« PreviousContinue »
ATTICA, kingdom of, founded by the Pelasgi, time uncertain; first known king,| Ogyges, B.C. 1796-flood in his time, 1764. See ATHENS.-Invaded by the Lacedæmonians, 445, 431, 430, 428, 427, 425, 413 -total population, 527,000,.. 317. ATTICUS, T. Pomponius, b. B.C. 109-goes to Athens, 87-returns to Rome, 65Cicero sends him a history of his own consulate in Greek, 60-d. 32. ATTICUS, Consul of Rome, 397. ATTICUS. See CONSTANTINOPLE, bps. of. ATTICUS, A. Manlius Torquatus, consul of Rome, B.C. 244, 241.
ATTICUS, C. Vettius, consul of Rome, 242. ATTICUS, M. Vestinus, consul of Rome, 65. ATTICUS. See HERODES. ATTIONI, in Ardennes, Diet of, 822. ATTILA, Son of Mundzuk, succeeds with his brother Bleda, their uncle Rugilas, as joint kings of the Huns, and dictates terms of peace to the Eastern empire, 433-attacks the Burgundians, 435-in alliance with the Romans, defeated by the Visigoths at Toulouse, 439-takes Singidunum and Naissus, 441-murders Bleda, and reigns alone, 444-makes a treaty of peace with Theodosius II., 447 -receives ambassadors from him, 448a plot of the Romans to murder him is atoned for by a heavy tribute, 449-demands the princess Honoria in marriage, and determines to support the claim made by a brother of Meroveus to the throne of the Franks, 450-invades Gaul, commits great havoc, and besieges Orleans; defeated at the battle of Chalons (sur Marne) by Aetius, retires into Pannonia, 451-having recruited his army, he advances into Italy, and destroys Aquileia; Leo, bishop of Rome, and two other ambassadors, by paying a large sum of money, induce him to withdraw beyond the Danube, 452-d. 453. ATTIUS, or Accius, writes tragedies, B.C. 140-his "Tereus" appears, 103. ATTOCK, taken by the Affghans, Jan. 10
evacuated by them, March 17, 1849. ATTWOOD, Thomas, the banker, heads the
Birmingham Political Union, Feb. 1, 1831. ATYRAS, a river of Thrace, near which
Belisarius repels the Bulgarians, 559. AUBEROCHE, battle of; Henry, earl of Derby, defeats the Count de Lisle, and takes him prisoner, 1345. AUBIGNE, Françoise, b. 1635-married to Scarron, 1651-Louis XIV. gives the lands of Maintenon to her after her husband's death, 1674. See MAINTENON, MADAME DE. AUBRIOT, provost of Paris, lays the first stone of the Bastile, April 22, 1370. AUBUSSON, Sir Peter d', grand master of
Rhodes, 1476-repels the assault of the Turks, July 26, 1480--is elected a cardinal, 1489 d. June 30, 1503. AUCA (Occa) on the Ebro; the Saracens are defeated near, by Ramiro II. and Ferdinand, count of Castile, 934. AUCHMUTY, Sir Samuel, takes Montevideo. Feb. 2, 1807-captures Batavia and all the Dutch settlements in Java, Aug. 26, 1811.
AUCKLAND, Lord, dinner of the E.1.C. directors to, on his appointment to be Governor-general, Sept. 5, 1835-returns to England, 1842-d. 1849. AUDEUS, propagates the Anthropomorphite heresy, 341.
AUDEFLEDA, sister of Clovis, married to
Theodoric, Ostrogothic k. of Italy, 496. AUDLEY, Lord, killed in the battle of Bloreheath, Sept. 23, 1459.
AUDLEY, Lord, heads the Cornish insurrection, marches into Kent, is defeated on Blackheath, June 22-and executed 1497.
AUDLEY, Sir Thomas, appointed lord chancellor, 1532.
AUDUBON, I. J., b. 1775-d. 1851.
See AUERSWALD, Majer Von, murdered, Sept. 18, 1848.
