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the Sonnites, or orthodox Mussulmen, on the accession of Moawiyah, 661-persecuted by the Ommiades, retire into Per sia, where they multiply and assist the Abbassides to gain the caliphate, 750found the Edrisites in Africa, 787-are protected by the caliph Almamun, 814found the dynasty of the Taherites at Khorasan, 820-found an empire in Egypt, under Mohammed Al Mahdi, 908 --expelled from Fez by Muza the Aglabite, 924-regain Fez, 932. See FEZ.-The Fatimite empire in Egypt extended to Syria and Cairoan by Maiz Ad Din; he builds Cairo, 969-Syria taken from them by the Seljukian Turks, 1076— their army defeated by the Crusaders at Ascalon, Aug. 12, 1099- their rule in Egypt overthrown by Saladin, 1171oppressed in Persia by the Turkmans of the Black Sheep, 1406-and by those of the White Sheep, 1468-expel their persecutors, and establish the new Sofi dynasty, under Ismail I., 1501. FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE, battle of the; Condé defeats Turenne, 1652. FAUCHER, Leon, b. 1793-denounces the expense and abuses of the national workshops, June 23, 1848-d. 1854. FAULCONBRIDGE, viscount, marries Mary, daughter of Oliver Cromwell, 1657. FAULFISCH, Hieronymus. See JEROME of


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of the Asturian Goths, 737-killed by a bear while hunting, 739. FAVORINUS, the philosopher, excites the jealousy of the emperor Hadrian, 118. FAVRAS, marquis de, the first judicially condemned victim of the French revolution, executed, Jan. 18, 1790. FAWKES, Guy, gunpowder conspirator, seized, Nov. 5, 1605-executed, Jan. 31, 1606. FAYETTE. See LA FAYETTE. FEDERAL REPUBLIC attempted in Italy, and repressed by the Austrian troops, 1831. FEES and sales of offices in the English

law-courts, abolished, 1825. FEHRBELLIN, battle of; the elector of Bran

denburg defeats the Swedes, 1675. FELICIANUS, consul of Rome, 337. FELIX, brother of Pallas, appointed procurator of Judæa, 52-Paul defends himself before him at Cæsarea, 59-superseded by Festus, 61.

FELIX, consul of Rome, 428-another, 511.
FELIX I., bp. of Rome, 269-275.
FELIX II., bp. of Rome, 355-358.
FELIX III., bp. of Rome, 483–492.
FELIX IV., bp. of Rome, 526-530.
FELIX V., anti-pope. See AMADEUS VIII.,
duke of Savoy.

FELIX, bp. of East Anglia, fixes his see at
Dummoc, 631-d. 648.
FELIX, bp. of Seville, appointed archbp. of
Toledo, 693.

FELIX writes a history of Croyland Abbey, 730.

FELIX, of Urgel, introduces the Adoption heresy, 787-condemned by the council of Ratisbon, recants his opinions, 792disavows his recantation, and is supported by Eliprand, archbp. of Toledo; they are condemned by a council at Francforton-the-Maine, 794. See ALCUIN. - He writes a defence of his heresy, 798again recants, 799. FELLENBERG system of education introduced by Pestalozzi, 1775. FELLOWES, Dr. Robert, author of "Religion without Cant," b. 1770-d. 1847. FELTON, John, assassinates the duke of Buckingham at Portsmouth, Aug. 23,1628. FEMERN, the island of, occupied by the Danes, July 16, 1850. FENCING-SCHOOLS closed in London, by Edw. I., 1284; at Berlin and other cities, 1819. FENELON, François Salignac de la Motte, b. 1651-preceptor of the duke of Burgundy, grandson of Louis XIV., 1689archbp. of Cambray, 1695-controversy with Bossuet on the mystical doctrine of Molinos and Madame Guyon, 1698-his doctrines condemned by a papal Bull; his "Telemachus" published in Holland, 1699-d. 1715.

