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any books whatever come to thy hands, for thou art sufficient both to judge aright, and to examine each matter." To this revelation he assented the sooner, as he confesses, because it was answerable to that of the apostle to the Thessalonians; "Prove all things, hold fast that which is good." And he might have added another remarkable saying of the same author: "To the pure, all things are pure;" not only meats and drinks, but all kind of knowledge, whether of good or evil; the knowledge cannot defile, nor consequently the books, if the will and conscience be not defiled. For books are as meats and viands are; some of good, some of evil substance; and yet God in that unapocryphal vision said without exception, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat;" leaving the choice to each man's discretion. Wholesome meats to a vitiated stomach differ little or nothing from unwholesome; and best books to a naughty mind are not unapplicable to occasions of evil. Bad meats will scarce breed good nourishment in the healthiest concoction; but herein the difference is of bad books, that they to a discreet and judicious reader serve in many respects to discover, to confute, to forewarn, and to illustrate. Whereof what better witness can ye expect I should produce, than one of your own now sitting in parliament, the chief of learned men reputed in this land, Mr. Selden; whose volume of natural and national laws proves, not only by great authorities brought together, but by exquisite reasons and theorems almost mathematically demonstrative, that all opinions, yea errours, known, read, and collated, are of main service and assistance toward the speedy attainment of what is truest. I conceive therefore, that when God did enlarge the universal diet of man's body, (saving ever the rules of temperance,) he then also, as before, left arbitrary the dieting and repasting of our minds; as wherein every mature man might have to exercise his own leading capacity. How great a virtue is temperance, how much of moment through the whole life of man! Yet God commits the managing so great a trust without particular law or prescription, wholly to the demeanour of every grown man. And therefore when he himself tabled the Jews from heaven, that omer, which was every man's daily portion of manna, is computed to have been more than might have well sufficed the heartiest feeder thrice as many meals. For those actions which enter into a man, rather than issue out of him, and therefore defile not, God uses not to captivate under a perpetual childhood of prescription, but trusts him with the gift of reason to be his own chooser; there were but little work left for preaching, if law and compulsion should grow so fast upon those things which heretofore were governed only by exhortation. Solomon informs us, that much reading is a weariness to the flesh; but neither he, nor other inspired author, tells us that such or such reading is unlawful; yet certainly had God thought good to limit us herein, it had been much more expedient to have told us what was unlawful, than what was wearisome. As for the burning of those Ephesian books by St. Paul's converts; it is replied, the books were magic, the Syriac so renders them. It was a

thought in general of reading books, whatever sort they be, and whether be more the benefit or the harm that thence proceeds.

farst venture

it

Not to insist upon the examples of Moses, Daniel, and Paul, who were skilful in all the learning of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Greeks, which could not probably be without reading their books of all sorts, in Paul especially, who thought it no defilement to insert into holy Scripture the sentences of three Greek poets, and one of them a tragedian; the question was notwithstanding sometimes controverted among the primitive doctors, but with great odds on that side which affirmed it both lawful and profitable, as was then evidently perceived, when Julian the Apostate, and subtlest enemy to our faith, made a decree forbidding Christians the study of heathen learning; for said he, they wound us with our own weapons, and with our own arts and sciences they overcome us. And indeed the Christians were put so to their shifts by this crafty means, and so much in danger to decline into all ignorance, that the two Appollinarii were fain, as a man may say, to coin all the seven liberal sciences out of the Bible, reducing it into divers forms of orations, poems, dialogues, even to the calculating of a new christian grammar. But, saith the historian Socrates, the providence of God provided better than the industry Apollinarius and his son, by taking away that illiterate law with the life of him who devised it. So great injury they then held it to be deprived of Hellenic Earning; and thought it a persecution more underming, and secretly decaying the church, than the open cruelty of Decius or Dioclesian. And perhaps Was the same politic drift that the devil whipped St. Jerom in a lenten dream, for reading Cicero ; or else it as a phantasm, bred by the fever which had then wazed him. For had an angel been bis discipliner, ales it were for dwelling too much on Ciceronianisms, and had chastised the reading, not the vanity, it had en plainly partial; first to correct him for grave Cirero, and not for scurril Plautus, whom he confesses to have been reading not long before; next to correct kim only, and let so many more ancient fathers wax ld in those pleasant and florid studies without the Jash of such a tutoring apparition; insomuch that Basil traches how some good use may be made of Margites, sportful poem, not now tant, writ by Homer; and why not then of Morgante, an Italian romance much the same purpose? But if it be agreed we shall be red by visions, there is a vision recorded by Eusebius, ancienter than this tale of Jerom, to the nun Eustochina, and besides, has nothing of a fever in it. DioAlexandrinus was, about the year 240, a person great name in the church, for piety and learning, wia bad wont to avail himself much against heretics, by being conversant in their books; until a certain yter laid it scrupulously to his conscience, how bimself among those defiling volumes. The worthy man, loth to give offence, fell into a new erase with himself, what was to be thought; when kdenly a vision sent from God (it is bis own epistle that so avers it) confirmed him in these words: "Read