AUGEREAU,Gen.,establishes the ascendancy
AUGURINUS, C. Minucius, consul of Rome,
AUGURINUS, Q. Minucius, consul of Rome, | AUGUSTUS-continued.
B. C. 305.
AUGURINUS, L. Minucius, appointed præfectus annonæ, B.C. 439.
AUGURINUS, C. Serius, consul of Rome, 156. AUGURINUS, Consul of Rome, 132. AUGUSTA, title given to the mothers and wives of some of the emperors; to Mamæa, mother of Alex. Severus, 223-to Helena, mother of Constantine, 317-to Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius II., 423. AUGUSTA of Saxe Gotha, marries Frederic, prince of Wales, April 27, 1736-d. Feb. 8, 1772. AUGUSTA, daughter of Frederic, prince of Wales, and afterwards duchess of Brunswick, b. Aug. 11, 1737-d. March 23, 1813. AUGUSTA SOPHIA, daughter of George III.,
b. Nov. 8, 1768 d. 1840. AUGUSTA, princess of Bavaria, marries
Eugene Beauharnais, Jan. 14, 1806. AUGUSTA, princess of Hesse Cassel, marries the duke of Cambridge, May 7, 1818. AUGUSTAN HISTORY, written by Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus, 291-by Elius Spartianus, 297. AUGUSTINE, b. Nov. 13, 354-visits Rome, 383 Milan, 385-writes "De Beata Vita," 386-ordained bp. of Hippo Regius, 395-begins to write "De Civitate Dei," 411-writes against Pelagius, 415 -names Eradius as his coadjutor and successor, 426-completes "De Civitate Dei," 428-d. at Hippo Regius, Aug. 28, 430. AUGUSTINE, sent to preach Christianity in Britain, well received by Ethelbert, k. of Kent, and a dwelling is assigned him in Canterbury, 596-goes to Arles, and is ordained bp. of the English, 597-epistle of Gregory to, 601-founds the cathedral and abbey of Canterbury, 602-d. May 26, 604.
AUGUSTINE order of mendicant friars, established, 1256.
AUGUSTODUNUM. See AUTUN. AUGUSTUS. See OCTAVIUS.-He takes the title of Augustus in the fifth year of his reign, B.C. 27, in which year he visits Spain and Gaul, and projects only an incursion into Britain; checks a revolt of the Cantabri and Astures, returns to Rome, and again closes the temple of Janus, 25-the tribunitian power voted to him for life; refuses to give up Tiridates to the Parthians, 23- the sixth book of the Eneid recited to him and his sister Octavia by Virgil, 22-regulates the police of Rome, and appoints Agrippa prefect of the City, 21 -- travels through Italy and Greece and winters at
Samos, 21-regulates all the dependent states of Greece and Asia, sends Tiberius into Armenia; puts an end to the confusion there, and makes Tigranes king; recovers the trophies and prisoners taken by the Parthians from Crassus and Antony; again winters at Samos, 20-returns to Rome, Oct. 12, 19-the empire again voted to him for five years, renewable at its expiration, 18-celebrates the secular games; adopts the two sons of Agrippa; orders the Eneid to be published; visits Greece, 17- repairs the Roman road in Spain, and extends it to Cadiz, 14-returns to Rome, 13-assumes the office of Pontifex Maximus, 12-completes the theatre of Marcellus, 11again visits Gaul, 10-his imperial power again renewed for ten years, and the name of the month Sextilis changed to that of August in his honour, 8--orders a general survey and reparation of the water courses, 5-divides Judæa among the sons of Herod, 3-provides splendid games for the people, and a representation of a naval battle; banishes his daughter Julia to the isle of Pandataria, 2-sends his grandson Caius to frustrate the designs of Phraates in Armenia, 1-appointed for a fourth term of ten years, A.D. 3-adopts Marcus and Tiberius, 4banishes Archelaus, and makes Judæa a Roman province, 6-banishes Ovid, 8— defeat of Varus, 9-a fifth ten years' term of imperial rule voted to him, 13-d. Aug. 9, 14. AUGUSTUS, the imperial title of all future sovereigns of Rome; distinguished from that of Cæsar by Vespasian to Titus, 71 -by Hadrian to Elius Verus, 136-by Antoninus Pius to M. Aurelius, 139-by Diocletian to Constantius Chlorus and Galerius, 292-and thenceforth permanently.
