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Ir hath been long a general complaint, not without cause, in the bringing up of youth, and still is, that the tenth part of man's life, ordinarily extended, is taken up in learning, and that very scarcely, the LATIN TONGUE, Which tardy proficience may be attributed to several causes: in particular, the making two labours of one, by learning first the Accedence, then the Grammar in Latin, ere the language of those rules be understood. The only remedy of this was to join both books into one, and in the English Tongue; whereby the long way is much abbreviated, and the labour of understanding much more easy: a work supposed not to have been done formerly; or if done, not without such difference here in brevity and alteration, as may be found of moment. That of Grammar, touching letters and syllables, is omitted, as learnt before, and little different from the English Spelling-book; especially since few will be persuaded, to pronounce Latin otherwise than their own English. What will not come under rule, by reason of the much variety in declension, gender, or construction, is also bere omitted, lest the course and clearness of method be clogged with catalogues instead of rules, or too much interruption between rule and rule: which Linaker, setting down the various idioms of many verbs, was forced to do by alphabet, and therefore, though very learned, not thought fit to be read in schools. But in such words, dictionary stored with good authorities will be found the readiest guide. Of figurate construction, what is useful is digested into several rules of Syntaxis: and Prosody, after this Grammar well learned, will not need be Englished for him who hath a mind to read it. Account might be now given what addition or alteration from other Grammars hath been here made, and for what reason. But he who would be short in teaching, must not be long in prefacing: the book itself follows, and will declare sufficiently to them who can discern.

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of Cases.

NOUNS, pronouns, and participles are declined with six endings, which are called cases, both in the singular and plural number. The nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative.

The nominative is the first case, and properly nameth the thing, as liber a book.

The genitive is englished with this sign of, as libri

of a book.

The dative with this sign to, or for, as libro to or for a book.

The accusative hath no sign.

The vocative calleth or speaketh to, as O liber, O book, and is commonly like the nominative.

But in the neuter gender the nominative, accusative, and vocative, are like in both numbers, and in the plural end always in a.

The ablative is englished with these signs, in, with, of, for, from, by, and such like, as de libro of or from

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Nouns, and especially proper names derived of the Greek, have here three endings, as, es, e, and are declined in some of their cases after the Greek form. Eneas, acc. Enean, voc. Enea; Anchises, acc. Auchisen, voc. Anchise, or Anchisa, abl. Anchise. Penelope, Penelopes, Penelopen, voc. abl. Penelope. Sotne times following the Latin, as Marsya, Philocteta, for as and es; Philoctetam, Eriphylam, for an and en. Cie.

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Note, that when the nominative endeth in us, the vocative shall end in e, as dominus ô domine, except deus ò deus. And these following, agnus, lucus, vulgus, populus, chorus, fluvius, e or us.

When the nominative endeth in ius, if it be the proper name of a man, the vocative shall end in i, as Georgius ô Georgi; hereto add filius ô fili, and genius ó geni.


All nouns of the second declension are of the masculine or neuter gender; of the masculine, such as end in er, or, or us, except some few, humus, domus, alvus, and others derived of the Greek, as methodus, antidotus, and the like, which are of the feminine, and some of them sometimes also masculine, as atomus, phaselus; to which add ficus the name of a disease, grossus, pampinus, and rubus.

Those of the neuter, except virus, pelagus, and vulgus, (which last is sometimes masculine,) end all in um, and are declined as followeth :

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Some nouns in this declension are of the first example ngular, of the second plural, as Pergamus the city Troy, plur. hæc Pergama; and some names of hills, as


analus, Ismarus, hæc Ismara; so also Tartarus, and be lake Avernus; others are of both, as sibilus, jocus, eus, hi loci, or hæc loca. Some are of the second Sample singular, of the first plural, as Argos, cœlum, lur. hi cali; others of both, as rastrum, capistrum, Jum, frenum; plur. fræni or fræna. Nundinum, & pulum, are of the first declension plural, nundinæ, pule; balneum of both, balnem or balnea.

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The third Declension.

Hech n

Tut third is when the genitive singular endeth in is,
dative in i, the accusative in em, the ablative in e,
sometimes in i; the nom. acc. voc. plural in es,
le genitive in um, and sometimes in ium, &c.

