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Ir, readers, to that same great difficulty of well-doing | than few; or if lastly it be but justice not to defraud what we certainly know, were not added in most men of due esteem the wearisome labours and studious as great a carelessness of knowing what they and watchings, wherein I have spent and tired out almost others ought to do, we had been long ere this, no doubt a whole youth, I shall not distrust to be acquitted of but all of us, much farther on our way to some degree presumption: knowing, that if heretofore all ages have peace and happiness in this kingdom. But since received with favour and good acceptance the early inout sinful neglect of practising that which we know to dustry of him that hath been hopeful, it were but hard be undoubtedly true and good, hath brought forth measure now, if the freedom of any timely spirit should among us, through God's just anger, so great a diffi- be oppressed merely by the big and blunted fame of calty now to know that which otherwise might be soon his elder adversary; and that his sufficiency must be learnt, and bath divided us by a controversy of great now sentenced, not by pondering the reason he shews, importance indeed, but of no hard solution, which is but by calculating the years he brings. However, as the more our punishment; I resolved (of what small my purpose is not, nor hath been formerly, to look moment soever I might be thought) to stand on that on my adversary abroad, through the deceiving side where I saw both the plain authority of Scripture glass of other men's great opinion of him, but at leading, and the reason of justice and equity persuad- home, where I may find him in the proper light of ng; with this opinion, which esteems it more unlike a his own worth; so now against the rancour of an Christian to be a cold neuter in the cause of the church, evil tongue, from which I never thought so absurdly, than the law of Solon made it punishable after a sedi- as that I of all men should be exempt, I must be tion in the state. And because I observe that fear and forced to proceed from the unfeigned and diligent dull disposition, lukewarmness and sloth, are not sel- inquiry of my own conscience at home, (for better domer wont to cloak themselves under the affected way I know not, readers,) to give a more true acDame of moderation, than true and lively zeal is cus- count of myself abroad than this modest confuter, as tomably disparaged with the term of indiscretion, he calls himself, hath given of me. Albeit, that in bitterness, and choler; I could not to my thinking doing this I shall be sensible of two things which to our a good cause more from the heart, than by de- me will be nothing pleasant; the one is, that not unfending it earnestly, as oft as I could judge it to behove likely I shall be thought too much a party in mine own in-cause, and therein to see least: the other, that I shall be put unwillingly to molest the public view with the vindication of a private name; as if it were worth the while that the people should care whether such a one were thus, or thus. Yet those I entreat who have found the leisure to read that name, however of small repute, unworthily defamed, would be so good and so patient as to hear the same person not unneedfully defended. I will not deny but that the best apology against false accusers is silence and sufferance, and honest deeds set against dishonest words. And that I could at this time most easily and securely, with the least loss of reputation, use no other defence, I need not despair to win belief; whether I consider both the

otwithstanding any false name that could be vented to wrong or under-value an honest meaning. Wherein although I have not doubted to single forth more than once such of them as were thought the chief and most nominated opposers on the other side, whom no man else undertook; if I have done well either to be confident of the truth, whose force is best seen against the ablest resistance, or to be jealous and tender of the hurt that might be done among the weaker by the intrapping authority of great names tiled to false opinions; or that it be lawful to attribute somewhat to gifts of God's imparting, which I boast at, but thankfully acknowledge, and fear also lest at my certain account they be reckoned to me rather many


foolish contriving and ridiculous aiming of these his
slanderous bolts, shot so wide of any suspicion to be
fastened on me, that I have oft with inward content
ment perceived my friends congratulating themselves
in my innocence, and my enemies ashamed of their
partner's folly or whether I look at these present
times, wherein most men, now scarce permitted the
liberty to think over their own concernments, have re-
moved the seat of their thoughts more outward to the ex-
pectation of public events or whether the examples
of men, either noble or religious, who have sat down
lately with a meek silence and sufferance under many
libellous endorsements, may be a rule to others, I
might well appease myself to put up any reproaches in
such an honourable society of fellow-sufferers, using no
other defence. And were it that slander would be con-
tent to make an end where it first fixes, and not seek
to cast out the like infamy upon each thing that hath
but any relation to the person traduced, I should have
pleaded against this confuter by no other advocates
than those which I first commended, silence and suf-
ferance, and speaking deeds against faltering words.
But when I discerned his intent was not so much to
smite at me, as through me to render odious the truth
which I had written, and to stain with ignominy that
evangelic doctrine which opposes the tradition of pre-
laty; I conceived myself to be now not as mine own
person, but as a member incorporate into that truth
whereof I was persuaded, and whereof I had declared
openly to be a partaker. Whereupon I thought it my
duty, if not to myself, yet to the religious cause I had
in hand, not to leave on my garment the least spot or
blemish in good name, so long as God should give me
to say that which might wipe it off. Lest those dis-
graces, which I ought to suffer, if it so befall me, for
my religion, through my default religion be made.
liable to suffer for me. And, whether it might not
something reflect upon those reverent men, whose
friend I may be thought in writing the Animadver-
sions, was not my last care to consider; if I should
rest under these reproaches, having the same common
adversary with them, it might be counted small credit
for their cause to have found such an assistant, as this
babbler hath devised me. What other thing in his
book there is of dispute or question, in answering
thereto I doubt not to be justified; except there be
who will condemn me to have wasted time in throwing
down that which could not keep itself up. As for
others, who notwithstanding what I can allege have
yet decreed to misinterpret the intents of my reply, I
suppose they would have found as many causes to have
misconceived the reasons of my silence.

