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more advantage now ledge. Nor shall we to take our hopeful yo custodies, and send th into mimics, apes, and to see other countries of age, not to learn rience, and make wi time be such as shall all men where they ship of those in all p nent. And perhaps. to visit us for their their own country.

ing, and battering, with all the helps of ancient and mo-
dern stratagems, tactics, and warlike maxims, they may
as it were out of a long war come forth renowned and
perfect commanders in the service of their country.
They would not then, if they were trusted with fair and
hopeful armies, suffer them for want of just and wise
discipline to shed away from about them like sick fea-
thers, though they be never so oft supplied; they would
not suffer their empty and unrecruitable colonels of
twenty men in a company, to quaff out, or convey
into secret hoards, the wages of a delusive list, and a
miserable remnant; yet in the mean while to be over-
mastered with a score or two of drunkards, the only
soldiery left about them, or else to comply with all
rapines and violences. No certainly, if they knew
aught of that knowledge that belongs to good men or
good governors, they would not suffer these things.
But to return to our own institute; besides these con-
stant exercises at home, there is another opportunity of
gaining experience to be won from pleasure itself abroad;
in those vernal seasons of the year when the air is calm
and pleasant, it were an injury and sullenness against
nature, not to go out and see her riches, and partake in
her rejoicing with heaven and earth. I should not
therefore be a persuader to them of studying much
then, after two or three years that they have well laid
their grounds, but to ride out in companies with prudent
and staid guides to all the quarters of the land; learn-
ing and observing all places of strength, all commo-
dities of building and of soil, for towns and tillage,
harbours and ports for trade. Sometimes taking sea as
far as to our navy, to learn there also what they can in
the practical knowledge of sailing and of sea-fight.
These ways would try all their peculiar gifts of nature,
and if there were any secret excellence among them
would fetch it out, and give it fair opportunities to ad-
vance itself by, which could not but mightily redound
to the good of this nation, and bring into fashion again
those old admired virtues and excellencies with far

Now lastly for the save only that it wo much time else wo habits got; and that moderate, I suppose Hartlib, you have a desire was, of that, coursed with you co of education; not the cradle, which y tions, if brevity had circumstances also such as have the wo and direction may this is not a bow fo himself a teacher equal to those whi withal persuaded in the assay, than more illustrious; imagine, and that thing but very ha best wishes; if Go spirit and capacity

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hood of a Roman recovery, it will be attributed first, as is most due, to the strong assistance of God, our deliverer; next to your faithful guidance and undaunted wisdom, lords and commons of England! Neither is it in God's esteem, the diminution of his glory, when honourable things are spoken of good men, and worthy magistrates; which if I now first should begin to do after so fair a progress of your laudable deeds, and such a long obligement upon the whole realm to your indefatigable virtues, I might be justly reckoned among the tardiest and the unwillingest of them that praise ye. Nevertheless there being three principal things, without which all praising is but courtship and flattery; first, when that only is praised which is solidly worth praise; next, when greatest likelihoods are brought, that such things are truly and really in those persons, to whom they are ascribed; the other, when he who praises, by shewing that such his actual persuasion is of whom he writes, can demonstrate that he flatters not; the former two of these I have heretofore endeavoured, rescuing the employment from him who went about to impair your merits with a trivial and malignant encomium; the latter as belonging chiefly to mine own acquittal, that whom I so extolled I did not flatter, hath been reserved opportunely to this occasion. For he who freely magnifies what hath been nobly done, and fears not to declare as freely what might be done better, gives ye the best covenant of his fidelity; and that his loyalest affection and his hope waits on your proceedings. His highest praising is not flattery, and his plainest advice is a kind of praising; for though I should affirm and hold by argument, that it

Tay, who to states and governors of the commonwealth direct their speech, high court of parliament! et wanting such access in a private condition, write that which they foresee may advance the public good; I suppose them, as at the beginning of no mean endeavour, not a little altered and moved inwardly in their minds; some with doubt of what will be the sucess, others with fear of what will be the censure; some with hope, others with confidence of what they have to speak. And me perhaps each of these dispositions, as the subject was whereon I entered, may have at ether times variously affected; and likely might in these foremost expressions now also disclose which of them swayed most, but that the very attempt of this address thus made, and the thought of whom it hath se to, hath got the power within me to a passion, far more welcome than incidental to a preface. Which though I stay not to confess ere any ask, I shall be blameless, if it be no other, than the joy and gratulaDon which it brings to all who wish and promote their antry's liberty; whereof this whole discourse proposed will be a certain testimony, if not a trophy. For his is not the liberty which we can hope, that no zrievance ever should arise in the commonwealth, that et no man in this world expect; but when complaints are freely heard, deeply considered, and speedily rered, then is the utmost bound of civil liberty obtained that wise men look for. To which if I now manifest, by the very sound of this which I shall utter, e already in good part arrived, and yet from soch a steep disadvantage of tyranny and superstition "unded into our principles, as was beyond the mau