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private act, a voluntary act, and leaves us to a volun- tual Chetiv. For these causes we all know the Bible tary imitation: the men in remorse burnt those books itself put by the papist into the first rank of prohibited which were their own; the magistrate by this exam- books. The ancientest fathers must be next removed, ple is not appointed; these men practised the books, as Clement of Alexandria, and that Eusebian book of another might perhaps have read them in some sort evangelic preparation, transmitting our ears through usefully. Good and evil we know in the field of this a hoard of heathenish obscenities to receive the gospel. world grow up together almost inseparably; and the Who finds not that Irenæus, Epiphanius, Jerom, and knowledge of good is so involved and interwoven with others discover more heresies than they well confute, the knowledge of evil, and in so many cunning resem- and that oft for heresy which is the truer opinion? Nor blances hardly to be discerned, that those confused boots it to say for these, and all the heathen writers of seeds which were imposed upon Psyche as an incessant greatest infection if it must be thought so, with whom labour to cull out, and sort asunder, were not more is bound up the life of human learning, that they writ intermixed. It was from out the rind of one apple in an unknown tongue, so long as we are sure those tasted, that the knowledge of good and evil, as two languages are known as well to the worst of men, who twins cleaving together, leaped forth into the world. are both most able, and most diligent to instil the And perhaps this is that doom which Adam fell into of poison they suck, first into the courts of princes, acknowing good and evil, that is to say, of knowing good quainting them with the choicest delights, and critiby evil. As therefore the state of man now is; what cisms of sin. As perhaps did that Petronius, whom wisdom can there be to choose, what continence to for- Nero called his arbiter, the master of his revels; and bear, without the knowledge of evil? He that can ap- that notorious ribald of Arezzo, dreaded and yet dear prehend and consider vice with all her baits and seem- to the Italian courtiers. I name not him for posterity's ing pleasures, and yet abstain, and yet distinguish, and sake, whom Henry the Eighth named in merriment yet prefer that which is truly better, he is the true his vicar of hell. By which compendious way all the warfaring Christian. I cannot praise a fugitive and contagion that foreign books can infuse will find a cloistered virtue unexercised, and unbreathed, that passage to the people far easier and shorter than an never sallies out and sees her adversary, but slinks out Indian voyage, though it could be sailed either by of the race, where that immortal garland is to be run the north of Cataio eastward, or of Canada westward, for, not without dust and heat. Assuredly we bring while our Spanish licensing gags the English press not innocence into the world, we bring impurity much never so severely. But on the other side, that infec rather; that which purifies us is trial, and trial is by tion which is from books of controversy in religion, is what is contrary. That virtue therefore which is but a more doubtful and dangerous to the learned, than to youngling in the contemplation of evil, and knows not the ignorant; and yet those books must be permitted the utmost that vice promises to her followers, and re- untouched by the licenser. It will be hard to instance jects it, is but a blank virtue, not a pure; her white-where any ignorant man hath been ever seduced by ness is but an excremental whiteness; which was the any papistical book in English, unless it were comreason why our sage and serious poet Spenser, (whom mended and expounded to him by some of that clergy; I dare be known to think a better teacher than Scotus and indeed all such tractates, whether false or true, are or Aquinas,) describing true temperance under the as the prophecy of Isaiah was to the eunuch, not to be a person of Guion, brings him in with his palmer through "understood without a guide." But of our priests and the cave of Mammon, and the bower of earthly bliss, doctors how many have been corrupted by studying the that he might see and know, and yet abstain. Since comments of Jesuits and Sorbonists, and how fast they therefore the knowledge and survey of vice is in this could transfuse that corruption into the people, our exworld so necessary to the constituting of human virtue, perience is both late and sad. It is not forgot, since and the scanning of errour to the confirmation of truth, the acute and distinct Arminius was perverted merely how can we more safely, and with less danger, scout by the perusing of a nameless discourse written at into the regions of sin and falsity, than by reading all Delft, which at first he took in hand to confute. Seeing manner of tractates, and hearing all manner of reason? therefore that those books, and those in great abunAnd this is the benefit which may be had of books pro- dance which are likeliest to taint both life and doctrine, miscuously read. But of the harm that may result cannot be suppressed without the fall of learning, and hence, three kinds are usually reckoned. First, is of all ability in disputation, and that these books of feared the infection that may spread; but then, all hu- either sort are most and soonest catching to the learned, man learning and controversy in religious points must (from whom to the common people whatever is heretical remove out of the world, yea, the Bible itself; for that or dissolute may quickly be conveyed,) and that evil ofttimes relates blasphemy not nicely, it describes the manners are as perfectly learnt without books a thousand carnal sense of wicked men not unelegantly, it brings other ways which cannot be stopped, and evil doctrine in holiest men passionately murmuring against pro- not with books can propagate, except a teacher guide, vidence through all the arguments of Epicurus; in which he might also do without writing, and so beyond other great disputes it answers dubiously and darkly prohibiting; I am not unable to unfold, how this cauteto the common reader; and ask a Talmudist what ails lous enterprise of licensing can be exempted from the the modesty of his marginal Keri, that Moses and all number of vain and impossible attempts. And he who the prophets cannot persuade him to pronounce the tex- were pleasantly disposed, could not well avoid to liken

