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FEROZESHAH, battle of, the Sikhs defeated, Dec. 22, 1845.

FERRANTE. See FERDINAND GONZAGA. FERRARA, first mentioned by Paul Warnefrid as part of the exarchate of Ravenna, 568-752-a free city, 1067-submits to Matilda, countess of Tuscany, 1101-Guy Salinguerra leads the Ghibelin faction, 1118-succeeded by Torello, 1150-Wm. Adelard gives predominance to the Guelf party (see ADELARD, Wm.), and Ferrara joins the Lombard League, 1174 -Salinguerra II., son of Torello, chief of the Ghibelins, 1195-Azzo, marquis d' Este opposes him, 1196. See ESTE, Azzo D', VI. Is expelled by the Ghibelins, 1209-recovers his influence, 1211-d. 1212-Aldrovandino, his son, succeeds; d. 1215. See Azzo VII., marquis of Este.-Giacomo Torello heads the Ghibelins, 1244-Obizzo D'Este, 1264-1293 -Salinguerra III., 1270. See Azzo VIII., marquis of Este.-Fulk D'Este, 1308the Ghibelin faction expires with Salinguerra III.

Pope Clement V. claims Ferrara as a fief of the church, and gives the government to Robert, k. of Naples, 1309 -the Ferrarese attempt to regain independence, and are cruelly repressed by the cardinal-legate, Pelagrua, 1310expel Robert's garrison and restore the government jointly to Obizzo III., Rinaldo, and Nicholas I., sons of Aldrovandino, marquis d'Este, 1317-their cousin, Azzo, and other nobles, assist them to repel a formidable attack made by the legate, who is repulsed with great loss, 1333Rinaldo d. 1335-Nicholas I. d. 1344Obizzo III.d.1352-his eldest son, Aldrovandino III., elected signor of Ferrara, Mar. 21, 1352-d. of the plague, Nov. 2, 1361-his brother, Nicholas II., succeeds; d. Mar. 26, 1388-and is followed by his brother, Albert, who joins the league against Gian Galeazzo Visconte, 1390 -founds the university of Ferrara, 1391 -d. July 30, 1393-and has for successor his son, Nicholas III., the pacificator of Italy; under his auspices peace is concluded at Ferrara between Venice, Milan, and Florence, April 18, 1428-and another general treaty, 1433.

Pope Eugenius IV.calls a council at Ferrara, 1437-the council opened by cardinal Nicholas Albergati, Jan. 8, 1438-declares that of Basle at an end; the pope arrives, Jan. 27, and the Greek emperor, John VI., March 4; the council removed to Florence, 1439-Nicholas III. held in high esteem by Philip Maria Visconte, is invited by him to Milan, and d. there suddenly, Dec. 26, 1441-his natural son,

Lionel, is made his heir by his will; Lionel co-operates with pope Nicholas V. in restoring peace between the Italian republics and Alfonso V., k. of Aragon and Naples, and soon afterwards d., Oct. 1, 1450 his brother, Borso, also a natural son of Nicholas III., succeeds; is invited to Rome by pope Paul II., and receives from him the title of duke of Ferrara, April 14, 1471-d. May 27.

Is followed by his brother, Hercules I., a legitimate son of Nicholas III.; he supports Lorenzo de' Medici against pope Sixtus IV., 1478-assists in recovering Otranto from the Turks, 1481-is fiercely attacked by Venice and the pope, 1482— the pope withdraws, but the Venetians continue their hostilities, 1483-peace restored by the treaty of Bagnalo; the duke of Ferrara loses Rovigo, Aug. 7, 1484 sends his eldest son, Alfonso, to travel in England, France, and Spain, 1503-d. Jan. 25, 1504. See ESTE, Alfonso I., D'.-He joins a coalition against Venice, 1508-is attacked by pope Julius II., 1510-repels their attacks, and recovers part of his lost territories, 1511invited to Rome; treacherously imprisoned; released, 1512-appointed gonfalonier of the church by Leo X., 1513— is deceived by his promise to restore Modena and Reggio, 1515-Leo attempts to take Ferrara, 1519-instigates a plot to assassinate Alfonso, 1520-excommunicates him, and lays his State under an interdict; the duke in a printed manifesto exposes the papal iniquities, and is saved by Leo's death, 1520-joins the league against Francis I, 1523-takes Modena, June 5, 1527 - the emperor Charles V. decides against the papal claims on Ferrara, Dec. 21, 1530-Clement V. resists this award; submits to it, Oct. 12, 1531-Alfonso I. d. Oct. 31, 1534.

