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confidence in princes whom they have provoked, lest | held not conversation with such as are: let them be
sorry, that, being called to assemble about reforming
I have something also to the divines, though brief to what were needful; not to be disturbers of the civil affairs, being in hands better able and more belonging to manage them; but to study harder, and to attend the office of good pastors, knowing that he, whose flock is least among them, hath a dreadful charge, not performed by mounting twice into the chair with a formal preachment huddled up at the odd hours of a whole lazy week, but by incessant pains and watching in season and out of season, from house to house, over the souls of whom they have to feed. Which if they ever well considered, how little leisure would they find, to be the most pragmatical sidesmen of every popular tumult and sedition! And all this while are to learn what the true end and reason is of the gospel which they teach; and what a world it differs from the censorious and supercilious lording over conscience. It would be good also they lived so as might persuade the people they hated covetousness, which, worse than heresy, is idolatry; hated pluralities, and all kind of simony; left rambling from benefice to benefice, like ravenous wolves seeking where they may devour the biggest. Of which if some, well and warmly seated from the beginning, be not guilty, it were good they
All that follows, to the end of this tract, was left out not only in the edition printed 1733, in 2 vols. folio, but in that of Mr. Toland, who first
*And that they be not what they go for, true ministers of the protestant doctrine, taught by those abroad, famous and religious men, who first reformed the church, or by those no less zealous, who withstood corruption and the bishops here at home, branded with the name of puritans and nonconformists, we shall abound with testimonies to make appear: that men may yet more fully know the difference between protestant divines, and these pulpit-firebrands.
Luther. Lib. contra rusticos apud Sleidan. 1. 5.
'Is est hodie rerum status, &c. "Such is the state of things at this day, that men neither can, nor will, nor indeed ought to endure longer the domination of you princes."
'Neque vero Cæsarem, &c. "Neither is Cæsar to make war as head of christendom, protector of the church, defender of the faith; these titles being false and windy, and most kings being the greatest enemies to religion." Lib. de Bello contra Turcas, apud Sleid. 1. 14. What hinders then, but that we may depose or punish them?
These also are recited by Cochlaus in his Miscellanies to be the words of Luther, or some other eminent divine, then in Germany, when the protestants there
collected the author's works: how this omission arose, the reader will se in a note at the beginning of this tract, page 231.
entered into solemn covenant at Smalcaldia. Ut ora
iis obturem, &c. "That I may stop their mouths, the pope and emperor are not born, but elected, and may also be deposed as hath been often done." If Luther, or whoever else, thought so, he could not stay there; for the right of birth or succession can be no privilege in nature, to let a tyrant sit irremovable over a nation freeborn, without transforming that nation from the ashta 34 nature and condition of men born free, into natural, hereditary, and successive slaves. Therefore he saith further; "To displace and throw down this exactor, this Phalaris, this Nero, is a work pleasing to God;" namely, for being such a one: which is a moral reason. Shall then so slight a consideration as his hap to be ther de not elective simply, but by birth, which was a mere acincident, overthrow that which is moral, and make unpleasing to God that which otherwise had so well pleased him? Certainly not: for if the matter be rightly argued, election, much rather than chance, binds a man to content himself with what he suffers by his own bad da selection. Though indeed neither the one nor other love f binds any man, much less any people, to a necessary bearis sufferance of those wrongs and evils, which they have sability and strength enough given them to remove.
load the emitele
'Zwinglius, tom. 1, articul. 42. the Quando vero perfidè, &c.
"When kings reign and perfidiously, and against the rule of Christ, they may according to the word of God be deposed."
'Mihi ergo compertum non est, &c. "I know not that kings reign by succession, unless it be with consent of the whole people." Ibid. "Quum vero consensu, &c. "But when by suffrage
and consent of the whole people, or the better part of
'Quorum est constituere magistratus, &c. "They
them, a tyrant is deposed or put to death, God is the whose part is to set up magistrates, may restrain them chief leader in that action." Ibid.
also from outrageous deeds, or pull them down; but
Nunc cum tam tepidi sumus, &c.