that we are

unless the same be first approved and licen or at least one of such, as shall be thereto For that part which preserves justly every to himself, or provides for the poor, I touc wish they be not made pretences to abuse a honest and painful men, who offend not these particulars. But that other clause books, which we thought had died with quadragesimal and matrimonial when the pired, I shall now attend with such a hor lay before ye, first the inventors of it, to b ye will be loth to own; next, what is to

that this order avails nothing to the s scandalous, seditious, and libellous books mainly intended to be suppressed. Las be primely to the discouragement of all the stop of truth, not only by disexercisi ing our abilities, in what we know al hindering and cropping the discovery yet further made, both in religious and

would fare better with truth, with learning, and the commonwealth, if one of your published orders, which I should name, were called in; yet at the same time it could not but much redound to the lustre of your mild and equal government, whenas private persons are hereby animated to think ye better pleased with public advice, than other statists have been delighted heretofore with public flattery. And men will then see what difference there is between the magnanimity of a triennial parliament, and that jealous haughtiness of prelates and cabin counsellors that usurped of late, whenas they shall observe ye in the midst of your victories and successes more gently brook-general of reading, whatever sort the b ing written exceptions against a voted order, than other courts, which had produced nothing worth memory but the weak ostentation of wealth, would have endured the least signified dislike at any sudden proclamation. If I should thus far presume upon the meek demeanour of your civil and gentle greatness, lords and commons! as what your published order hath directly said, that to gainsay, I might defend myself with ease, if any should accuse me of being new or insolent, did they but know how much better I find ye esteem it to imitate the old and elegant humanity of Greece, than the barbaric pride of a Hunnish and Norwegian stateliness. And out of those ages, to whose polite wisdom and letters we owe that we are not yet Goths and Jutlanders, I could name him who from his private house wrote that discourse to the parliament of Athens, that persuades them to change the form of democraty which was then established. Such honour was done in those days to men who professed the study of wisdom and eloquence, not only in their own country, but in other lands, that cities and signiories heard them gladly, and with great respect, if they had aught in public to admonish the state. Thus did Dion Prusæus, a stranger and a private orator, counsel the Rhodians against a former edict; and I abound with other like examples, which to set here would be superfluous. But if from the industry of a life wholly dedicated to studious labours, and those natural endowments haply not the worst for two and fifty degrees of northern latitude, so much must be derogated, as to count me not equal to any of those who had this privilege, I would obtain to be thought not so inferior, as yourselves are superior to the most of them who received their counsel; and how far you excel them, be assured, lords and commons! there can no greater testimony appear, than when your prudent spirit acknowledges and obeys the voice of reason, from what quarter soever it be heard speaking; and renders ye as willing to repeal any act of your own setting forth, as any set forth by your predecessors.

I deny not, but that it is of greatest c the church and commonwealth, to have how books demean themselves as well thereafter to confine, imprison, and do on them as malefactors; for books are dead things, but do contain a progeny to be as active as that soul was whos are; nay, they do preserve as in a vial cacy and extraction of that living int them. I know they are as lively, and productive, as those fabulous dragon's t sown up and down, may chance to s

If ye be thus resolved, as it were injury to think ye were not, I know not what should withhold me from presenting ye with a fit instance wherein to shew both that love of truth which ye eminently profess, and that uprightness of your judgment which is not wont to be partial to yourselves; by judging over again that order which ye have ordained "to regulate printing; that no book, pamphlet, or paper, shall be henceforth printed,


And yet on the other hand, un used, as good almost kill a man as kil who kills a man kills a reasonable image; but he who destroys a good b itself, kills the image of God, as it Many a man lives a burden to the ea book is the precious lifeblood of a balmed and treasured up on purpose life. It is true, no age can restore a haps there is no great loss; and revol not oft recover the loss of a rejected t of which whole nations fare the wors wary therefore what persecution we living labours of public men, how wes life of man, preserved and stored u we see a kind of homicide may be sometimes a martyrdom; and if it ex impression, a kind of massacre, wher ends not in the slaying of an element at the æthereal and fifth essence, the itself; slays an immortality rather th I should be condemned of introducin oppose licensing, I refuse not the p historical, as will serve to shew wha by ancient and famous commonwe disorder, till the very time that this crept out of the inquisition, was cate lates, and hath caught some of our