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Nom. Ac. Voc. studium
Gen. studii

Dat. Abl, studio.

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Nom. Ac. Voc. studia
Gen. studiorum
Dat. Abl. studiis.

Nom Gen. Voc. panis

Dat. pani



Al. pane Singular.

Nom. Voc. parens

-Gra. parentis Dat. parenti Acc. parentem AM. parente.


This third declension, with many endings, bath all
den, best known by dividing all nouns hereto be-
hy into such as either increase one syllable long
sort in the genitive, or increase not at all.
och as increase not in the genitive are generally
nine, as nubes nubis, caro carnis.

Exerpt such as end in er, as hic venter ventris, and

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Greek proper names have here three endings, os, on, adus long from a Greek diphthong. Hæc Delos, the Delon. Hoc Ilion. The rest regular, Hic Panus, & Panthu, Virg.

Nom. Acc. Voc. panes
Gen. panum
Dat. Abl. panibus.


Nom. Ac. Voc. parentes
Gen. parentum
Dat. Abl. parentibus.

these in is following, natalis, aqualis, lienis, orbis,
callis, caulis, collis, follis, mensis, ensis, fustis, funis,
panis, penis, crinis, ignis, cassis, fascis, torris, piscis,
unguis, vermis, vectis, postis, axis, and the compounds
of assis, as centussis.


But canalis, finis, clunis, restis, sentis, amnis, corbis,
linter, torquis, anguis, hic or hæc: to these add vepres.
Such as end in e are neuters, as mare, rete, and two
Greek in es, as hippomanes, cacoëthes.

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And these of one syllable, sal, sol, ren, splen, as, bes, pes, mos, flos, ros, dens, mons, pons, fons, grex.


And words derived from the Greek in en, as lichen in er, as crater; in as, as adamas; in es, as lebes; to these, hydrops, thorax, phoenix.

But scrobs, rudens, stirps, the body or root of a tree, and calx a heel, hic or hæc.

Neuter, these of one syllable, mel, fel, lac, far, ver, cor, æs, vas vasis, os ossis, os oris, rus, thus, jus, crus, pus. And of more syllables in al and ar, as capital, laquear, but halec hoc or hæc.

Nouns increasing short.

NOUNS increasing short in the genitive are generally masculine, as hic sanguis sanguinis, lapis lapidis.

Except, feminine all words of many syllables ending in do or go, as dulcedo, compago; arbor, hyems, cuspis, pecus pecudis: These in ex, forfex, carex, tomex, supellex In ix, appendix, histrix, coxendix, filix: Greek nouns, in as and is, as lampas, iaspis: To these add chlamys, bacchar, sindon, icon.


But margo, cinis, pulvis, adeps, forceps, pumex, ramex, imbrex, obex, silex, cortex, onyx, and sardonyx, hic or hæc.

Neuters are all ending in a, as problema: in en, ex-
cept hic pecten; in ar, as jubar: in er these, verber,
iter, uber, cadaver, zinziber, laser, cicer, siser, piper,
sometimes in ur, except hic furfur, in us, as
onus, in ut, as caput; to these marmor, æquor, ador.

Greek proper names here end in as, an, is, and ens,
and may be declined some wholly after the Greek form,
as Pallas, Pallados, Palladi, Pallada; others in some
cases, as Atlas, acc. Atlanta, voc. Atla. Garamas, plur.
Garamantes, acc. Garamantas. Pan, Panos, Pana.
Phyllis, Phyllidos, voc. Phylli, plur. Phyllides, acc.
Phyllidas. Tethys, Tethyos, acc. Tethyn, voc. Tethy.
Neapolis Neapolios, acc. Neapolin. Paris, Paridos or
Parios, acc. Parida, or Parin. Orpheus, Orpheos, Or-
phei, Orphea, Orpheu. But names in eus borrow
sometimes their genitive of the second declension, as
Erechtheus, Erechthei. Cic. Achilles or Achilleus,

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Achillei; and sometimes their accusative in on or um,