Is succeeded by his son, Hercules I.; Calvin preaches at Ferrara, and is expelled, 1536-Hercules II. joins the French army under the duke of Guise, 1556-d. Oct.3, 1559-his son, Alfonso II., succeeds; Ferrara nearly destroyed by an earthquake, which commences Nov. 16, and continues to the end of the year, 1570 -Alfonso II. confines Tasso as a lunatic, 1579-d. Oct. 27, 1597-Cæsar, grandson of Alfonso I., is declared heir to the lands of D'Este, and elected lord of Ferrara, pope Clement VIII. revives the old claims of the church; excommunicates Cæsar, and marches an army against him, 1597-Ferrara is given up by the House of D'Este, who retain only the title of dukes of Modena, 1598-Ferrara

occupied by Massena, June 19, 1796held by the Austrians, after the evacuation of the rest of the papal States, 1838 -occupied by Austrian troops, 1847. FERRARS, George, M.P., arrested for debt; released by order of the House; and an Act passed to secure members of parliament from such liabilities, 1542. FERRERS, Laurence Shirley, earl, hanged at Tyburn, for murder, May 5, 1760. FERRETTI, Mastai, b. 1792-chosen pope, 1846. See PIUS IX., pope. FERRIER, Miss, the novelist, d. 1854. FERRO, one of the Canary islands, from which the degrees of longitude are measured in many maps. See ERUPTIONS, Volcanic.

FERROL, projected attack on, by the earl of
Essex and sir Walter Raleigh, 1597-
unsuccessful attack on, by sir Edward
Pellew, and sir James Pulteney, Aug. 25,
1800-naval battle off; the French and
Spanish fleets defeated by sir Robert
Calder, July 22, 1805-taken by Soult,
Jan. 27, 1809.
FERSEN, Count, suspected of having caused

the death of Charles Augustus, crown prince of Sweden; is murdered by the populace, June 20, 1810. FESCH, cardinal, by means of a national council, effects a compromise between the pope (Pius VII.) and Napoleon, Aug. 5, 1811.

FESTIVALS. See PIA. FESTUS, gov. of Judæa, before whom Paul pleads, 61-superseded by P. Albinus,


FESTUS, Consul of Rome, 439-another, 472. FESTUS, Rufus, writes his "Breviary," 364. FETHANLEA, battle of; Ceawlin, king of

Wessex, defeats the Britons, 584. FEUCHTWANGEN, Conrad von, grand master of the Teutonic knights in Prussia, 1290. FEUCHTWANGEN, Siegfried von, grand master of the Teutonic knights in Prussia, 1303. FEUDAL Constitution commenced in France by Clovis I., 49-507-established in England by William the Conqueror, 1066-1080-embodied in the Assise of Jerusalem, 1099-introduced in Bohemia, by Charles IV., 1354. FEVA, chieftain of the Rugians, taken prisoner by Odoacer, 487.

FEVERSHAM, James II. is detained at, 1688. FEVERSHAM, earl of, sent by Charles II. to negotiate with Louis XIV., 1677-commands the army of James II. against the duke of Monmouth, 1685. FEZ, the kingdom of, founded, 787. See EDRIS BEN ABDALLAH.-The city built,

806. See EDRIS BEN EDRIS.-Invaded by Musa Ben Abi Alifia, 917 - taken by him, 924-Abderahman III. assists the Edrisites in, 929-is proclaimed k., 931-the Fatimites regain the ascendancy, 932-Abderahman renews his attempt to conquer them, 949-they remain masters of Fez, 968-Saracens of Spain repeat their invasion, and are defeated at Tangier, 972-Galib restores Al Hakem's authority, 974-Al Hassan, the last Edrisite k. surrenders to Almansor, and is beheaded, 984-Fez becomes a dependency of Spain, 985-revolt of Zeir Ben Atia, 996-the authority of the Spanish caliph restored, 998-becomes subject to Morocco, 1550. FICINUS, Marsilius, teaches the philosophy of Plato; warm discussions begin between its advocates and those of Aristotle's doctrines, 1470-translates the works of Plato; assists in founding the academy of Florence, 1476-d. Oct. 1, 1499. FIDENE taken, and razed by the Romans, B.C. 435-the amphitheatre erected by Acilius falls down, many thousands of the spectators are buried in the ruins, A.D. 27.

