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(piλúpa), and fastened it to his waist under his girdle, in order to avoid stooping, because of his great height and extreme thinness. But that Cinesias was a man of delicate health, and badly off in other respects, we are told by Lysias the orator, in his oration inscribed, "For Phanias accused of illegal Practices," in which he says that he, having abandoned his regular profession, had taken to trumping up false accusations against people, and to making money by such means. And that he means the poet here, and no one else, is plain from the fact that he shows also that he had been attacked by the comic poets for impiety. And he also, in the oration itself, shows that he was a person of that character. And the words of the orator are as follows:- "But I marvel that you are not indignant at such a man as Cinesias coming forward in aid of the laws, whom you all know to be the most impious of all men, and the greatest violater of the laws that has ever existed. Is not he the man who has committed such offences against the gods as all other men think it shameful even to speak of, though you hear the comic poets mention such actions of his every year? Did not Apollophanes, and Mystalides, and Lysitheus feast with him, selecting one of the days on which it was not lawful to hold a feast, giving themselves the name of Cacodæmonistæ,' instead of Numeniastæ, a name indeed appropriate enough to their fortunes? Nor, indeed, did it occur to them that they were really doing what that name denotes; but they acted in this manner to show their contempt for the gods and for our laws. And accordingly, each of those men perished, as it was reasonable to expect that such men should.

“But this man, with whom you are all acquainted, the gods have treated in such a manner, that his very enemies would rather that he should live than die, as an example to all other men, that they may see that the immortal Gods do not postpone the punishment due to men who behave insolently towards their Deity, so as to reserve it for their children; but that they destroy the men themselves in a miserable manner, inflicting on them greater and more terrible calamities and diseases than on any other men whatever. For to die, or to be afflicted with sickness in an ordinary manner, is the

1 Cacodæmonistæ, from kakòs, bad, and Saluwv, a deity. Numeniastæ, from Novμnvia, the Feast of the New Moon.

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If hunger should attack your well-shaped person,
"Twould make you thinner than Philippides.

And the word πεφιλιππιδῶσθαι was used for being extremely thin, as we find in Alexis; who, in his Women taking Mandragora, says

A. You must be ill. You are, by Jove, the very

Leanest of sparrows-a complete Philippides (Tepiλídwoai), B. Don't tell me such strange things; I'm all but dead.

A. I pity your sad case.

At all events, it is much better to look like that, than to be like the man of whom Antiphanes in his Æolus says→→

This man then, such a sot and glutton is he,
And so enormous is his size of body,

Is called by all his countrymen the Bladder.

And Heraclides of Pontus, in his treatise on Pleasure, says that Dinias the perfumer gave himself up to love because of his luxury, and spent a vast sum of money on it; and when, at last, he failed in his desires, out of grief he mutilated himself, his unbridled luxury bringing him into this trouble.

78. But it was the fashion at Athens to anoint even the feet of those men who were very luxurious with ointment, a custom which Cephisodorus alludes to in his TrophoniusThen to anoint my body go and buy Essence of lilies, and of roses too, I beg you, Xanthias; and also buy For my poor feet some baccaris.

And Eubulus, in his Sphingocarion, says


Lying full softly in a bed-chamber ;

Around him were most delicate cloaks, well suited
For tender maidens, soft, voluptuous;

Such as those are, who well perfumed and fragrant
With amaracine oils, do rub my feet.

But the author of the Procris gives an account of what care ought to be taken of Procris's dog, speaking of a dog as if he

were a man

A. Strew, then, soft carpets underneath the dog,

And place beneath cloths of Milesian wool;

And put above them all a purple rug.

B. Phoebus Apollo !

A. Then in goose's milk

Soak him some groats.

B. O mighty Hercules !

A. And with Megallian oils anoint his feet.

And Antiphanes, in his Alcestis, represents some one as
anointing his feet with oil; but in his Mendicant Priest of
Cybele, he says-

He bade the damsel take some choice perfumes
From the altar of the goddess, and then, first,
Anoint his feet with it, and then his knees:
But the first moment that the girl did touch
His feet, he leaped up.

And in his Zacynthus he says——

Have I not, then, a right to be fond of women,
And to regard them all with tender love,
For is it not a sweet and noble thing
To be treated just as you are; and to have
One's feet anointed by fair delicate hands?

And in his Thoricians he says

He bathes completely-but what is't he does?

He bathes his hands and feet, and well anoints them
With perfume from a gold and ample ewer.
And with a purple dye he smears his jaws
And bosom; and his arms with oil of thyme;
His eyebrows and his hair with marjoram ;
His knees and neck with essence of wild ivy.

And Anaxandrides, in his Protesilaus, says―

Ointment from Peron, which this fellow sold
But yesterday to Melanopus here,

A costly bargain fresh from Egypt, which
Anoints to day Callistratus's feet.

And Teleclides, in his Prytanes, alludes to the lives of the
citizens, even in the time of Themistocles, as having been
very much devoted to luxury. And Cratinus in his Chirones,
speaking of the luxury of the former generations, says—
There was a scent of delicate thyme besides,

And roses too, and lilies by my ear;
And in my hands I held an apple, and

A staff, and thus I did harangue the people.

79. And Clearchus the Solensian, in his treatise on Love Matters, says―" Why is it that we carry in our hands flowers, and apples, and things of that sort? Is it that by our delight in these things nature points out those of us who have a desire for all kinds of beauty? Is it, therefore, as a kind of specimen of beauty that men carry beautiful things in their hands, and take delight in them? Or do they carry them about for two objects? For by these means the beginning of good fortune, and an indication of one's wishes, is to a

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certain extent secured; to those who are asked for them, by their being addressed, and to those who give them, because they give an intimation beforehand, that they must give of their beauty in exchange. For a request for beautiful flowers and fruits, intimates that those who receive them are prepared to give in return the beauty of their persons. Perhaps also people are fond of those things, and carry them about them in order to comfort and mitigate the vexation which arises from the neglect or absence of those whom they love. For by the presence of these agreeable objects, the desire for those persons whom we love is blunted; unless, indeed, we may rather say that it is for the sake of personal ornament that people carry those things, and take delight in them, just as they wear anything else which tends to ornament. For not only those people who are crowned with flowers, but those also who carry them in their hands, find their whole appearance is improved by them. Perhaps also, people carry them simply because of their love for any beautiful object. For the love of beautiful objects shows that we are inclined to be fond of the productions of the seasons.

For the face of spring and autumn is really beautiful, when looked at in their flowers and fruits. And all persons who are in love, being made, as it were, luxurious by their passion, and inclined to admire beauty, are softened by the sight of beauty of any sort. For it is something natural that people who fancy that they themselves are beautiful and elegant, should be fond of flowers; on which account the companions of Proserpine are represented as gathering flowers. And Sappho saysI saw a lovely maiden gathering flowers.

80. But in former times men were so devoted to luxury, that they dedicated a temple to Venus Callipyge on this account. A certain countryman had two beautiful daughters; and they once, contending with one another, went into the public roads, disputing as they went, which had the most beautiful buttocks. And as a young man was passing, who had an aged father, they showed themselves to him also. And he, when he had seen both, decided in favour of the elder; and falling in love with her, he returned into the city and fell ill, and took to his bed, and related what had happened to his brother, who was younger than he; and he also, going into the fields and seeing the damsels himself, fell in love with the

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