to answer, that I did it to those ends, whi
men propose to themselves when they
wherefore in that manner, neglecting the m
all that specious antiquity, which might stu
and not men, I chose rather to observe s
military advantages to await him at his f
his waterings, and whenever he felt himse
solace his vein in derision of his more se
nents. And here let me have pardon, re
remembrance of that which he hath license
utter contemptuously of those reverend n
me to do that over again, which some exp
excuse as too freely done; since I have
tions, his latest insulting in his short answ
final patience. I had no fear, but that t
Smectymnuus, to all the shew of solidit
Remonstrant could bring, were prepare
skill and purpose to return a sufficing
were able enough to lay the dust and pu
quity, which he and his, out of stratagem
raise; but when I saw his weak argum
with sharp taunts, and that his design wa
not refute them, yet at least with quips &
adages to vapour them out, which they, b
the business, were minded to let pass; b
saw them taking little thought for their
I must confess I took it as my part the
that my respected friends, through their
sary patience, should thus lie at the m
flirting style; to be girded with frum
gibes, by one who makes sentences by
if all above three inches long were conf
it seemed an indignity, that whom his
could not move from their place, them
folly should presume to ride over. And
warm than was meet in any passage
which yet I do not yield, I might
patronage of no worse an author than G
who mentioning his sharpness agains
the defence of his brother Basil, hold
provable in that "it was not for hims
cause of his brother; and in such c
"perhaps it is worthier pardon to be a
cooler." And whereas this confuter
discourse of levity, I shall shew ye,
soever it shall be objected in particular
swered with as little lightness as the R
given example. I have not been so li
of a bishop, which is the lightest thi
when he brings out his book of ordin
contrary to that which is wont in
prison, any one that will pay his fees
Another reason, it would not be am
Remonstrant were told, wherefore he
usual manner beleaguered; and this
out of the heads of his admirers the co
are not prelatical, are gross-headed,
terate, shallow. Can nothing then but
men to speak good English, to pick a
words judiciously? Must we learn
quaint sermonings, interlined with ba

To begin therefore an apology for those animadversions, which I writ against the Remonstrant in defence of Smectymnuus; since the preface, which was purposely set before them, is not thought apologetical enough, it will be best to acquaint ye, readers, before other things, what the meaning was to write them in that manner which I did. For I do not look to be asked wherefore I writ the book, it being no difficulty