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bulk than his own dialogues would be abundant. And there also enacts, that no poet should so much as read to any private man what he had written, until the judges and law keepers had scen it, and allowed it; but that Plato meant this law peculiarly to that commonwealth which he had imagined, an to no other, is evident. Why was he not else a lawgiver to himself, but a transgressor, and to be expelled by his own magistrates, both for the wanton epigrams and dialogues which he made, and his perpetual reading of Sophron, Mimus, and Aristophanes, books of grossest infamy; and also for commending the latter of them, though he were the malicious libeller of his chief friends, to be read by the tyrant Dionysius, who had little need of such trash to spend his time on? But that he knew this licensing of poems had reference and dependance to many other provisoes there set down in his fancied republic, which in this world could have no place; and so neither he himself, nor any magistrate or city ever imitated that course, which taken apart from those other collateral injunctions must needs be vain and fruitless. For if they fell upon one kind of strictness, unless their care were equal to regulate all other things of like aptness to corrupt the mind, that single endea

ceivers out of books, and dispreaders both of vice and how shall the licensers themselves be confided in, unless we can confer upon them, or they assume to themselves above all others in the land, the grace of infallibility and uncorruptedness? And again, if it be true, that a wise man, like a good refiner, can gather gold out of the drossiest volume, and that a fool will be a fool with the best book, yea, or without book; there is no reason that we should deprive a wise man of any advantage to his wisdom, while we seek to restrain from a fool that which being restrained will be no hinderance to his folly. For if there should be so much exactness always used to keep that from him which is unfit for his reading, we should in the judgment of Aristotle not only, but of Solomon, and of our Saviour, not vouchsafe him good precepts, and by consequence not willingly admit him to good books; as being certain that a wise man will make better use of in idle pamphlet, than a fool will do of sacred Scripture. It is next alleged, we must not expose ourselves to temptations without necessity, and next to that, not employ our time in vain things. To both these objec-vour they knew would be but a fond labour; to shut and fortify one gate against corruption, and be necessitated to leave others round about wide open. If we think to regulate printing, thereby to rectify manners, we must regulate all recreations and pastimes, all that is delightful to man. No music must be heard, no song be set or sung, but what is grave and doric. There must be licensing dancers, that no gesture, motion, or deportment be taught our youth, but what by their allowance shall be thought honest; for such Plato was provided of. It will ask more than the work of twenty licensers to examine all the lutes, the violins, and the guitars in every house; they must not be suffered to prattle as they do, but must be licensed what they may say. And who shall silence all the airs and madrigals that whisper softness in chambers? The windows also, and the balconies must be thought on; there are shrewd books, with dangerous frontispieces, set to sale; who shall prohibit them, shall twenty licensers? The villages also must have their visitors to inquire what lectures the bagpipe and the rebec reads, even to the ballatry and the gamut of every municipal fidler; for these are the countryman's Arcadias, and his Monte Mayors. Next, what more national corruption, for