In like manner those in er and ur, as sacer sacra sa

as Orpheus Orpheon, Theseus Theseum, Perseus Per-crum, satur satura saturum; but unus, totus, solu,

seum, which sometimes is formed after Greek words of
the first declension; Latin, Perseus or Perses, Persæ
Persæ Persen Persæ Persa.

alius, alter, ullus, uter, with their compounds neuter,
uterque, and the like, make their genitive singular in
ius, the dative in i, as unus una unum, gen. univ
dat. uni, in all the rest like bonus, save that alius
maketh in the neuter gender aliud, and in the dative
alii, and sometimes in the genitive.
Ambo and duo be thus declined in the plural only

The fourth Declension.

THE fourth is when the genitive singular endeth in us, the dative singular in ui, and sometimes in u, plural in ibus, and sometimes in ubus.

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All nouns of the fifth declension are of the feminine gender, except dies hic or hæc, and his compound meridies hic only.

Some nouns are of more declensions than one, as vas vasis of the third in the singular, of the second in the plural vasa vasorum. Colus, laurus, and some others, of the second and fourth. Saturnalia, saturnalium or saturnaliorum, saturnalibus, and such other names of feasts. Poëmatum, poëmatis or poëmatibus, of the second and third plural. Plebs of the third and fifth, plebis or plebei.

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Nom. Voc. ambo ambæ ambo
Gen. amborum ambarum amborum
Dat. Abl. ambobus ambabus ambobus
Acc. ambos or ambo, ambas ambo.

Adjectives of three articles have in the nominative either one ending, as hic, hæc, & hoc felix; or two, as hic & hæc tristis & hoc triste; and are declined like the third declension of substantives, as followeth. Plural. No. hic hæc & hoc felix | Nom. hi & hæ felices, & Gen. felicis hæc felicia Gen, felicium Dat. Abl. felicibus Acc. hos & has felices, & hæc felicia


Dat. felici

Acc. hunc & hanc feli-
cem, & hoc felix

Voc. ô felix.

Abl. felice or felici.

Voc. ô felices, & ô felicia.

No. hic & hæc tristis & Nom. hi & hæ tristes &
hoc triste
hæc tristia
Gen. tristis
Gen. tristium
Dat. Abl, tristi
Dat Abl. tristibus
Acc. hos & has tristes,
hæc tristia
Voc. ô tristes, & ò tristia

Acc. hunc & hanc tris-
tem, & hoc triste
Voc. ô tristis, & ô triste.

There be also another sort which have in the nomi native case three terminations and three articles, as hic acer, hic & hæc acris, hoc acre. In like manner be declined equester, volucer, and some few others, being in all other cases like the examples beforegoing.

Comparisons of Nouns

ADJECTIVES, whose signification may increase or be diminished, may form comparison, whereof there be two degrees above the positive word itself, The comparative, and superlative.

The positive signifieth the thing itself without comparing, as durus hard.


The comparative exceedeth his positive in signifiertion, compared with some other, as durior harder ; is formed of the first case of his positive that endeth in i, by putting thereto or and us, as of duri, hic & hæc durior, & hoc durius: of dulci, dulcior, dulcius.

The superlative exceedeth his positive in the highest degree, as durissimus hardest; and it is formed of the first case of his positive that endeth in is, by pat ting thereto simus, as of duris durissimus, dulcis dalcissimus.

If the positive end in er, the superlative is formed of the nominative case by putting to it rimus, as puleber pulcherrimus. Like to these are vetus veterrimus, maturus maturimus; but dexter dexterrimus, and sinister, sinisterior, sinisterrimus.

All these nouns ending in lis make the superlative

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Tad by changing is into limus, as humilis, similis, facilis, gracilis, agilis, docilis docillimus.



All other nouns ending in lis do follow the general rule, as utilis utilissimus.

Of these positives following are formed a different sort of superlatives; of superus, supremus and summus; inferus, infimus and imus; exterus, extimus and extremus; posterus postremus.

Some of these want the positive, and are formed from adverbs; of intra, interior intimus, ultra ulterior ultimus, citra citerior citimus, pridem prior primus, ababus 2010 : prope propior proximus.