FIDENAS, L. Sergius, consul of Rome, B.C. 437-military tribune, 433. FIDENATES defeated by the Romans, B.C. 437. See FIDENE.

"FIDES," the planet, discovered by M. Luther, at Basle, Oct. 5, 1855.

FIELD of the Cloth of Gold. See ARDRES.
FIELDEN, John, M.P. for Oldham-d. 1849.
FIELDING, Henry, b. 1707-his novel of
"Tom Jones" produced, 1746-d. 1754.
FIELDING, Sir John, d. 1780.
FIESCHI, the Guelf, continue to molest
Genoa, and seize Monaco, 1297.
FIESCHI attempts to assassinate Louis
Philippe, July 28, 1834-is executed, Feb.
6, 1835.

FIESCO, count of Lavagna, conspiracy of, at Genoa, Jan. 2, 1547. FIESCO, Louis del, the Genoese admiral, defeated by the Venetian, Victor Pisani, 1378.

FIESCO, Matteo del, raises a revolt at Genoa, and is discomfited by Prospero Adorno, 1477.

FIESCO and Grimaldi, Guelfs, expelled from Genoa, by Doria and Spinola, Ghibelins, 1296. See FIESCHI, FIFE, Edward Balliol lands on the coast of, 1332.

FIFTH-MONARCHY MEN, fanatics who preach

a millennium and the kingdom of Christ, 1649-conspire against Cromwell, 1653punished and suppressed by Charles II, 1661.

FIGULUS, C. Marcius, consul of Rome, B.C. 162-II., 156.

FIGULUS, C. Marcius, consul of Rome, B.C. 64.

by the Russians, Feb. 21-Abo, Swea borg, and all the strong places taken; truce, Nov. 20, 1808-ceded to Russia by the peace of Fredericshamm, Sept. 17, 1809-the Gulf of, blockaded by the British and French fleets, Apr. 12, 1854. FIORENZUOLA, near Piacenza, battle of; Berenger defeated at, by Rudolf, king of France, and the Italian nobles, 923. FIRE ENGINE, nearly on the principle of the steam-engine, used to raise ballast and water, a patent granted for it, 1618. FIRE, Greek. See CALLINICUS and CON

FILANGIERI, Gaetano, b. 1752.
FILIBERTA, daughter of Philip II., duke of
Savoy, married to Julian de' Medici,

FILIBERTO I., duke of Savoy, eldest son of Amadeus IX., succeeds his father, 1472 -d. Apr. 22, 1482.

FILIBERTO II., duke of Savoy, eldest son of
Philip II., b. 1480-succeeds his father,
1497-marries Margaret, daughter of the
emperor Maximilian I., and widow of
prince John of Spain, 1499--d. 1504.
FILLMORE, Millard, b. 1800-vice-president
of the U. S., 1849-succeeds as president
on the death of gen. Taylor, 1850-re-
tires, 1853.

FIMBRIA, C. Flavius, consul of Rome, B.C.
104 assassinates L. Valerius Flavius
on his march to the East, and takes the
command of his army, 86-arrives in
Asia and defeats Mithridates, 85-Sylla
prepares to disarm him; he is deserted
by his army and commits suicide, 84.
FINALE bombarded by admiral Rowley, to
detach the Genoese from their alliance
with France and Spain, 1745.
FINAN, bp. of Lindisfarne, 650-d. 660.
FINANCE, a regular system of, introduced
by Darius Hystaspes, B.C, 503.
FINCH, Heneage, b. 1621-made earl of
Nottingham, and lord chancellor, 1673-
d. Dec. 18, 1682.

FINCH, Heneage, created lord Guernsey by qu. Anne, 1704-earl of Aylesford by Geo. I., 1714-dismissed from office, 1715. FINCH, Sir John, the Speaker, forcibly held in the chair while the Commons pass their "Remonstrance," March 2, 1629made lord keeper; is impeached by the Commons, and escapes to Holland, 1640. FINCK, the Prussian general, surrenders with his army to count Daun, 1759. FINDEN, William, the engraver, b. 1786d. 1852.

FINISTERRE, Cape, naval battle off; ad-
mirals Anson and Warren defeat the
French, May 3, 1747.
FINLAND, the coast of, conquered by Erik
IX., k. of Sweden, 1157-the Swedes
in, encroach on Russia, 1240-divided
among the sons of Gustavus Vasa, 1560
-conquered by the czar Peter, 1714-
restored, 1721-surrendered by Lewen-
haupt to the Russians, 1742-the greater
part is restored by the peace of Abo, on
condition of Augustus Frederic, duke of
Holstein Gottorp, being elected successor
to the crown of Sweden, 1743-invaded


FIRES, some of the most remarkable :--
Albany, Aug. 17, 1849.