tions one answer will serve, out of the grounds already hid, that to all men such books are not temptations, or vanities; but useful drugs and materials wherewith te temper and compose effective and strong medicines, which man's life cannot want. The rest, as children and chudish men, who have not the art to qualify and prepare these working minerals, well may be exhorted ta forbear, but hindered forcibly they cannot be, by all the licensing that sainted inquisition could ever yet contrive; which is what I promised to deliver next: that this order of licensing conduces nothing to the end for which it was framed; and hath almost prevented me by being clear already while thus much hath been pning. See the ingenuity of truth, who, when she gets a free and willing hand, opens herself faster than the pace of method and discourse can overtake her. It was the task which I began with, to shew that wo nation, or well instituted state, if they valued books tall, did ever use this way of licensing; and it might be answered, that this is a piece of prudence lately discovered. To which I return, that as it was a thing slight and obvious to think on, so if it had been difficult to find out, there wanted not among them long since, who suggested such a course; which they not follow-which England hears ill abroad, than household glut

ing leave us a pattern of their judgment that it was not the not knowing, but the not approving, which ww the cause of their not using it. Plato, a man of

tony; who shall be the rectors of our daily rioting? And what shall be done to inhibit the multitudes, that frequent those houses where drunkenness is sold and high authority indeed, but least of all for his Common-harboured? Our garments also should be referred to

it to the exploit of that gallant man, who thought to pound up the crows by shutting his park gate.

Besides

another inconvenience, if learned men be the first re

wealth, in the book of his laws, which no city ever yet received, fed his fancy with making many edicts to his ry burgomasters, which they who otherwise admire him wish had been rather buried and excused in the gial cups of an academic night sitting. By which laws he seems to tolerate no kind of learning, but by

unalterable decree, consisting most of practical tradi-separate all idle resort, all evil company? These things tiotis, to the attainment whereof a library of smaller will be, and must be; but how they shall be least

the licensing of some more sober workmasters, to see them cut into a less wanton garb. Who shall regulate all the mixed conversation of our youth, male and female together, as is the fashion of this country? Who shall still appoint what shall be discoursed, what presumed, and no further? Lastly, who shall forbid and

hurtful, how least enticing, herein consists the grave
and governing wisdom of a state. To sequester out
of the world into Atlantic and Eutopian politics, which
never can be drawn into use, will not mend our con-
dition; but to ordain wisely as in this world of evil,
in the midst whereof God hath placed us unavoidably.
Nor is it Plato's licensing of books will do this,
which necessarily pulls along with it so many other
kinds of licensing, as will make us all both ridiculous
and weary, and yet frustrate; but those unwritten, or
at least unconstraining laws of virtuous education, re-
ligious and civil nurture, which Plato there mentions,
as the bonds and ligaments of the commonwealth, the
pillars and the sustainers of every written statute; these
they be, which will bear chief sway in such matters as
these, when all licensing will be easily eluded. Im-
punity and remissness for certain are the bane of a
commonwealth; but here the great art lies, to discern
in what the law is to bid restraint and punishment, and
in what things persuasion only is to work. If every
action which is good or evil in man at ripe years were
to be under pittance, prescription, and compulsion,
what were virtue but a name, what praise could be then
due to well doing, what gramercy to be sober, just, or
continent? Many there be that complain of divine
Providence for suffering Adam to transgress. Foolish
tongues! when God gave him reason, he gave him
freedom to choose, for reason is but choosing; he had
been else a mere artificial Adam, such an Adam as he
is in the motions. We ourselves esteem not of that
obedience, or love, or gift, which is of force; God
therefore left him free, set before him a provoking ob-
ject, ever almost in his eyes; herein consisted his merit,
herein the right of his reward, the praise of his absti-
nence. Wherefore did he create passions within us,
pleasures round about us, but that these rightly tem-learning be not damnified. In fine, when the multitude
pered are the very ingredients of virtue? They are not of books increase upon their hands, ye must be fain to
skilful considerers of human things, who imagine to catalogue all those printers who are found frequently
remove sin, by removing the matter of sin; for, besides offending, and forbid the importation of their whole
that it is a huge heap increasing under the very act of suspected typography. In a word, that this your order
diminishing, though some part of it may for a time be may be exact, and not deficient, ye must reform it per-
withdrawn from some persons, it cannot from all, in fectly according to the model of Trent and Sevil, which
such a universal thing as books are; and when this is I know ye abhor to do. Yet though ye should conde-
done, yet the sin remains entire. Though ye take scend to this, which God forbid, the order still would
from a covetous man all his treasure, he has yet one be but fruitless and defective to that end whereto ye
jewel left, ye cannot bereave him of his covetousness.
meant it. If to prevent sects and schisms, who is so
Banish all objects of lust, shut up all youth into the unread or uncatechised in story, that hath not heard of
severest discipline that can be exercised in any hermit- many sects refusing books as a hinderance, and pre-
age, ye cannot make them chaste, that came not thither serving their doctrine unmixed for many ages, only by
so: such great care and wisdom is required to the right unwritten traditions? The christian faith, (for that
managing of this point. Suppose we could expel sin was once a schism!) is not unknown to have spread all
by this means; look how much we thus expel of sin, over Asia, ere any gospel or epistle was seen in writing.
so much we expel of virtue: for the matter of them If the amendment of manners be aimed at, look into
both is the same: remove that, and ye remove them Italy and Spain, whether those places be one scruple
both alike. This justifies the high providence of God, the better, the honester, the wiser, the chaster, since
who, though he commands us temperance, justice, con- all the inquisitional rigour that hath been executed
tinence, yet pours out before us even to a profuseness upon books.
all desirable things, and gives us minds that can wan-
der beyond all limit and satiety. Why should we then
affect a rigour contrary to the manner of God and of
nature, by abridging or scanting those means, which