of Sweden in Germany, 1630-treaty of Barenwald concluded by the Protestant States with France, 1631-Louis XIII. declares war against the emperor, 1635 -peace of Prague between him and the electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, 1635-Ferdinand d. 1637. FERDINAND III., emperor of Germany, son of Ferdinand II., b. 1608-crowned in Hungary, 1625; in Bohemia, 1627-while archduke of Austria, by his victory over the Swedish gen., Horn, at Nordlingen, Sept. 6, N.s. 1634, retrieves the Catholic cause in Germany; elected emperor, Feb. 15, 1637. See GERMANY.Nearly surprised at Ratisbon by the Swedish gen., Banner, 1640-concludes the peace of Westphalia, 1648-d. April 2, 1657. FERDINAND FRANCIS, son of Ferdinand III., emperor of Germany, b. Sept. 8, 1633elected k. of the Romans, 1653-d. July 9, 1654. FERDINAND, emperor of Austria, son of Francis, b. April 19, 1793; succeeds to the throne, 1835-confides in Metternich ; withdraws his army from Rome, 1838annexes Cracow to his dominions, 1846tumults at Vienna; resignation and flight of Metternich; the emperor promises a constitution, March 13-15, 1848 -leaves Vienna, May 17; returns from Innspruck, Aug. 12; flight to Olmütz, Oct. 7; he gives the command in Hungary to Jellachich, ban of Croatia, and in Austria to prince Windischgrätz, 16; they bombard Vienna, 28; resigns his crown, at Olmütz, to his nephew, Francis Joseph, Dec. 2; his resignation not accepted by the Hungarian Diet, 19, 1848.

FENESTELLA, the historian, fl. 14. FENWICK, Sir John, attainted for participation in the assassination-plot, Nov. 9, 1696-beheaded, Jan. 28, 1697. FEODOR I., son of Iwan IV., czar of Russia, 1584-d. 1598.

FEODOR II., son of Boris Godunow, after a reign of a few days, expelled by the pretender Dmitri, 1605.

FEODOR III., Son of Alexis, czar of Russia, 1676 d. 1682. FEODORA, daughter of the duchess of Kent by her first husband, the prince of Leiningen, married to the prince of Hohenlohe Langenburg, Feb. 18, 1828. FERDINAND I., emperor of Germany, second son of Philip and Joanna of Spain, b. 1503- declared heir of the Austrian States, 1506-made vicar of the empire by his brother, Charles V., 1522-is received as k. in Bohemia on the death of Louis I., 1526-promulgates the decree of the Diet of Spires for freedom of religion, 1526-crowned k. of Hungary, 1527-is elected k. of the Romans, and crowned at Francfort, Jan. 11, 1531-defeated by Soliman, 1541-obtains possession of Transylvania, 1551-his brother resigns the empire to him; his title disputed by pope Paul IV., 1556-generally acknowledged, and crowned at Francfort, Mar. 14, 1558--acknowledged by pope Pius IV., 1560-d. July 25, 1564. FERDINAND II., emperor of Germany, son of the archduke Charles, b. 1578-adopted by his cousin, the emperor Matthias, who resigns Bohemia to him; he is crowned at Prague, and begins to oppress the Protestants of that kingdom, 1617takes away their privileges, on which they make themselves masters of the kingdom, 1618-and give it to the elector Palatine, 1619 Matthias relinquishes Hungary to him, 1618- he is elected emperor of Germany at Francfort, Aug. 28, 1619-is besieged in Vienna by the Bohemians, and reduced to great extremity, when some troops, sent by the grand duke of Tuscany, arrive and relieve him; the duke of Bavaria and the elector of Saxony espouse his cause, 1619battle of Prague, 1620-his armies triumphant in Germany, and he gives the palatinate of the Rhine to Maximilian of Bavaria, 1623-concludes a peace with Bethlem Gabor, prince of Transylvania, 1624--his son, Ferdinand III., is crowned k. of Hungary, 1625-invests Wallenstein with the duchy of Mecklenburg, 1628-refuses to ratify the treaty of Susa; by the "Edict of Restitution" requires many church lands to be given up by the Protestants, 1629-Gustavus Adolphus

FERDINAND I., the Just, king of Aragon,

brother of Henry III., k. of Castile, regent in Castile for his nephew, John III., 1406-elected k. of Aragon, resigns his regency, and accepts the crown, 1412goes to Perpignan to hold a conference with pope Benedict XIII. and the emperor Sigismund, 1415—d. on his return, April 2, 1416.