In Athens, where books and wits were ever busier than in any other part of Greece, I find but only two sorts of writings which the magistrate cared to take notice of; those either blasphemous and atheistical, or libellous. Thus the books of Protagoras were by the judges of Areopagus commanded to be burnt, and himself banished the territory for a discourse, begun with his confessing not to know," whether there were gods, er whether not." And against defaming, it was agreed that one should be traduced by name, as was the mannet of Vetus Comoedia, whereby we may guess how they censured libelling; and this course was quick enough, as Cicero writes, to quell both the desperate wits of other atheists, and the open way of defaming, as the event shewed. Of other sects and opinions, though tending to voluptuousness, and the denying of divine Providence, they took no heed. Therefore we d› not read that either Epicurus, or that libertine school of Cyrene, or what the Cynic impudence uttered, was Fer questioned by the laws. Neither is it recorded, that the writings of those old comedians were suppressed, though the acting of them were forbid; and that Plato commended the reading of Aristophanes, the usest of them all, to his royal scholar Dionysius, is commonly known, and may be excused, if holy Chrysostom, as is reported, nightly studied so much the same author, and had the art to cleanse a scurrilous vehemence into the style of a rousing sermon. That other leading city of Greece, Lacedæmon, considering that Lycurgus their lawgiver was so addicted to elegant learning, as to have been the first that brought out of Ionia the scattered works of Homer, and sent the poet Thales from Crete to prepare and mollify the Spartan surliness with his smooth songs and odes, the better to plant among them law and civility; it is to be wondered how museless and unbookish they were, inding nought but the feats of war. There needed no licensing of books among them, for they disliked all but their own laconic apophthegms, and took a slight rasion to chase Archilocus out of their city, perhaps for composing in a higher strain than their own soldiery, ballads, and roundels, could reach to; or if it were for Es broad verses, they were not therein so cautious, but Laey were as dissolute in their promiscuous conversing; hence Euripides affirms in Andromache, that their women were all unchaste. This much may give us sight after what sort of books were prohibited among Greeks. The Romans also for many ages trained sp only to a military roughness, resembling most the Lacedaemonian guise, knew of learning little but what Beir twelve tables and the pontific college with their angurs and flamins taught them in religion and law; unacquainted with other learning, that when Carneades and Critolaus, with the stoic Diogenes, coming embassadors to Rome, took thereby occasion to give the city a taste of their philosophy, they were suspected for seducers by no less a man than Cato the censor, who moved it in the senate to dismiss them speedily, and to banish all such Attic babblers out of Italy. But Ncipio and others of the noblest senators withstood him and his old Sabin austerity; honoured and admired the



| men; and the censor himself at last, in his old age, to the study of that whereof before he was so scrupulous. And yet at the same time, Nævius and Plautus, the first Latin comedians, had filled the city with all the borrowed scenes of Menander and Philemon. Then began to be considered there also what was to be done to libellous books and authors; for Nævius was quickly cast into prison for his unbridled pen, and released by the tribunes upon his recantation; we read also that libels were burnt, and the makers punished, by AugusThe like severity, no doubt, was used, if aught were impiously written against their esteemed gods. Except in these two points, how the world went in books, the magistrate kept no reckoning. And therefore Lucretius, without impeachment, versifies his Epicurism to Memmius, and had the honour to be set forth the second time by Cicero, so great a father of the commonwealth; although himself disputes against that opinion in his own writings. Nor was the satirical sharpness or naked plainness of Lucilius, or Catullus, or Flaccus, by any order prohibited. And for matters of state, the story of Titus Livius, though it extolled that part which Pompey held, was not therefore suppressed by Octavius Cæsar, of the other faction. that Naso was by him banished in his old age, for the wanton poems of his youth, was but a mere covert of state over some secret cause; and besides, the books were neither banished nor called in. From hence we shall meet with little else but tyranny in the Roman empire, that we may not marvel, if not so often bad as good books were silenced. I shall therefore deem to have been large enough, in producing what among the ancients was punishable to write, save only which, all other arguments were free to treat on.


By this time the emperors were become Christians whose discipline in this point I do not find to have been more severe than what was formerly in practice. The books of those whom they took to be grand heretics were examined, refuted, and condemned in the general councils; and not till then were prohibited, or burnt, by authority of the emperor. As for the writings of heathen authors, unless they were plain invectives against Christianity, as those of Porphyrius and Proclus, they met with no interdict that can be cited, till about the year 400, in a Carthaginian council, wherein bishops themselves were forbid to read the books of gentiles, but heresies they might read; while others long before them on the contrary scrupled more the books of heretics, than of gentiles. And that the primitive councils and bishops were wont only to declare what books were not commendable, passing no further, but leaving it to each one's conscience to read or to lay by, till after the year 800, is observed already by Padre Paolo the great unmasker of the Trentine council. After which time the popes of Rome, engrossing what they pleased of political rule into their own hands, extended their dominion over men's eyes, as they had before over their judgments, burning and prohibiting to be read what they fancied not; yet sparing in their censures, and the books not many which they so dealt with; till Martin the fifth, by his bull, not only pro