"Of the Scots divines I need not mention others than the famousest among them, Knox, and his fellow-labourers in the reformation of Scotland; whose large treatise on this subject defend the same opinion. To cite them sufficiently, were to insert their whole books, written purposely on this argument. "Knox's Appeal;" and to the reader; where he promises in a post
"Beware, ye tyrants! for now the gospel of Jesus Christ, spreading far and wide, will renew the lives of many to love innocence
and justice; which if ye also shall do, ye shall be hon-script, that the book which he intended to set forth,
sured. But if ye shall go on to rage and do violence,
called, "The Second Blast of the Trumpet," should
guilty of religion so violated, as the oppressors them-wright and Fenner, two of the learnedest, may in rea
selves" Idem, Epist. ad Conrad. Somium.
son satisfy us what was held by the rest. Fenner in his book of Theology maintaining, that they who have power, that is to say, a parliament, may either by fair means or by force depose a tyrant, whom he defines to
be him, that wilfully breaks all or the principal conditions made between him and the commonwealth.
Fen. Sac. Theolog. c. 13. And Cartwright in a pre
fixed epistle testifies his approbation of the whole book.
tioned in the title of kings, but that they may acknowledge no superior? In the mean while God, whose name they use to support themselves, they willingly would tread under their feet. It is therefore a mere cheat, when they boast to reign by the grace of God." 'Abdicant se terreni principes, &c. "Earthly princes depose themselves, while they rise against God, yea they are unworthy to be numbered among men rather it behoves us to spit upon their heads, than to obey them." On Dan. c. vi. v. 22.
'Bucer on Matth. c. v.
Si princeps superior, &c. "If a sovereign prince endeavour by arms to defend transgressors, to subvert those things which are taught in the word of God, they, who are in authority under him, ought first to dissuade him; if they prevail not, and that he now bears himself not as a prince but as an enemy, and seeks to violate privileges and rights granted to inferior magistrates or commonalties, it is the part of pious magistrates, imploring first the assistance of God, rather to try all ways and means, than to betray the flock of Christ to such an enemy of God: for they also are to this end ordained, that they may defend the people of God, and maintain those things which are good and just. For to have supreme power lessens not the evil committed by that power, but makes it the less tolerable, by how much the more generally hurtful. Then certainly the less tolerable, the more unpardonably to be punished."
'Of Peter Martyr we have spoke before.
'Paræus in Rom. xiii.
'Gilby de Obedientiâ, p. 25 and 105.
"Kings have their authority of the people, who may upon occasion reassume it to themselves."
'England's Complaint against the Canons. "The people may kill wicked princes as monsters and cruel beasts."
'Christopher Goodman of Obedience. "When kings or rulers become blasphemers of God, oppressors and murderers of their subjects, they ought no more to be accounted kings or lawful magistrates, but as private men to be examined, accused, and condemued and punished by the law of God, and being convicted and punished by that law, it is not man's but God's doing." C. x. p. 139.
"By the civil laws, a fool or idiot born, and so proved, shall lose the lands and inheritance whereto be is born, because he is not able to use them aright: and especially ought in no case be suffered to have the government of a whole nation; but there is no such evil can come to the commonwealth by fools and idiots, as doth by the rage and fury of ungodly rulers; such, therefore, being without God, ought to have no authority over God's people, who by his word requireth the contrary." C. xi. p. 143, 144.
"No person is exempt by any law of God from this punishment: be he king, queen, or emperor, he must die the death; for God hath not placed them above others, to transgress his laws as they list, but to be subject to them as well as others; and if they be subject to his laws, then to the punishment also, so much the more as their example is more dangerous." C. xiii. p. 184.
“When magistrates cease to do their duty, the people are as it were without magistrates, yea, worse, and then God giveth the sword into the people's hand, and he himself is become immediately their head." P. 185. "If princes do right, and keep promise with you, then do you owe to them all humble obedience; if not, ye are discharged, and your study ought to be in this case how ye may depose and punish according to the law such rebels against God, and oppressors of their country." P. 190.
This Goodman was a minister of the English church at Geneva, as Dudley Fenner was at Middleburgh, or some other place in that country. These were the pastors of those saints and confessors, who, flying from the bloody persecution of Queen Mary, gathered up at length their scattered members into many congregations; whereof some in upper, some in lower Germany, part of them settled at Geneva; where this author having preached on this subject to the great liking of certain learned and godly men who heard him, was by them sundry times and with much instance required to write more fully on that point. Who thereupon took it in hand, and conferring with the best learned in those parts, (among whom Calvin was then living in the same city,) with their special approbation he published this treatise, aiming principally, as is testified by Whittingham in the preface, that his brethren
of England, the protestants, might be persuaded in the truth of that doctrine concerning obedience to magistrates. Whittingham in Prefat.