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say against them; but so as the confuter shall hear first what I have to say against his confutation. And because he pretends to be a great conjector at other men by their writings, I will not fail to give ye, readers, a present taste of him from his title, hung out like a tolling sign post to call passengers, not simply a confutation, but "a modest confutation," with a laudatory of itself obtruded in the very first word. Whereas a modest title should only inform the buyer what the book contains without further insinuation; this officious epithet so hastily assuming the modesty which others are to judge of by reading, not the author to anticipate to himself by forestalling, is a strong presumption, that his modesty, set there to sale in the frontispiece, is not much addicted to blush. A surer sign of his lost shame he could not have given, than seeking thus unseasonably to prepossess men of his modesty. And seeing he hath neither kept his word in the sequel, nor omitted any kind of boldness in slandering, it is manifest his purpose was only to rub the forehead of his title with this word modest, that he might not want colour to be the more impudent throughout his whole confutation. Next, what can equally savour of injustice and plain arrogance, as to prejudice and forecondemn his adversary in the title for "slanderous and scurrilous," and as the Remonstrant's fashion is, for frivolous, tedious, and false, not staying till the reader can hear him proved so in the following discourse? Which is one cause of a suspicion that in setting forth this pamphlet the Remonstrant was not unconsulted with: thus his first address was "an humble remonstrance by a dutiful son of the church," almost as if he had said, her whiteboy. His next was, a defence" (a wonder how it escaped some praising adjunct) " against the frivolous and false exceptions against Smectymnuus," sitting in the chair of his title-page upon his poor cast adversaries both as a judge and party, and that before the jury of readers can be impannelled. His last was 66 a short answer to a tedious vindication;" so little can he suffer a man to measure either with his eye or judgment, what is short or what tedious, without his preoccupying direction: and from hence is begotten this "modest confutation against a slanderous and scurrilous libel." I conceive, readers, much may be guessed at the man and his book, what depth there is, by the framing of his title; which being in this Remonstrant so rash and unadvised as ye see, I conceit him to be near akin to him who set forth a passion sermon with a formal dedicatory in great letters to our Saviour. Although I know that all we do ought to begin and end in his praise and glory, yet to inscribe him in a void place with flourishes, as a man in compliment uses to trick up the name of some esquire, gentleman, or lord paramount at common law, to be his book-patron, with the appendant form of a ceremonious presentment, will ever appear among the judicious to be but an insulse and frigid affectation. As no less was that before his book against the Brownists, to write a letter to a Prosopopeia, a certain rhetorized woman whom he calls mother, and complains of some that laid whoredom to her charge; and certainly had he folded his epistle


illamine a period, to wreath an enthymema with masterous dexterity? I rather incline, as I have heard it observed, that a Jesuit's Italian when he writes, is ever naught, though he be born and bred a Florentine, so to think, that from like causes we may go near to observe the same in the style of a prelate. For doubtless that indeed according to art is most eloquent, which turns and approaches nearest to nature from whence it came; and they express nature best, who in their lives least wander from her safe leading, which may be called regenerate reason. So that how he should be truly eloquent who is not withal a good man, I see not. Nevertheless, as oft as is to be dealt with men who pride themselves in their supposed art, to leave them inexcusable wherein they will not be bettered; there be of those that esteem prelaty a figment, who yet can pipe if they can dance, nor will be unfurnished to shew, that what the prelates admire and have not, others have and admire not. The knowledge whereof, and not of that only, but of what the Scripture teacheth us how we ought to withstand the perverters of the gospel, were those other motives, which gave the Animadversions no leave to remit a continual vehemence throughout the book. For as in teaching doubtless the spirit of meekness is most powerful, so are the meek only fit persons to be taught: as for the proud, the obstinate, and false doctors of men's devices, be taught they will not, but discovered and laid open they must be. For how can they admit of teaching, who have the condemnation of God already upon them for refusing divine instruction? That is, to be filled with their own devies, as in the Proverbs we may read: therefore we may safely imitate the method that God uses; "with the froward to be froward, and to throw scorn upon the seother," whom, if any thing, nothing else will heal. And if the "righteous shall laugh at the destruction of the ungodly," they may also laugh at the pertinacious and incurable obstinacy, and at the same time be moved with detestation of their seducing malice, who employ all their wits to defend a prelaty usurped, and to deprave that just government, which pride and ambition, partly by fine fetches and pretences, partly by force, bath shouldered out of the church. And against such kind of deceivers openly and earnestly to protest, lest ye should be inquisitive wherefore this or that man is forwarder than others, let him know that this office goes not by age or youth, but to whomsoever God shall give apparently the will, the spirit, and the utterance. Te have heard the reasons for which I thought not ayself exempted from associating with good men in their labours towards the church's welfare; to which, if any one brought opposition, I brought my best reistance. If in requital of this, and for that I have not been negligent toward the reputation of my friends, I are gained a name bestuck, or as I may say, bedecked with the reproaches and reviles of this modest confuter; it shall be to me neither strange nor unwelcome, as that which could not come in a better time.

Having rendered an account what induced me to write those animadversions in that manner as I writ them, I come now to see what the confutation hath to

with a superscription to be delivered to that female | boasting Thraso, or Davus that troubles a one who can shift into any shape, I med him explicate who hath resembled the who to a comedy, for " tragical," he says, “we ous." Nor yet doth he tell us what a mim we have no pattern from ancient writers, fragments, which contain many acute a tences. And this we know in Laertius, th of Sophron were of such reckoning with take them nightly to read on, and after his pillow. Scaliger describes a mime intimating any action to stir up laughte being neither poem, nor yet ridiculous, I abusively taxed to be a mime? For if ever may by chance excite to laugh here and t termed thus, then may the dialogues of those his writings hath obtained the surna be esteemed as they are by that detractor no better than mimes. Because there is them, especially wherein some notable sweating and turmoiling under the in merciless dilemmas of Socrates, but that were it Saturn himself, would be often re than a smile. And whereas he tells us, th Mime was a personated grim lowering fo language unwittingly writes fool upon for he who was there personated was on