FERDINAND I., k. of Castile, son of Sancho III., k. of Navarre, in the division of his father's States, receives Castile, and founds the kingdom, 1035-conquers Leon, and annexes it to Castile, 1037takes Viseu and Coimbra, 1040-exacts tribute from his Moorish neighbours, 1045- extends his conquests to Madrid and Toledo, 1046-makes war on his brother, Garcias III., k. of Navarre, who falls in battle, 1053-gains his last victories over the Moors of Catalonia and Valentia, 1064-d. Dec. 27, 1065.

FERDINAND II., son of Alfonso VII., k. of Castile, inherits Leon as a separate kingdom, 1157-founds the order of Knights of S. Iago de Compostella, 1161-separated from his queen by pope Alexander III., 1175-d. 1188.

FERDINAND III., k. of Castile, son of Alfonso IX., k. of Leon, b. 1200; inherits Castile from his mother, Garsenda, dau. of Alfonso VIII., 1217-joins the other Christian kings in war against the Moors, and takes Huesca, 1224-on his father's death, succeeds in Leon and reunites the two kingdoms; pushes his conquests to Jaen, 1230-attacks the Moors in Seville, 1232- takes Ubeda, 1235-conquers Cordova and part of Andalusia, 1236-his supremacy established by his son, Alfonso, in the Moorish kingdom of Murcia; he founds the university of Salamanca, and transfers to it the schools of his grandfather, Alfonso. VIII., at Palencia, 1240-Mahomed gives up Jaen to him, and places Granada under his protection, 1243- he lays siege to Seville, the Moors of Granada assist him, 1246-Seville surrenders, 1247-d. at Seville, May 30, 1252. FERDINAND IV., k. of Castile, son of Sancho IV., b. 1285; succeeds him, with his mother, Maria, regent, 1295-coalition of France, Navarre, Aragon, Portugal, and Granada, with the malcontent princes, Alfonso and Juan, against him; his mother, with the assistance of Juan Lara, maintains the throne, 1296-peace with Portugal 1297; with Granada, 1304divides Murcia with the k. of Aragon by the treaty of Campillo, 1305-takes Gibraltar, and, by a treaty of peace, acquires other territory in Granada, 1308 -d. 1312. FERDINAND de la Cerda, eldest son of Alfonso X., k. of Castile, d. 1275-his sons are excluded from the throne by their uncle, Sancho IV., 1284. See ALFONSO DE LA CERDA. FERDINAND, son of John II., k.. of Aragon and Navarre, b. 1453-marries Isabella, daughter of John II., k. of Castile, and heiress of the kingdom, 1469-succeeds as joint sovereign with her, and is Ferdinand V. of Castile, 1475-rebuts the claims of Joanna, the alleged daughter of Henry IV., and defeats her affianced, Alfonso V. of Portugal, at Toro, 1476on the death of his father, succeeds as Ferdinand II. of Aragon, which is henceforth united to Castile, 1479-defeats Alfonso again at Albuera; makes peace; joins a league against the Turks, 1481makes war on the Moors of Granada, 1482-takes Abu Abdallah prisoner, and