AUGUSTUS, duke of Brunswick, 1633-1636. AUGUSTUS, elector of Saxony, 1553-settles the differences among the princes of the family by the treaty of Naumburg, 1554 -d. 1586. See SAXONY, electors of, and kings of; and POLAND, kings of. AUGUSTUS FREDERIC, hereditary prince of Hesse Homburg, marries the princess Elizabeth, May 7, 1818. AUGUSTUS FREDERIC, Sixth son of George III., b. Jan. 27, 1773. See SUSSEX, duke of. AULIC COUNCIL, the, established by the emperor Maximilian, 1501. AULUS. See ALBINUS. AUMALE, count of, slain at Verneuil, Aug. 16, 1424.
AUMALE, duke d', son of Louis Philippe,
attempt to assassinate, Sept. 13, 1841appointed governor of Algeria, 1847. AURAY, battle of, Bertrand du Guesclin defeated and captured by the Breton forces under John Chandos, Sept. 29, 1364. AURELIAN, b. 214-lieutenant of the emperors Valerian and Gallienus, repels the Goths, 257-on the death of Claudius II., is acknowledged emperor, 270 -makes peace with the Goths and relinquishes Dacia to them, transferring that name to another province; confirms the decree of the council of Antioch, and expels Paul of Samosata, 270-drives the Marcomanni and Gutungi over the Danube, and grants peace to the Vandals; rebuilds the walls of Rome, 271-proceeds to the East against Zenobia, encounters some Goths in Thrace, and drives them out of the empire; takes Tyana, Emesa, and Antioch, 272-Palmyra surrenders to him, he takes Zenobia prisoner, and puts Longinus to death; returns to Europe, 273-defeats Tetricns at Chalons; having reunited all the broken-up parts of the empire, he celebrates a splendid triumph at Kome, and treats generously his captives Zenobia and Tetricus; dedicates a temple to the sun, improves the city, and regulates the general system of government, 274-marches to attack Persia, and is assassinated by Mucapor, between Heraclea and Byzantium, March 20, 275. AURELIANUS, consul of Rome, 400. AURELIUS, M., b. 121-educated by M. Fronto, Sextus of Charonea, and all the most celebrated teachers in Rome, 133adopted by Antoninus with the title of Cæsar, and married to his daughter Faustina, 139-invested with the Tribunitian power, 147-becomes joint emperor with L. Verus, 161-Hermogenes lectures before him, 163 sends his daughter Lucilla to Ephesus, where she is married to Verus; corresponds with his former tutor Fronto, 164-celebrates a triumph with Verus for the Parthian war, 166-proceeds to Aquileia against the Marcomanni accompanied by Verus, 167 secures Italy against invasion; hears and acquits Herodes Atticus, 168-by the death of Verus becomes sole emperor; his over-indulgence blinds him to the vices of Faustina and Commodus, and he allows her to introduce a court exclusiveness, 169-the war against the Marcomanni continued, he resides at Carnuntum; appoints Alexander of Cotyæum his Greek secretary, 170-receives Melito's apology for Christianity, 172– makes a short visit to Rome; after his return to the army, the German tribes
are entirely defeated, which gives rise to the fable of the "Thundering Legion," 174-goes to the East, accompanied by the empress, who dies near Mount Taurus, where Faustinopolis is built, in honour of her, 175-settles the affairs of the East at Smyrna, where the philosopher Aristides is presented to him, and he attends his lectures; gives lectures himself at Athens, then returns to Rome and celebrates a triumph, 176-allows the Christians to be persecuted in Gaul, 177 -the aggressions of the Germans require his presence; he purposes to keep them in check by constituting two new provinces