figure by any post or carrier, who were not a ubiquitary, it had been a most miraculous greeting. We find the primitive doctors, as oft as they writ to churches, speaking to them as to a number of faithful brethren and sons, and not to make a cloudy transmigration of sexes in such a familiar way of writing as an epistle ought to be, leaving the tract of common address, to run up, and tread the air in metaphorical compellations, and many fond utterances better let alone. But I step again to this emblazoner of his titlepage, (whether it be the same man or no, I leave it in the midst,) and here I find him pronouncing without reprieve, those animadversions to be a slanderous and scurrilous libel. To which I, readers, that they are neither slanderous, nor scurrilous, will answer in what place of his book he shall be found with reason, and not ink only, in his mouth. Nor can it be a libel more than his own, which is both nameless and full of slanders; and if in this that it freely speaks of things amiss in religion, but established by act of state, I see not how Wickliff and Luther, with all the first martyrs and reformers, could avoid the imputation of libelling. I never thought the human frailty of erring in cases of religion, infamy to a state, no more than to a council: it had therefore been neither civil nor christianly, to derogate the honour of the state for that cause, especially when I saw the parliament itself piously and magnani-strant; the author is ever distinguished f

mously bent to supply and reform the defects and oversights of their forefathers, which to the godly and repentant ages of the Jews were often matter of humble confessing and bewailing, not of confident asserting and maintaining. Of the state therefore I found good reason to speak all honourable things, and to join in petition with good men that petitioned: but against the prelates, who were the only seducers and misleaders of the state to constitute the government of the church not rightly, methought I had not vehemence enough. And thus, readers, by the example which he hath set me, I have given ye two or three notes of him out of his titlepage; by which his firstlings fear not to guess boldly at his whole lump, for that guess will not fail ye; and although I tell him keen truth, yet he may bear with me, since I am like to chase him into some good knowledge, and others, I trust, shall not mispend their leisure. For this my aim is, if I am forced to be unpleasing to him whose fault it is, I shall not forget at the same time to be useful in something to the stander-by.

he introduces. But in an ill hour hath t rashness stumbled upon the mention of he might at length cease, which he hat he stepped in, to gall and hurt him w aid. Could he not beware, could he no was he so uncircumspect as not to f sooner would that word mime be set paper, but it would bring to mind tha grimage over Minshew's dictionary ca alter et idem," the idlest and the paltries mounted upon bank? Let him ask those toothless satires," who was the the anticreator of that universal foole who like that other principal of the arch evil one, when he had looked u had made and mapped out, could sa contrary to the divine mouth, that foolish. That grave and noble inve greatest and sublimest wits in sundr Critias, and our two famous country his "Utopia," the other in his " New I may not say as a field, but as a m wherein to display the largeness of teaching this our world better and than were yet known or used: thị cator of America, the zany of Colu must be till his world's end,) havi the huge topography of his own v marvel if he brought us home nothing kard drollery, a venereous parjetory tainly, he that could endure with a so devise laws for drunkards to carous whether the very soberness of such

As therefore he began in the title, so in the next leaf he makes it his first business to tamper with his reader by sycophanting and misnaming the work of his adver

He calls it "a mime thrust forth upon the stage,
to make
the breaches of those solemn scenes between
the prelates and the Smectymnuans." Wherein while
he is so over-greedy to fix a name of ill sound upon
another, note how stupid he is to expose himself or his
own friends to the same ignominy; likening those
grave controversies to a piece of stagery, or scenework,
where his own Remonstrant, whether in buskin or sock,
must of all right be counted the chief player, be it

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liquored Silenus, were not stark drunk. Let him go | ther than a long apology; and that he who will do

now and brand another man injuriously with the name
of Mime, being himself the loosest and most extrava-
gant Mime that hath been heard of, whom no less than
almost half the world could serve for stage-room to play
the Mime in. And let him advise again with si: Francis
Bacon, whom he cites to confute others, what it is "to
turn the sins of christendom into a mimical mockery,
to rip up the saddest vices with a laughing counte-
nance, especially where neither reproof nor better
teaching is adjoined. Nor is my meaning, readers, to
shift off a blame from myself, by charging the like
upon my accuser, but shall only desire, that sentence
may be respited, till I can come to some instance
whereto I may give answer.