releases him, 1483-takes Ronda and other towns, 1485 - defeats Abdallah el Zagal, and lays siege to Velez Malaga; endeavours to preserve the peace of southern Italy, 1486-invests New Malaga, 1487 - takes it, 1488 - conquers Guadix, Almeria, and Baza, 1489-Abdallah el Zagal gives up his territories, 1490-Granada besieged, 1491-surrenders, and the Moorish rule in Spain ends, Jan. 2, 1492-Columbus fitted out for his voyage, Aug. 3. See COLUMBUS.-By the treaty of Narbonne, Charles VIII. of France restores Roussillon and Cerdagne to Spain, 1493 - Ferdinand joins in a league against him, 1495-marries his daughter, Joanna, to Philip, son of the emperor Maximilian, 1496-and Philip's sister, Margaret, to his only son, John, who d. in Oct. 1497-compels the Moors to embrace Christianity or quit Spain, 1499- marries his youngest daughter, Katharine, to Arthur, prince of Wales, Nov. 14, 1501; conquers Naples, in concert with France, 1501-quarrel about the spoil, 1502-obtains the whole of Naples, 1503-death of his queen, Isabella, 1504 -he retains the government of Castile; jealous of his son-in-law, Philip; concludes a treaty of peace with France, and marries Germaine de Foix, niece of Louis XII., who gives as her dowry all his claims on Naples, 1505-on the death of Philip and the insanity of Joanna, Ferdinand continues to hold Castile for their young son, Charles; quarrels with the emperor Maximilian; visits Naples, 1506-confers with Louis at Savona, 1507 -accedes to the league of Cambray against Venice, 1508 conquers the northern coast of Africa, 1510-joins the Holy League of pope Julius II. against France, 1511-conquers Navarre, 1512I truce with France, 1513-leagues with the emperor and pope against Francis I. on his ascending the throne of France, 1515-d. Jan. 23, 1516. FERDINAND VI., k. of Spain, son of Philip V., b. 1713-succeeds, 1746-treaty of commerce with Great Britain, 1750ministry of Ricardo Wall, 1755-d. Aug. 10, 1759. FERDINAND VII., k. of Spain, son of Chas. IV., b. Oct. 14, 1784-his father abdicates in his favour, Mar. 19, 1808-he resigns at Bayonne, and is sent by Napoleon to Valençay; the junta of Seville assumes the government in his name. See SPAIN, GEORGE III., k. of Great Britain, WELLINGTON, duke of, and NAPOLEON I. -Liberated by Napoleon and sent to Spain, Dec. 11, 1813-dissolves the Cortes, abolishes the Constitution, re

FERDINAND VII.-continued.

stores the Inquisition, and treats the defenders of the country with the basest ingratitude, 1814 he joins the European alliance, May 2, 1815-receives a compensation from Great Britain for abolishing the slave trade; retains Olivença, and quarrels with Portugal; governed by his priests, neglects the advice of the allied sovereigns to abandon his arbitrary course; Porlier and Lascy are executed, 1817-insurrection at Valencia repressed, 1819-Riego and Quiroga at the head of the troops assembled in the isle of Leon demand the restoration of the Constitution of 1812, Jan. 5, 1820-he submits, Mar. 3-abolishes the Inquisition, banishes the Jesuits, and convokes the Cortes, which meet, July 9-dissimulation and secret treachery on his part; Army of the Faith organized, 1821 -conspiracy of sovereigns at Verona; France undertakes to crush the Spanish patriots; the royal guards at Madrid declare against the Constitution; a royalist junta formed at Urgel, 1822-the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian ambassadors recalled from Madrid; Louis XVIII. declares war; a French army enters Spain; arrives at Madrid, May 24, 1823 -the Cortes retire to Seville and take Ferdinand with them; thence to Cadiz, where they give him liberty, Oct. 1Cadiz surrenders; the Constitution is abolished; the reign of tyranny restored; Riego executed as a traitor at Madrid, Nov. 7-Ferdinand assists the partisans of Don Miguel, 1826-death of his qu., Josephina Amalia; he marries Maria Christina, daughter of Francis I., k. of Naples, 1829-abolishes the Salic law, and declares the throne of Spain to be heritable by females, March 29, 1830-birth of his daughter, Maria Isabella, the present queen, Oct. 11-protest and revolt of his brother, Carlos; acknowledges Louis Philip in France; treacherous seizure and execution of Torrijos and his companions at Malaga, Dec. 4, 1831-falls ill, and appoints his queen regent, Oct. 1832-d. Nov. 29, 1833. FERDINAND, K. of Hungary. See FERDINAND, I. II., and III., emperors of Germany. FERDINAND I., k. of Naples, natural son of Alfonso V., k. of Aragon, b. 1426; receives Naples at his father's death, 1458 -disturbed by rebellious nobles, and the hostility of John, son of Regnier d'Anjou, 1459-defeated on the river Sarno, July 7; the pope and Francesco Sforza assist him, 1460- supported in Naples by Scanderbeg, with a body of Albanians,

