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Son of man
ture expressly indicate. Matt. xx. 28. "the came.... to give his life a ransom for many." Acts xx. 28. "the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood." Col. i. 20. " through the blood of his cross.' v. 22. "in the body of his flesh through death." Heb. ix. 12. "by his own blood he entered in." x. 10. "through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ." 1 Pet. ii. 24. "who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree." iv. 1. "forasmuch as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh." 1 John iv. 10. "he sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." Rom. iii. 25. "whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness."
FOR SINNERS. Isai. liii. 12. "he bare the sin of many." 2 Cor. v. 21. "he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin." Gal. iii. 13. "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us." Heb. ix. 28. "Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many." 1 Pet. ii. 24. "who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree." iii. 18. "he hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust." 1 John ii. 2. "he is the propitiation for our sins." HAS ALWAYS MADE INTERCESSION. Isai. liii. 12. "he made intercession for the transgressors." Jer. xxx. 21. “I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach unto me; for who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto me?" John xiv. 6, 13. "no man cometh unto the Father but by me." xvii. 9. "I pray for them." Rom. viii. 24. " who maketh intercession for us." Heb. vii. 25. "he ever liveth to make intercession for them." viii. 1, 2. "who is set on the right hand of the throne of the majesty in the heavens, a minister of the sanctuary." He makes intercession, first, by "appearing in the presence of God for us," Heb. ix. 24. 1 John ii. 1. "we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." Secondly, by rendering our prayers agreeable to God. John xiv. 13. "whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do." As to the expressions, Rom. viii. 26, 27. the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us," and, “he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God," the preceding words of the same verse show in what sense they are to be understood; "the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities ;" and Gal. iv. 6. "God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father;" that
is, encouraging and persuading us to address God as our Father through faith. This is easily distinguished from the intercession which Christ makes for us in his sacerdotal capacity.
THE KINGLY FUNCTION of Christ is that whereby BEING MADE KING BY GOD THE FATHER, HE GOVERNS AND PRESERVES, CHIEFLY BY AN INWARD LAW AND SPIRITUAL POWER, THE CHURCH WHICH HE HAS PURCHASED FOR HIMSELF, AND CONQUERS AND SUBDUES ITS ENEMIES.
MADE KING BY GOD THE FATHER. Psal. ii. 6. "I have set my King upon my holy hill." cx. 1. compared with Matt. xxii. 44. "the Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand." Ezek. xxxvii. 25. “ my servant David shall be their prince for ever." Dan. ii. 44. "the God of heaven shall set up a kingdom." vii. 14. "there was given him dominion." Matt. xi. 27. "all things are delivered unto me of my Father." xxviii. 18. "all power is given unto me." Luke i. 32. 66 the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David, and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end." Eph. i. 20-22. "when he set him at his own right hand. . . . far above all principality." Rev. i. 5. "prince of the kings of the earth." xix. 16. "King of kings."
HIS CHURCH. Psal. ii. 6. "yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Sion." Matt. ii. 5, 6. "thus it is written by the prophet.... out of thee shall come a governor, that shall rule my people Israel." Luke i. 33. "he shall reign over the house of Jacob." Eph. i.22. "who gave him to be the head over all things, to the church." Col. i. 18. "he is the head of the body, the church."
CHIEFLY BY AN INWARD LAW. Jer. xxxi. 31, 32. compared with Heb. viii. 8. and x. 16. "this is the covenant that I will make with them.... I will put my laws into their hearts." Luke xvii. 21. "behold the kingdom of God is within you." John iv. 23, 24. "in spirit and in truth." xviii. 36. "my kingdom is not of this world; if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight." Hence the law of the kingdom, the gift of the Spirit, was given at Jerusalem on the fiftieth day from the crucifixion, as the Mosaic law was given on the fiftieth day from the passover in Mount Sinai, Acts ii. 1. in sign that the old law was superseded by the new, the law of bondage and of the flesh by the law of the Spirit and of freedom. Rom. xiv. 17. "the king
dom of heaven is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost." Psal. lxviii. 18. compared with Eph. iv. 8. "he gave gifts unto men," that is, spiritual gifts. Accordingly, the weapons of those who fight under Christ as their King are exclusively spiritual. 2. Cor. x. 4. 1 John v. 4. "this is the victory that overcometh the world." Herein it is that the pre-eminent excellency of Christ's kingdom over all others, as well as the divine principles on which it is founded, are manifested; inasmuch as he governs not the bodies of men alone, as the civil magistrate, but their minds and consciences," and that not by force and fleshly weapons, but by what the world esteems the weakest of all instruments.1 Hence external force ought never to be employed in the administration of the kingdom of Christ, which is the church. GOVERNS AND PRESERVES. Isai. ix. 6, 7. "Counsellor the Prince of peace: of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end." Jer. xxiii. 5, 6. "in his days Judah shall be saved." John x. 28. "neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand." Heb. vii. 2. " Heb. vii. 2. "the King of righteousness.... King of peace."