justly to all men, must begin from knowing how, if it so
happen, to be not unjust to himself. I must be thought,
if this libeller (for now he shews himself to be so) can find
belief, after an inordinate and riotous youth spent at
the university, to have been at length" vomited out
thence." For which commodious lie, that he may be
encouraged in the trade another time, I thank him;
for it hath given me an apt occasion to acknowledge
publicly with all grateful mind, that more than ordi-
nary favour and respect, which I found above any of
my equals at the hands of those courteous and learned
men, the fellows of that college wherein I spent some
years: who at my parting, after I had taken two de-
grees, as the manner is, signified many ways, how
much better it would content them that I would stay;
as by many letters full of kindness and loving respect,
both before that time, and long after, I was assured of
their singular good affection towards me. Which being
likewise propense to all such as were for their studious
and civil life worthy of esteem, I could not wrong their
judgments, and upright intentions, so much as to think
I had that regard from them for other cause, than that
I might be still encouraged to proceed in the honest
and laudable courses, of which they apprehended I had
given good proof. And to those ingenuous and friendly
men, who were ever the countenancers of virtuous and
hopeful wits, I wish the best and happiest things, that
friends in absence wish one to another. As for the com-
mon approbation or dislike of that place, as now it is,
that I should esteem or disesteem myself, or any other
the more for that; too simple and too credulous is the
confuter, if he think to obtain with me, or any right
discerner. Of small practice were that physician, who
could not judge by what both she or her sister hath
of long time vomited, that the worser stuff she strongly
keeps in her stomach, but the better she is ever keck-
ing at, and is queasy. She vomits now out of sickness;
but ere it will be well with her, she must vomit by
strong physic. In the mean time that suburb sink, as
this rude scavenger calls it, and more than scurrilously
taunts it with the plague, having a worse plague in his
middle entrail, that suburb wherein I dwell shall be
in my account a more honourable place than his uni-
versity. Which as in the time of her better health,
and mine own younger judgment, I never greatly ad-
mired, so now much less. But he follows me to the
city, still usurping and forging beyond his book notice,
which only he affirms to have had;
"and where my
morning haunts are, he wisses not." It is wonder,
that being so rare an alchymist of slander, he could
not extract that, as well as the university vomit,
and the suburb sink which his art could distil so cun-
ningly; but because his limbec fails him, to give
him and envy the more vexation, I will tell him.
Those morning haunts are where they should be,
at home; not sleeping, or concocting the surfeits
of an irregular feast, but up and stirring, in winter
often ere the sound of any bell awake men to labour,

or to devotion; in summer as oft with the bird that
first rouses, or not much tardier, to read good au-

Thus having spent his first onset, not in confuting, but in a reasonless defaming of the book, the method of his malice hurries him to attempt the like against the author; not by proofs and testimonies, but " having no certain notice of me," as he professes, " further than what he gathers from the animadversions," blunders at me for the rest, and flings out stray crimes at a venture, which he could never, though he be a serpent, sack from any thing that I have written, but from his own stuffed magazine, and hoard of slanderous inventions, over and above that which he converted to venom in the drawing. To me, readers, it happens as a singular contentment; and let it be to good men no light satisfaction, that the slanderer here confesses, he has "further notice of me than his own conjecture." Although it had been honest to have inquired, before he uttered such infamous words, and I am credibly informed he did inquire; but finding small comfort from the intelligence which he received, whereon to ground the falsities which he had provided, thought it his likeliest course under a pretended ignorance to let drive at random, lest he should lose his odd ends, which from some penurious book of characters he had been caling out and would fain apply. Not caring to burden me with those vices, whereof, among whom my conversation bath been, I have been ever least suspected; perhaps not without some subtlety to cast me to eary, by bringing on me a necessity to enter into mine own praises. In which argument I know every wise man is more unwillingly drawn to speak, than the most repining ear can be averse to hear. Nevertheless, since I dare not wish to pass this life unpersecuted of slanderous tongues, for God hath told us that to be gebeally praised is woeful, I shall rely on his promise t free the innocent from causeless aspersions: whereof nothing suoner can assure me, than if I shall feel him now assisting me in the just vindication of myself, I could defer, it being more meet, that to these other matters of public debatement in this book I should give attendance first, but that I fear it would but harm the truth for me to reason in her behalf, so kong as I should suffer my honest estimation to lie unporged from these insolent suspicions. And if I shall belarge, or unwonted in justifying myself to those who know me not, for else it would be needless, let them consider that a short slander will oft-times reach fur



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