1461-defeats John of Anjou at Troja, Aug. 18, 1462-murders Jacopo Piccinino, 1465-marries Joanna, daughter of John II., k. of Navarre, 1477-joins the pope in war against Florence, 1478 - is visited by Lorenzo de' Medici, 1479concludes a treaty with the Florentines, Dec. 3, 1480-Otranto stormed by the Turks; recovered from them, Sept. 10, 1481-the nobles resist the taxes imposed on them, 1485-Innocent VIII. encourages their revolt, and incites the duke of Lorraine to claim Naples, 1486-excommunicates and deposes Ferdinand for refusing his annual tribute, 1489-the Anjou claim to the crown of Naples revived, 1493-d. Jan. 25, 1494. FERDINAND II., k. of Naples, son of Alfonso II., receives the crown on his father's abdication, 1495-obliged, by the invasion of Charles VIII., to retire to the isle of Ischia, 1495-recovers great part of his kingdom, July 7-d. Oct. 5, 1496. FERDINAND III., K. of Naples. See FERDINAND, K. of Castile and Aragon. FERDINAND IV., k. of Naples, third son of Carlos (Charles III. of Spain), b. Jan. 12, 1751-receives Naples when his father succeeds in Spain, 1759-takes the government into his own hands, 1767-joins the coalition against France, 1793makes peace, Oct. 10, 1796-renews the war, 1798-retreats to Sicily, Jan. 2, 1799 -the French occupy Naples, and establish the Parthenopean republic, 23; cardinal Ruffo, with British and Russian aid, recovers Naples, June 13; the king returns, July 10; concludes a treaty of peace at Florence, March 28, 1801 issues a Declaration of Neutrality, June 8,1803-French troops occupy his States; is obliged to dismiss his minister, Acton, 1804-allows an Anglo-Russian army to land in Naples, Nov. 20, 1805-Napoleon declares that "Ferdinand IV. has ceased to reign," Dec. 27-retreats again into Sicily, and is protected there by a British naval and land force, Jan. 25, 1806 -lord Wm. Bentinck appointed captaingeneral of Sicily, obtains for the people a free constitution; the k. makes his son regent, and the qu. withdraws, 1812restored in Naples, and takes the title of Ferdinand I., king of the Two Sicilies, June 3, 1815-obliged by gen. Pépé and the Carbonari to grant a free constitution, 1820-goes to Laybach, annuls the constitution, to which he had sworn fidelity, and is conducted back to Naples by an Austrian army, May 15, 1821revokes the Sicilian constitution; d. Jan. 4, 1825.

FERDINAND II., k. of the Two Sicilies, son
of Francis I., b. Jan. 12, 1810-succeeds
to the throne, Nov. 8, 1830-dispute with
Great Britain on the sulphur monopoly,
settled under the mediation of France,
Mar. 15, 1840-revolt of Palermo, Jan.
12, 1848-constitution proclaimed at Na-
ples, 29-the English and French ad-
mirals mediate for the people of Palermo,
Mar. 6, 1849-Ferdinand issues a decree,
that all teachers and tutors in his do-
minions, male or female, public or
private, must be examined as to their
religious belief, Oct. 27-intolerable ty-
ranny of his government, 1855.
FERDINAND, k. of Portugal, son of Peter
I., b. 1345-succeeds his father, 1367-
claims the throne of Castile, 1369-he
offends his people by his marriage with
Eleanor Tellez, 1371-Henry II. of Cas-
tile invades his kingdom, and compels
him to make peace, 1373-he marries bis
only child, Beatrice, to John I. of Cas-
tile; d. Oct. 20, 1383.
FERDINAND, prince of Brunswick.


