOLO. See SFORZA. ATTERBURY, Francis, b. 1662 - made bp. of Rochester and dean of Westminster, July 3, 1713-committed to the Tower, Aug. 24, 1722-banished, May 27, 1723d. 1732,