books, freely permitted, are both to the trial of virtue,
and the exercise of truth? It would be better done, to
learn that the law must needs be frivolous, which goes
to restrain things, uncertainly and yet equally working
to good and to evil. And were I the chooser, a dram
of well doing should be preferred before many times as
much the forcible hinderance of evil doing. For God'
sure esteems the growth and completing of one virtuous
person, more than the restraint of ten vicious. And
albeit, whatever thing we hear or see, sitting, walking,
travelling, or conversing, may be fitly called our book,
and is of the same effect that writings are; yet grant
the thing to be prohibited were only books, it appears
that this order hitherto is far insufficient to the end
which it intends. Do we not see, not once or oftener,
but weekly, that continued court-libel against the par-
liament and city, printed, as the wet sheets can witness,
and dispersed among us for all that licensing can do?a
Yet this is the prime service a man would think wherein
this order should give proof of itself. If it were exe-
cuted, you will say. But certain, if execution be remiss
or blindfold now, and in this particular, what will it i
be hereafter, and in other books? If then the order
shall not be vain and frustrate, behold a new labour,
lords and commons, ye must repeal and proscribe all
scandalous and unlicensed books already printed and
divulged; after ye have drawn them up into a list, that
all may know which are condemned, and which not;
and ordain that no foreign books be delivered out of
custody, till they have been read over. This office will
require the whole time of not a few overseers, and those
no vulgar men. There be also books which are partly
useful and excellent, partly culpable and pernicious;
this work will ask as many more officials, to make ex-
purgations and expunctions, that the commonwealth of

Another reason, whereby to make it plain that this order will miss the end it seeks, consider by the quality which ought to be in every licenser. It cannot be denied, but that he who is made judge to sit upon the

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birth or death of books, whether they may be wafted into this world or not, had need to be a man above the common measure, both studious, learned, and judicious; there may be else no mean mistakes in the censure of what is passable or not; which is also no mean injury. If he be of such worth as behores him, there cannot be a more tedious and unpleasing journeywork, a greater loss of time levied upon his head, than to be made the perpetual reader of unchosen books and pamphlets, ofttimes huge volumes. There is no book that is acceptable, unless at certain seasons; but to be enjoined the reading of that at all times, and in a hand scarce legible, whereof three pages would not down at any time in the fairest print, is an imposition which I cannot believe how he that values time, and his own studies, or is but of a sensible nostril, should able to endure. In this one thing I crave leave of the present licensers to be pardoned for so thinking; who doubtless took this office up, looking on it through their obedience to the parliament, whose command perhaps made all things seem easy and unlaborious to them; but that this short trial bath wearied them out already, their expressions and excuses to them, who make so many journeys to solicit their licence, are testimony enough. Seeing therefore those, who now possess the employment, by all evident signs wish themselves well rid of it, and that no man of worth, none that is not a plain unthrift of his own hours, is ever likely to suc-print like a puny with his guardian, and his censor's