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Some also from no positive, as ocior ocissimus. Inst. Some want the comparative, as novus novissimus, inbclytus inclytissimus.

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Nom. Voc. tu
Gen. tui

Dat. tibi

Acc. Abl. te.

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Others from positives without case, as nequam, nequior, nequissimus.

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Of a Pronoun.

A PRONOUN is a part of speech that standeth for a noun substantive, either present or before spoken of, as ille be or that, hic this, qui who.


There be ten pronouns, ego, tu, sui, ille, ipse, iste, hie, is, qui, and quis, besides their compounds, egomet, tate, hiece, idem, quisnam, aliquis, and such others. The rest so called, as meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, nostras, vestras, cujus, and cujas, are not pronouns, but adjectives thence derived.


Some ending in us, frame their comparative as if they Sing. ended in ens, benevolus, maledicus, magnificus magnificentior magnificentissimus.

These following are without rule, bonus melior optimus, malus pejor pessimus, magnus major maximus, parvus minor minimus; multus plurimus, multa plurima, multum plus plurimum.

Ifa volume come before us, it is compared with magis and maximè, as pius, magis pius, maximè pius; idoneus, magis and maximè idoneus. Yet some of these follow the general rule, as assiduus assiduissimus, strenuus strenuior, exiguus exiguissimus, tenuis tenuior tenuissimus.


such as shew the thing present are called demonstratives, as ego, tu, hic; and such as refer to a thing antecedent, or spoken of before, are called relatives, as qui who or which.

Quis, and often qui, because they ask a question, are called interrogatives, with their compounds, ecquis, numquis.

Some the superlative, as senex senior, juvenis junior, alius, and the third like unus, before spoken of. adolescens adolescentior.


Nom. ego
Gen, mei
Dat. mihi
Acc. Abl. me
Voc. caret.


Nom. Acc. nos

Gen. nostrum or nostri

Dat. Abl. nobis

Voc. caret.

Sing. Nom. Voc. caret

Plur. Gen. sui

From these three be derived meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, nostras, vestras, (which are called possessives,) whereof the former five be declined like adjectives of three terminations, except that meus in the vocative case maketh mi, mea, meum; nostras, vestras, with three articles, as hic & hæc nostras, & hoc nostras or nostrate, vestrate. In other cases according to rule. These three, ille, iste, ipse, be of the second declension, making their genitive singular in ius, their dative in i; and the former two be declined like the adjective

Nom. hic hæc hoc

Gen. hujus
Dat. huic

Acc. hunc hanc hoc
Voc. caret

Abl. hoc hac hoc.

Nom. ille illa illud, Gen. illius, Dat. illi. Nom. iste ista istud, Gen. istius, Dat. isti. Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum, Gen. ipsius, Dat. ipsi. These four, hic, is, qui, and quis, be of the third declension, making their genitive singular in jus, with j consonant, and be declined after this manner.


Nom, hi hæ hæc

Gen. horum harum horum


Nom. Acc. Voc. vos
Gen. vestrum or vestri
Dat. Abl. vobis.


Nom. is ea id
Gen. ejus
Dat. ei

Dat. sibi
Acc. Abl. se.

Acc. eum eam id
Voc. caret

Abl. eo ea eo.


Nom. qui quæ quod
Gen. cujus

Dat. cui

Of iste and hic is compounded istic, istæc, istoc or istuc. Acc. istunc, istanc, istoc or istuc. Abl. istoe, istac, istoc. Plur. istæc only.


Dat. Abl. his

Acc. hos bas hæc

Voc. caret.

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Acc. quem quam quod
Voc. caret

Ab. quo qua quo or qui.
In like manner, quivis,

Sing. Nom. quis, qua or quæ, quid, Gen. &c. like qui. So quisquam, quisnam, compounds.

Declensions of Pronouns are three.

Of quis are made these pronoun adjectives, cujus Eco, tu, sui, be of the first declension, and be thus cuja cujum, whose; and hic & hæc cujus and hoc


cujate, of what nation.

Quisquis is defective, and thus declined,


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Acc. Quicquid | Ab. Quaqua

Of a Verb.

A VERB is a part of speech, that betokeneth being,

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