to the north of the Danube, 178 successful campaign against the Marcomanni, 179-d. March 17, 180. AURELIUS, Victor, fl. 358- completes his "De Cæsaribus," 360-proconsul of Pannonia, and is honoured by Julian with a statue, 362. AURELIUS assassinates Froila, and makes himself k. of the Goths in Spain, 768too weak to control the intestine divisions of his kingdom, obtains peace by paying a tribute to Abderahman, 769-gives his sister Adosinda in marriage to Silo, and makes him heir to the throne, 771-d. 774. AUREOLUS,defeats and slays Macrianus, and is proclaimed emperor by his army, 262 -Gallienus treats with him, 263-invades Italy and takes Milan, 267-besieged there by Gallienus, taken and put to death by Claudius, 268. AURICULAR CONFESSION, enforced by the Fourth Lateran Council, 215. AURORA frigate lost on her passage to the East Indies, 1771. AURUNCUS, Post. Comin., consul of Rome, B.C. 501, 493 II. AURUNGZEBE, dethrones his father Shah Jehan, and occupies the Mogul sovereignty of India, 1658-d. 1707. AUSONIUS, D. Magnus, the poet, preceptor of Gratian, son of Valentinian, 370-prefect in Gaul and consul, 379-concludes his Fasti, 382-friend of Paulinus, 393d. 394. AUSTERLITZ, battle of; total defeat of the
combined Austrian and Russian army, by Napoleon I., Dec. 2, 1805. AUSTRALIA, first discovery of gold in, May 14, 1851-more extensive, Dec. 10. See NEW HOLLAND, NEW SOUTH WALES, VAN DIEMAN'S LAND, and BOTANY BAY. AUSTRASIA, East France, or kingdom of Metz, on the death of Chlotair, is the portion of his son Sigebert I., 561-he is slain by his brother, Chilperic, and succeeded by his son, Childebert II., 575-on whose death his son, Theodebert II., takes
Austrasia, 596-reunited with Burgundy to Neustria by Chlotair II., 613-again divided on the death of Dagobert I., and Austrasia is inherited by Sigebert II., 638-Grimoald, mayor of the palace, attempts to place his son on the throne, falls in the struggle, and Chlotair III. becomes sole king of France, 656-years of confusion and intestine war follow; Dagobert II., son of Sigebert II., is placed upon the throne of Austrasia, 674 -murdered, and his dominions are ruled by Pepin of Heristal, and Martin, with the title of dukes, 680-Pepin gains the battle of Testry, and is master of France, allowing nominal kings in Neustria, 687 ---having founded the Carlovingian dynasty, he dies, 714-his son, Charles Martel, retains the same ascendancy as duke of Austrasia, 715-defeats the Neustrians at Amblef, 716-at Vincy, 717-the Saracens near Tours, 732-occupies Aquitaine and Gascony, 735-sole ruler of France, 737-exacts tribute from the Saxons of the Lippe, 738-unites with Liutprand of Lombardy to expel the Saracens, 739-d. Oct. 22, 741-his son Carloman takes Austrasia; retires to Monte Casino, and gives up his territories to his brother Pepin the Short, 747. See PEPIN, CHARLEMAGNE, EAST FRANCE, and FRANCONIA. AUSTREGILDIS, wife of Gontran, k. of Orleans and Burgundy, d.; her physicians, Nicolaus and Donatus, are put to death, 580.
AUSTRIA, the Noricum of the Romans, conquered and made a province during the Pannonian wars of Augustus, between B.C. 8 and A.D. 9-in the decline, and after the fall of the Western Empire, occupied successively by different tribes till the Avars or Huns obtain permanent possession, 568-taken from them by Charlemagne, peopled by him with a German colony, and called the Eastern March, or Oesterreich, whence its present name, 799-in the division of his empire, attached to Bavaria, and held by the Guelph family. See BAVARIA.