in

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ceed them, except he mean to put himself to the salary
of a press corrector, we may easily foresee what kind
of licensers we are to expect hereafter, either ignorant,
imperious, and remiss, or basely pecuniary. This is
what I had to shew, wherein this order cannot con-
dace to that end, whereof it bears the intention.
I lastly proceed from the no good it can do, to the
manifest hurt it causes, in being first the greatest dis-
couragement and affront that can be offered to learn-
ing, and to learned men. It was the complaint and
lamentation of prelates, upon every least breath of a
zaction to remove pluralities, and distribute more equally
church revenues,
that then all learning would be for
ever dashed and discouraged. But as for that opinion,
never found cause to think, that the tenth part of
learning stood or fell with the clergy: nor could I ever
but hold it for a sordid and unworthy speech of any
churchman, who had a competency left him. If there-
Sare ye be loth to dishearten utterly and discontent, not
the mercenary crew of false pretenders to learning, but
the free and ingenuous sort of such as evidently were
born to study and love learning for itself, not for lucre,
or any other end, but the service of God and of truth,
and perhaps that lasting fame and perpetuity of praise,
which God and good men have consented shall be the
reward of those, whose published labours advance the
good of mankind: then know, that so far to distrust
the judgment and the honesty of one who hath but a
tion repute in learning, and never yet offended, as
et to count him fit to print his mind without a tutor
and examiner, lest he should drop a schism, or some-
thing of corruption, is the greatest displeasure and in-
diguity to a free and knowing spirit, that can be put

hand on the back of his title to be his bail and surety,
that he is no ideot or seducer; it cannot be but a dis-
honour and derogation to the author, to the book, to
the privilege and dignity of learning. And what if the
author shall be one so copious of fancy, as to have
many things well worth the adding, come into his mind
after licensing, while the book is yet under the press,
which not seldom happens to the best and diligentest
writers; and that perhaps a dozen times in one book.
The printer dares not go beyond his licensed copy; so
often then must the author trudge to his leave-giver,
that those his new insertions may be viewed; and
many a jaunt will be made, ere that licenser, for it
must be the same man, can either be found, or found
at leisure; meanwhile either the press must stand
still, which is no small damage, or the author lose his
accuratest thoughts, and send the book forth worse
than he had made it, which to a diligent writer is the
greatest melancholy and vexation that can befal. And
how can a man teach with authority, which is the life
of teaching; how can he be a doctor in his book as
he ought to be, or else had better be silent, whenas
all he teaches, all he delivers, is but under the tuition,
under the correction of his patriarchal licenser, to
blot or alter what precisely accords not with the hide-
bound humour which he calls his judgment? When
every acute reader upon the first sight of a pedantic
licence, will be ready with these like words to ding
the book a coit's distance from him, I hate a pupil
teacher, I endure not an instructor that comes to me
under the wardship of an overseeing fist. I know no-
thing of the licenser, but that I have his own hand
here for his arrogance; who shall warrant me his

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upon him, What advantage is it to be a man, over it is to be a boy at school, if we have only escaped the ferula, to come under the fescue of an Imprimatur? If serious and elaborate writings, as if they were no more than the theme of a grammar-lad under his pedagogue, must not be uttered without the cursory eyes of a temporizing and extemporizing licenser? He who is not trusted with his own actions, his drift not being known to be evil, and standing to the hazard of law and penalty, has no great argument to think himself reputed in the commonwealth wherein he was born for other than a fool or a foreigner. When a man writes to the world, he summons up all his reason and deliberation to assist him; he searches, meditates, is industrious, and likely consults and confers with his judicious friends; after all which doue, he takes himself to be informed in what he writes, as well as any that writ before him; if in this the most consummate act of his fidelity and ripeness, no years, no industry, no former proof of his abilities can bring him to that state of maturity, as not to be still mistrusted and suspected, unless he carry all his considerate diligence, all his midnight watchings, and expense of Palladian oil, to the hasty view of an unleisured licenser, perhaps much his younger, perhaps far his inferior in judgment, perhaps one who never knew the labour of bookwriting; and if he be not repulsed, or slighted, must appear

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