Albion Mills, near Blackfriars Bridge,
London, March 3, 1791.

Aldersgate St., 40 houses, Nov. 5, 1783. Amsterdam theatre, May 15, 1772. Argyle Rooms, London, Feb. 5, 1830. Astley's amphitheatre, Sept. 17, 1794; Sept. 1, 1803; with 40 houses, June 8, 1841.

Bankside, mustard mills, Ang. 28,


Belvoir Castle, Rutlandshire, 1816. Bermondsey, April 24, 1852; again, June 25, 1854; Rope factories in Blue Anchor Road, Lucas's wharf, and many other waterside premises, Mar. 16, 1855.

Billingsgate, May 14, 1814.

Blandford (Dorsetshire), June 5, 1731. Bread Street, Cheapside, premises of Messrs. Townend, and many others in the neighbouring streets, Dec. 31, 1853; loss more than £100,000.

Broadwood's Pianoforte manufactory, 69, Horseferry Road, Westminster, Aug. 12, 1856, 1000 pianofortes burnt.

Bromley flax mills, Feb. 13, 1854.
Brooklyn (New York), Sept. 9, 1848.
Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, a great
many houses, June 12, 1811.

Camberwell old church, Feb. 7, 1841.
Canton, 15,000 houses, March 3, 1820.
Charleston, South Carolina, April 27,


Chandos Street, Covent Garden, June 5, 1306, when the notorious brothel, the Key, was burnt to the ground. It broke out in a room where a schoolmaster was in company with a courtezan; again, Sept. 30, 1853, when the extensive premises of Savill and Edwards were consumed.

Christ Church College, Oxford, March 3, 1809.

Circus, now Surrey theatre, Aug. 12, 1805.

City Road, Gutta-percha works, loss £100,000, June 5, 1853.

Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1344.
Collard's Pianoforte


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Dublin, House of Commons, Feb. 28, 1792; Custom - house, Aug. 10, 1833; Royal Arcade, April 25, 1837; Hutton's coach factory, Jan. 4, 1851.

Duke St., Blackfriars, Messrs. Clowes and Sons' printing office, Jan. 10, 1852.

Duke St, Lincoln's Inn, Nov. 30, 1759. Duke Street, London Bridge, Feb. 19, 1851; great damage.

Eastern Counties Railway, Bethnal Green, Sept. 18, 1851.

East Smithfield, Aug. 27, 1840. Edinburgh, Lawn market, 1771; June and Nov. 1824; three days, May 6-8, 1842; Adelphi theatre, May 24, 1853.

English Opera House (Lyceum), Feb. 16, 1830.

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founders, and burnt for several days, consuming the whole square of houses between Compton St., Greek St., and Queen St., with the exception of a house at the corner of Compton St., occupied by Mr. Reid, a grocer, which, owing to a change in the wind, entirely escaped.

Glasgow theatre, 1780; again, 1829; many warehouses, loss £150,000, Jan, 14, 1832; theatre, again, 1845; large destruction of property, May 6, 1849.

Glastonbury, town and abbey, 1184.
Gravesend, Aug. 11, 1850.

Halifax, Messrs. Whitworth's mills, Oct. 4, 1853, loss £80,000.

Hamburg, great fire at, May 7, 1842. Hatfield House, Herts, the marchioness of Salisbury perishes in the flames, Nov. 27, 1835.

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Lisbon, custom-house, May 31, 1766; royal palace, Nov. 6, 1794.

Liverpool, Apothecaries' Hall, March 20, 1845; Brancker's sugar-house, Dec. 28, 1843; Dublin Company's warehouses Jan. 24, 1834; Duke's warehouses, May 4,1843; May 27, 1843; Fawcet's foundry, March 6, 1843; Fenwick Street, Dec. 22, 1831; Formby Street, loss more than half a million, Sept. 23, 1842; Gibraltar Row, May 24, 1833; Glover's wharf, July 21, 1851; Goree Buildings, property destroyed to the amount of more than £1,000,000 sterling, Sept, 15, 1802; Feb. 17, 1846; Hill's rice-mills, Nov. 25, 1848; Lancelot's-hey, Jan. 14, 1833; Oct. 10, 1834; Liver mills, May 25, 1842; Liver Street, Nov. 16, 1829; Oil Street, March 16, 1844; Okell's sugar-house, May 23, 1799; Pack's shed, April, 14, 1851; Suf. folk Street, Jan. 31, 1818; sugar-house. March 21, 1830; Tabley Street, Nov. 23, 1826; town-hall and exchange, Jan.