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made; and besotted us to the gay imitation of a lordly imprimatur, one from Lambeth-house, another from the west end of Paul's; so apishly romanizing, that the

hibited, but was the first that excommunicated the | lates and their chaplains, with the goodly echo they reading of heretical books; for about that time Wickliffe and Husse growing terrible, were they who first drove the papal court to a stricter policy of probibiting. Which course Leo the tenth and his successors follow-word of command still was set down in Latin; as if the ed, until the council of Trent and the Spanish inquisition engendering together brought forth or perfected those catalogues and expurging indexes, that rake through the entrails of many an old good author, with a violation worse than any could be offered to his tomb. Nor did they stay in matters heretical, but any subject that was not to their palate, they either condemned in a prohibition, or had it straight into the new Purgatory of an index. To fill up the measure of encroachment, their last invention was to ordain that no book, pamphlet, or paper, should be printed (as if St. Peter had bequeathed them the keys of the press also as well as of Paradise) unless it were approved and licensed under the hands of two or three gluttonous friars. For example:

learned grammatical pen that wrote it would cast no ink without Latin; or perhaps, as they thought, because no vulgar tongue was worthy to express the pure conceit of an imprimatur; but rather, as I hope, for that our English, the language of men ever famous and foremost in the achievements of liberty, will not easily find servile letters enow to spell such a dictatory presumption Englished. And thus ye have the inventors and the original of book licensing ripped up and drawn as lineally as any pedigree. We have it not, that can be heard of, from any ancient state, or polity, or church, nor by any statute left us by our ancestors elder or later; nor from the modern custom of any reformed city or church abroad; but from the most antichristian council, and the most tyrannous inquisition, that ever Let the chancellor Cini be pleased to see if in this inquired. Till then books were ever as freely admitted present work be contained aught that may with- into the world as any other birth; the issue of the brain stand the printing; was no more stifled than the issue of the womb; no Vincent Rabbata, vicar of Florence. envious Juno sat crosslegged over the nativity of any man's intellectual offspring; but if it proved a monster, who denies but that it was justly burnt, or sunk into the sea? But that a book, in worse condition than a peccant soul, should be to stand before a jury ere it be born to the world, and undergo yet in darkness the judgment of Radamanth and his colleagues, ere it can pass the ferry backward into light, was never heard before, till that mysterious iniquity, provoked and troubled at the first entrance of reformation, sought out new Limboes and new Hells wherein they might include our books also within the number of their damned. And this was the rare morsel so officiously snatched up, and so illfavouredly imitated by our inquisiturient bishops, and the attendant minorites their chaplains. That ye like not now these most certain authors of this licensing order, and that all sinister intention was far distant from your thoughts, when ye were importuned the passing it, all men who know the integrity of your actions, and how ye honour truth, will clear ye readily

I have seen this present work, and find nothing athwart the catholic faith and good manners; in witness whereof I have given, &c.

Nicolo Cini, chancellor of Florence.

Attending the precedent relation, it is allowed that this present work of Davanzati may be printed, Vincent Rabatta, &c.

It may be printed, July 15.
Friar Simon Mompei d'Amelia, chancellor of the
holy office in Florence.

Sure they have a conceit, if he of the bottomless pit had not long since broke prison, that this quadruple exorcism would bar him down. I fear their next design will be to get into their custody the licensing of that which they say Claudius intended, but went not through with. Vouchsafe to see another of their forms, the Roman stamp;


Imprimatur, If it seem good to the reverend master of the holy palace, Belcastro, vicegerent.


Friar Nicholo Rodolphi, master of the holy palace.

But some will say, what though the inventors were bad, the thing for all that may be good. It may so; yet if that thing be no such deep invention, but obvious and easy for any man to light on, and yet best and wisest commonwealths through all ages and occasions have forborn to use it, and falsest seducers and oppres sors of men were the first who took it up, and to no other purpose but to obstruct and hinder the first approach of reformation; I am of those who believe, it will be a harder alchymy than Lullius ever knew, to

Sometimes five imprimaturs are seen together dialogue wise in the piatza of one titlepage, compliment-sublimate any good use out of such an invention. Yet ing and ducking each to other with their shaven reverences, whether the author, who stands by in perplexity at the foot of his epistle, shall to the press or to the spunge. These are the pretty responsories, these are the dear antiphonies, that so bewitched of late our pre

• Quo veniam daret flatum crepitumque ventris in convivio emittendi. Sueton. in Claudio.

this only is what I request to gain from this reason, that it may be held a dangerous and suspicious fruit, as certainly it deserves, for the tree that bore it, until I can dissect one by one the properties it has. But I have first to finish, as was propounded, what is to be

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