Taken from Henry II. by the empress regent Theophania, and given to Leopold, count of Bamberg, with the title of margrave, 984-reunited when the margrave Leopold III. receives Bavaria from the emperor Conrad III., 1138-he is succeeded by his brother, Henry IX., 1142-the emperor Fred. Barbarossa, in his pacification of Germany, erects Austria into a separate duchy for Henry IX., who resigns the rest of Bavaria to Henay the Lion, 1153.
Duke Frederic attempts to obtain the crown of Hungary, and is defeated by Bela IV., 1235 defeated again, and slain, 1246-Austria annexed to Bohemia by Ottocar II., 1253-resigned by him to the emperor Rudolf of Habsburg, 1276 -he endeavours to recover it, 1277finally annexed to the House of Habsburg, 1278-Rudolf invests his son, Albert, with the duchy, 1282. See GERMANY, and SWITZERLAND.
Acquisition of the Tyrol, 1363-treaty of Union between Bohemia and Austria, 1364-invaded by the Hungarians, 1446created an archduchy by the emperor Frederic IV., 1453-the Netherlands acquired by the marriage of Maximilian to Mary, heiress of the deceased duke of Burgundy, 1477-the marriage of their son, Philip, to Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, forms the connection with Spain, 1496-treaty for the marriages designed to unite Hungary and Bohemia with Austria, 1506-they are solemnized, 1521-the union effected, 1526.
On the death of Maximilian, his eldest grandson, Charles, k. of Spain, succeeds in the Netherlands, and the youngest, Ferdinand, in the States of Austria, 1519-the Thirty Years' War begins, 1618. See GERMANY and AUSTRIANS. To check this growing power, a league is formed by Venice, Savoy, and the United Provinces, 1619-alliance with Spain and Savoy to resist the claims of France on Mantua, 1628-troops sent to occupy the Valteline, 1629-incorporation of the Tyrol, 1665-the archduke Charles claims the crown of Spain; his brother, the emperor Leopold, in alliance with Great Britain and Holland, commences the Spanish succession war, 1701. See GERMANY, and AUSTRIANS.
Charles succeeds his brother, Joseph I.; is elected emperor of Germany, and relinquishes Spain, 1711-by the treaty of Rastadt, the Netherlands are re-annexed to Austria, and Naples, Sardinia, and Milan acquired, 1714-Barrier treaty with the United Provinces, 1715 Charles obtains the assent of his hereditary States to his Pragmatic Sanction, which secures the succession of his daughter, Maria Theresa, 1723-it is acknowledged by Spain, 1725-guaranteed by Great Britain, 1731-Maria Theresa marries Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, afterwards grand duke of Tuscany, 1736-succeeds her father, 1740-is attacked by Prussia, France, Bavaria, and Saxony; appeals to the loyalty of her
subjects; enthusiasm in her cause; George II. of Great Britain, and Charles Emanuel, of Sardinia, are the only sovereigns who respect their obligations as guarantees of the Pragmatic Sanction, 1741. See GERMANY, and AUSTRIANS.
Secret alliance with Russia, 1753alliance with France, and Seven Years' War, 1756. See GERMANY, and AUSTRIANS. Maria Theresa joins the combination against Poland, and marches an army into the country, 1771-receives her share of the first partition, 1772d. 1780-her son, Joseph II., attempts great reforms, 1781-is opposed by his nobles and the pope, 1782-Francis II. shares in the second partition of Poland, 1793. For the coalitions against France, in 1792, 1799, 1805, 1809, and 1813, see GERMANY; AUSTRIA, CHARLES, ARCHDUKE of, and AUSTRIANS.
Francis II. relinquishes and abolishes the title of emperor of Germany, and takes that of Francis I. as hereditary emperor of Austria, 1804-joins the "Holy Alliance," 1815-sends an army, and crushes the revolution in Naples; imprisons Alexander Ipsilanti on his flight from Greece, 1821-recalls his ambassador from Madrid; Great Britain agrees to accept from him £2,500,000 in full payment of loans of £30,000,000, 1823 he releases Ipsilanti, 1828-d. 1835.