'These were the true protestant divines of England, our fathers in the faith we hold; this was their sense, who for so many years labouring under prelacy, through all storms and persecutions kept religion from extinguishing; and delivered it pure to us, till there arose a covetous and ambitious generation of divines, (for divines they call themselves!) who, feigning on a sudden to be new converts and proselytes from episcopacy, under which they had long temporised, opened their mouths at length, in shew against pluralities and prelacy, but with intent to swallow them down both; gorging themselves like harpies on those simonious places and preferments of their outed predecessors, as the quarry for which they hunted, not to plurality only but to multiplicity; for possessing which they had accused them their brethren, and aspiring under another title to the me authority and usurpation over the consciences of all men.
'Of this faction, diverse reverend and learned divines (as they are styled in the philactery of their own titlepage) pleading the lawfulness of defensive arms against the king, in a treatise called "Scripture and Reason," seem in words to disclaim utterly the deposing of a king; but both the Scripture, and the reasons which they use, draw consequences after them, which, without their bidding, conclude it lawful. For if by Scripture, and by that especially to the Romans, which they most insist upon, kings, doing that which is contrary to Saint Paul's definition of a magistrate, may be resisted, they may altogether with as much force of consequence be deposed or punished. And if by reason the unjust authority of kings " may be forfeited in part, and his power be reassumed in part, either by the parliament. or people, for the case in hazard and the present necessity," as they affirm, p. 34, there can no scripture be alleged, no imaginable reason given, that necessity continuing, as it may always, and they in all prudence and their duty may take upon them to foresee it, why in such a case they may not finally amerce him with the loss of his kingdom, of whose amendment they have no hope. And if one wicked action persisted in against religion, laws, and liberties, may warrant us to thus much in part, why may not forty times as many, tyrannies, by him committed, warrant us to proceed on restraining him, till the restraint become total? For the ways of justice are exactest proportion; if for one trespass of a king it require so much remedy or satis faction, then for twenty more as heinous crimes, it re quires of him twenty-fold; and so proportionably, till it come to what is utmost among men. If in these proceedings against their king they may not finish, by the usual course of justice, what they have begun, they could not lawfully begin at all. For this golden rule of justice and morality, as well as of arithmetic, out of three terms which they admit, will as certainly and unavoidably bring out the fourth, as any problem that ever Euclid or Apollonius made good by demonstration, And if the parliament, being undeposable but by
themselves, as is affirmed, p. 37, 38, might for his | For divines, if we observe them, have their postures, whole life, if they saw cause, take all power, authority, and their motions no less expertly, and with no less and the sword out of his hand, which in effect is to variety, than they that practise feats in the Artilleryunmagistrate him, why might they not, being then ground. Sometimes they seem furiously to march on, themselves the sole magistrates in force, proceed to and presently march counter; by and by they stand, punish him, who, being lawfully deprived of all things and then retreat; or if need be can face about, or that define a magistrate, can be now no magistrate to wheel in a whole body, with that cunning and dexbe degraded lower, but an offender to be punished. terity as is almost unperceivable; to wind themselves Lastly, whom they may defy, and meet in battle, why by shifting ground into places of more advantage. may they not as well prosecute by justice? For lawful And providence only must be the drum, providence the war is but the execution of justice against them who word of command, that calls them from above, but refuse law. Among whom if it be lawful (as they always to some larger benefice, or acts them into such deny not, p. 19, 20,) to slay the king himself coming or such figures and promotions. At their turns and in front at his own peril, wherefore may not justice do doublings no men readier, to the right, or to the left; that intendedly, which the chance of a defensive war for it is their turns which they serve chiefly; herein only might without blame have done casually, nay pur- singular, that with them there is no certain hand right posely, if there it find him among the rest? They ask, or left, but as their own commodity thinks best to call p. 19," By what rule of conscience or God, a state is it. But if there come a truth to be defended, which to bound to sacrifice religion, laws, and liberties, rather them and their interest of this world seems not so prothethan a prince defending such as subvert them, should fitable, straight these nimble motionists can find no come in hazard of his life." And I ask by what con- even legs to stand upon; and are no more of use to and science, or divinity, or law, or reason, a state is bound reformation thoroughly performed, and not superfito leave all these sacred concernments under a per- cially, or to the advancement of truth, (which among petual hazard and extremity of danger, rather than cut mortal men is always in her progress,) than if on a of a wicked prince, who sits plotting day