BRUNSWICK, p. 118. FERDINAND GONSALVO, count of Castile. See AUCA, and CASTILE. FERDINAND, son of Alfonso XI., k. of Castile, put to death by his brother, Peter the Cruel, 1358.


of the Rhine, Sept. 25, 1806-recovers Tuscany, 1814-d. June 18, 1824. FERDINAND, duke of Parma, son of Philip, b. Jan. 20, 1751-succeeds his father in Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, July 18, 1765-expels the Jesuits, 1768-calls upon pope Clement XIII. to suppress the Order, 1769-d. Oct. 9, 1802. FERDINAND CHARLES MARIA, duke of Parma, son of Charles Louis, k. of Etruria, and afterwards duke of Lucca, and of Parma, b. Jan. 14, 1823-receives Parma on his father's abdication, Mar, 14, 1849assassinated, Mar. 26, 1854. FERDINAND MARIA, elector of Bavaria, son of Maximilian, succeeds him, 1651-d. 1679. See BAVARIA. FERDINAND, Son of Philip III., k. of Spain, appointed by his brother, Philip IV., gov. of the Spanish Netherlands, 1633-41. FERDINAND, duke of Mantua, son of Vincent Gonzaga, made a cardinal, 1606succeeds his brother, Francis III., and lays down his purple, 1612-d. Oct. 29, 1626. FERDINAND I., or Ferrante Gonzaga, count of Guastalla, 1539-serves in the army of Charles V. against the duke of Cleves, 1543-viceroy of Sicily, 1545-gov. of Milan, 1546-answers complaints of the Milanese against his government, 1554 -distinguishes himself in the Netherlands at the battle of St. Quentin; d. at Brussels, Nov. 15, 1557. FERDINAND II., duke of Guastalla, 15751630.

FERDINAND, archduke of Austria.

FERDINAND III., emperor. FERDINAND, Count of Flanders, 1206-1233. FERDINAND, Son of John I., k. of Portugal, accompanies his brother Edward's unfortunate expedition against Tangier, is made prisoner by the Moors, and d. in captivity, 1437. FERDINAND I., grand duke of Tuscany, second son of Cosmo I. de' Medici, created a cardinal, succeeds his brother, Francis Maria, Oct. 19, 1587-plants a colony of Jews at Leghorn, 1604-d. Feb. 7, 1609. FERDINAND II. de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany, b. 1610-succeeds his father, Cosmo II., 1621-compelled by Blake to desist from supporting Spain, d. May 23, 1670. FERDINAND III., grand duke of Tuscany, second son of Leopold II., b. May 6, 1769 -receives Tuscany on his father being elected emperor of Germany, 1790wishes to remain neutral; is compelled to join the coalition against France, 1793 -makes peace, Feb. 9, 1795-expelled by the French gen., Dupont, 1800. See ETRURIA, kingdom of.-Receives Salzburg with the title of elector, 1803Salzburg taken from him, and he is made elector of Würzburg, 1805-made grand duke, and joins the confederation |

FERDINAND III., duke of Guastalla, 16321678.

FERDULF, duke of Friuli, slain in battle

against the Slavonians, 706. FERDUSI, the Persian poet, writes his Shahnameh, or Book of Kings, 1000. FERENTINO, congress of, held by pope Honorius III. to promote the fifth crusade, 1223.

FERGANAH, a remote province, to which Yezdejerd, k. of Persia, retires after his defeat at Jaloulah, 637. 1655-FERGUSON, Adam, b. 1723-d. 1816. FERGUSON, James, b. 1710-d. 1776. FERGUSON, R., tried and imprisoned for attempting to rescue O'Connor, April 15, 1799. FERGUSON, Sir R., moves for an account of the expenses of the Milan commission, which is refused, July 6, 1820. FERGUSON discovers the planet "Euphrosyne," Sept. 1, 1854.

FERIA, the duke of, Spanish governor of Milan, occupies the Valteline, to support the revolt of the Catholics against the Protestant government of the Grisons, 1620.

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