His son and successor, Ferdinand, confides in his minister, Metternich; Cracow annexed to Austria, 1846-the Italian provinces demand reforms; Metternich declares against them; general insurrection; he resigns and takes flight; the emperor Ferdinand leaves Vienna, and gives up his crown to his brother, Francis Joseph, 1848.
Assisted by Russia to put down the revolt in Hungary; defeat of Charles Albert by Radetzky; the grand duke of Tuscany restored by Austrian troops, 1849-Austria requires Turkey to give up Kossuth and other fugitives, Aug. 23-meeting of the emperors of Austria and Russia at Warsaw; the commotions in Hesse Cassel repressed by an Austrian army; threatened collision with Prussia; the emperor Francis Joseph proposes a mutual disarming, 1850 -unites with Prussia to restore the authority of the king of Denmark in Holstein and Schleswig, 1851-visits Berlin, 1852-wounded by an assassin; meets the emperor Nicholas at Olmütz, 1853-enters into a treaty of alliance with Great Britain and France; occupies
the principalities, 1854--proposes four conditions of peace, and sends count Alexander Esterhazy to Petersburg to urge their acceptance, 1855-joins in the negotiations in Paris, and concurs in the treaty of peace; resists the interference of the pope with heretical books, 1856. AUSTRIA, Charles, archduke of, b. 1771takes the command of the Austrian army in Suabia; falls back on the Danube, July 1796-is defeated by Moreau at Neresheim, Aug. 10; defeats Bernadotte at Neumarck, Aug. 23, and Jourdan at Würzburg, Sep. 3; lays siege to Kehl, Oct. 26-captures it, Jan. 9, 1797--takes the command in Italy; is defeated by Bonaparte on the Tagliamento, March 16-crosses the Lech, March 4, 1793defeats Jourdan at Stockach, March 22; and drives him back to the Rhine; resigns the command of the Austrian army April, 1800-passes the Inn, April 9, 1809-d. 1847.
AUSTRIA, archduke John, defeated by Moreau on the Traun, Dec. 3, 1800-elected regent of Germany, 1848-resigns, 1849. AUSTRIANS, defeated at Breitenfeld by Torstenson, 1642-at Villa Viciosa, by the Duke de Vendôme, Dec. 20, 1710-recover Messina, and all Sicily, 1719-defeated by count Montemar at Bitonto, May 27, 1734-by the k. of Prussia at Molwitz, 1741 and in Saxony, 1745-in conjunction with the k. of Sardinia, drive the French out of Italy, 1746-besiege Genoa, March 31; raise the siege, June 10, 1747 invade Prussia; advance to Berlin, Oct. 17; retire before the prince of Anhalt Dessau; take Schweidnitz, Nov. 12; defeat the prince of Bevern, 22; take Breslau, 25; are defeated by Frederic the Great at Lissa, Dec. 5, 1757lose Schweidnitz; defeat Frederic at Hochkirch, 1758-take Leipsic and Dresden, 1759-in concert with the Russians, take Berlin, Oct. 9, 1760 - reduce Schweidnitz, 1761 sanguinary campaigns in Italy, Germany, and Switzerland, 1796, 1799-defeated at Marengo, June 14, 1800-at Austerlitz, Dec. 2, 1805 peace concluded at Presburg, Dec. 20-battles of Aspern and Essling, May 22, 1809-and of Wagram, July 5, of Leipzic, Oct. 16-19, 1813-repulsed at Goito, May 30, 1848-reoccupy Milan, Aug. 6-invest Comorn, Jan. 3, 1849. AUTHARIS, K. of Lombardy, 574-recog nized by the turbulent dukes, 584-d. 591.
AUTO DA FE at Lisbon, where Malagrida and fifty others are burnt, Sep. 29, 1761.