18, 1795; Wapping, Oct. 22, 1823; North Shore cotton mills, May 17, 1853, loss £80,000; Bonded warehouses, near the Docks, Oct. 26, 1854, loss £95,000.

London, St. Paul's minster burnt, 962, 1077; the houses on London Bridge burnt, 3000 people drowned, July 10, 1212; great, of London, from Sunday morning, Sept. 2, till Thursday, 6, 200,000 sufferers encamp in the fields about Islington and Highgate, 1666.

London Wall, Oct. 6, 1849.

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Mile-end, London, Jan 22, 1821, loss £200,000.

Millwall, Poplar, Scott Russell's premises, Sept. 10, 1853, damage £100,000; Etna Steam Battery, burnt there on the stocks, May 3, 1855, value £120,000; a third fire, March 12, 1856.

Minories, 30 houses, March 23, 1797. Montreal, cathedral, April 7, 1849; a large portion of the city, July 8, 1852.

Moscow, burnt by the Tartars, 1571; by the Russian governor Rostopchin, Sept. 14, 1812; on the entry of the French under Napoleon, 11,840 houses consumed, besides palaces and churches.

Nantucket, July 13, 1846.

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Gateshead, Oct. 6, 1854, very extensive, with terrible explosions; 50 lives lost, 100 wounded-a million of property destroyed.

Newgate, by the Gordon mob, June 2,


New York, loss 20,000,000 dollars, Dec. 16, 1835; Sept. 6, 1839; July 19, 1845; Park theatre, Dec. 16, 1848; Messrs. Harpers, publishers, Dec. 10, 1853, loss above a million of dollars; warehouses in Front street, and shipping, Dec. 20, 1853, loss 650,000 dollars.

Olympic theatre, March 29, 1849. Opera House, Haymarket, June 17, 1788. Pantheon, Oxford Street Jan, 14, 1792.

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Pimlico, Oct. 25, 1839.

Pittsburgh, April 11, 1852. Portsmouth dockyard, July 27, 1770; Dec. 7, 1776.

Quebec, May 28 and June 28, 1845; theatre, Jan. 12, 1846.

Ratcliffe Cross, 630 houses; loss £1,000.000, July 23, 1794.

Red Lion Street, 15 houses, June 6, 1823.

Rome, Capitol burnt, B.C. 83; (Nero's), July 19, A.D. 64; the Capitol, again, 69-80; Capitol, by lightning, 188; the temples of Vesta and Peace burnt, 191.

Rotherhithe, June 1, 1765; Oct. 12, 1790, 20 houses; Sept. 14, 1791, 60 houses besides ships; March 16, 1820, extensive damage; Feb. 1, 1856, Evans and Co., and others, extensive.

Royal Exchange, London, Jan. 10, 1838, St. John's, Newfoundland, June 13, 1846.

St. Martin's Lane (Ben Caunt's public house), Jan. 15, 1851, 3 lives lost.

St. Paul's Churchyard, warehouse of Pawson and Co., Feb. 24, 1853.

St. Paul's Church, Covent Garden, Sept. 11, 1795.

San Franeisco destroyed, May 8, 1851, being the seventh time within four years Saragossa theatre burnt, 600 persons perish, Dec. 17, 1778.

Savannah, April 11, 1852.

Shad Thames flour mills, July 17, 1856, loss £100,000.

Shadwell, 50 houses, Sept. 10, 1736; 30 houses in 1761; Nov.1, 1796, 20 houses, Sheerness, Jan. 4, 1830.

Smithfield, 28 houses, 1761; again Aug. 14, 1822, extensive.

Southwark, 60 houses'consumed, 1676; Ald. Humphrey's, and other large warehouses, June 19, 1851, loss principally in hops, £100,000.

- Spitalfields, Oct. 4, 1852.

Store Street, Tottenham Court Road, Sept. 27, 1802, very extensive. Strand, 40 houses, 1781.

Thames Street, near the Customhouse, Feb. 11, 1800, three West India warehouses, loss £300,000.

Throgmorton Street, 20 houses, 1774.

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