and night to sudden they were struck maim and crippled. Which the subvert them. They tell us, that the law of nature the better to conceal, or the more to countenance by a justifies any man to defend himself, even against the general conformity to their own limping, they would em,viding in person: let them shew us then, why the same have Scripture, they would have reason also made to For law may not justify much more a state or whole people, halt with them for company; and would put us off to do justice upon him, against whom each private with impotent conclusions, lame and shorter than the man may lawfully defend himself; seeing all kind of premises. In this posture they seem to stand with justice done is a defence to good men, as well as a great zeal and confidence on the wall of Sion; but like orteshment to bad; and justice done upon a tyrant is Jebusites, not like Israelites, or Levites: blind also no more but the necessary self-defence of a whole comnwealth. To war upon a king, that his instruments bray be brought to condign punishment, and thereafter to punish them the instruments, and not to spare only, but to defend and honour him the author, is the strangest piece of justice to be called christian, and the strangest piece of reason to be called human, that by men of reverence and learning, as their style imports them, ever yet was vented. They maintain in the third and fourth section, that a judge or inferior magistrate is anointed of God, is his minister, hath the sword in his hand, is to be obeyed by St. Peter's rule, as well as the supreme, and without difference any where expressed and yet will have us fight against the supreme till he remove and punish the inferior magistrate (for such were greatest delinquents); whenas by Scripture, and by reason, e can no more authority be shewn to resist the one than the other; and altogether as much, to punish or depose the supreme himself, as to make war upon him, till be panish or deliver up his inferior magistrates, whom in the same terms we are commanded to obey, and not to resist. Thus while they, in a cautious line or two here and there stuffed in, are only verbal against the pulling down or punishing of tyrants, all the Scripture and the reason, which they bring, is in every leaf direct and rational, to infer it altogether as lawful, as to resist them. And yet in all their sermons, as hath by others been well noted, they went much further.
ed in p
d the pr
as well as lame, they discern not David from Adonibezec: but cry him up for the Lord's anointed, whose thumbs and great toes not long before they had cut off upon their pulpit cushions. Therefore he who is our only king, the root of David, and whose kingdom is eternal righteousness, with all those that war under him, whose happiness and final hopes are laid up in that only just and rightful kingdom, (which we pray incessantly may come soon, and in so praying wish hasty ruin and destruction to all, tyrants,) even he our immortal King, and all that love him, must of necessity have in abomination these blind and lame defenders of Jerusalem; as the soul of David hated them, and forbid them entrance into God's house, and his own. But as to those before them, which I cited first (and with an easy search, for many more might be added) as they there stand, without more in number, being the best and chief of protestant divines, we may follow them for faithful guides, and without doubting may receive them, as witnesses abundant of what we here affirm concerning tyrants. And indeed I find it generally the clear and positive determination of them all, (not prelatical, or of this late faction subprelatical,) who have written on this argument; that to do justice on a lawless king, is to a private man unlawful; to an inferior magistrate lawful: or if they were divided in opinion, yet greater than these here alleged, or of more authority in the church, there can be none produced.
If any one shall go about by bringing other testimonies to disable these, or by bringing these against themselves in other cited passages of their books, he will not only fail to make good that false and impudent assertion of those mutinous ministers, that the deposing and punishing of a king or tyrant " is against the constant judgment of all protestant divines," it being quite the contrary; but will prove rather what perhaps he intended not, that the judgment of divines, if it be so various and inconstant to itself, is not considerable, or to be esteemed at all. Ere which be yielded, as I hope it never will, these ignorant assertors in their own art will have proved themselves more and more, not to be protestant divines, whose constant judgment in this point they have so audaciously belied, but rather to be a pack of hungry church-wolves, who in the steps of
Simon Magus their father following the hot scent of double livings and pluralities, advowsons, donatives, inductions, and augmentations, though uncalled to the flock of Christ, but by the mere suggestion of their bellies, like those priests of Bel, whose pranks Daniel found out; have got possession, or rather seized upon the pulpit, as the strong hold and fortress of their sedition and rebellion against the civil magistrate. Whose friendly and victorious hand having rescued them from the bishops their insulting lords, fed them plenteously, both in public and in private, raised them to be high and rich of poor and base; only suffered not their covetousness and fierce ambition (which as the pit that sent out their fellow-locusts hath been ever bottomless and boundless) to interpose in all things, and over all persons, their impetuous ignorance and importunity.'