OVERCOMES AND SUBDUES HIS ENEMIES. Psal. ii. 9. "thou shalt break them with a rod of iron," namely, at his second coming. Psal. cx. 1, 2. compared with Matt. xxii. 44. Dan. ii. 44.it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms." The world; John xvi. 33. and 1 John v. 4. Death, and the law, and sin; 1 Cor. xv. 26, 54—57. "the sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law but thanks be to God which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ." Satan; Rom. xvi. 20. Luke xix. 27. "those mine enemies which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither." Rev. xxii. 14. "the Lamb shall overcome them." The kingdom of Christ is also styled the kingdom of grace,
. To guide nations in the way of truth
Paradise Regained, II. 473.
1 Accomplishing great things, by things deem'd weak
Paradise Lost, XII. 566.
and the kingdom of glory. The kingdom of grace is the same as the kingdom of heaven, which is at hand. Matt. iii. 2. The kingdom of glory is that which is destined to be made more manifest at his second advent.
The kingdom of Christ, as appears from the authorities just quoted, is, like his priesthood, eternal; that is, it will endure as long as the world shall last, and as long as there shall be occasion for his mediatorial office. This is clearly taught by the apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 24, 28. "then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father.... and shall also himself be subject unto him;" in like manner as a period is assigned to his priestly office (although that also is called eternal) as well as to his prophetical office, that God may be all in all. See more on this subject in the last chapter of the present book, on the kingdom of Christ in glory.
CHAP. XVI.-OF THE MINISTRY OF REDEMPTION. HAVING treated of the mediatorial office, and its threefold functions, we are now to consider the manner in which it is discharged. This includes the state of humiliation to which our Redeemer submitted, as well as his state of exaltation.
THE HUMILIATION OF CHRIST is that state in which UNDER HIS CHARACTER OF GOD-MAN HE VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED HIMSELF TO THE DIVINE JUSTICE, AS WELL IN LIFE AS IN DEATH, FOR THE PURPOSE OF UNDERGOING ALL THINGS REQUISITE TO ACCOMPLISH OUR REDEMPTION.
UNDER HIS CHARACTER OF GOD-MAN. Philipp. ii. 6—8. "he made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant." Luke xxii. 43. "there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.' Now the presence of an angel would have been superfluous, unless the divine nature of Christ, as well as his human, had needed support. So also Matt. xxvii. 46. "My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" If his divine nature had not partaken of the trial, why was it not at hand to sustain him when he demanded succour? or, if it had the ability, but not the will to help him, of what avail was it to call upon his Father, whose will was identically one with his own?
Rom. viii. 3. "in the likeness of sinful flesh." This is conspicuous even from his birth, Luke ii. 7. in his cir
cumcision, Rom. xv. 8. by which he became "a debtor to do the whole law," Gal. v. 3. whence an offering was made for him, Luke ii. 24; in his flight into Egypt, Matt. iii.; in his subjection to his parents, Luke ii. 51; in his submitting to manual labour, Mark vi. 3.; in his baptism, Matt. iii.; in his temptation, Matt. iv. Heb. ii. 18. iv. 15; in his poverty, Matt. viii. 20. 2 Cor. viii. 9. "that ye through his poverty might be rich;" in the persecutions, insults and dangers which he underwent; for an account of which, together with the whole of his passion, it is better to refer to the gospels, than to cite the passages at length. To the same purport is the prediction of Isaiah, 1. 6. "I gave my back to the smiters-.' Compare also xlix. 6, 7. liii. 2, 3.
IN DEATH. Psal. xxii. Philipp. ii. 8. "he became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. This death was ignominious in the highest degree; Deut. xxi. 23. "he that is hanged, is accursed of God." The curse also to which we were obnoxious, was transferred to him, Gal. iii. 13. accompanied with a dreadful consciousness of the pouring out of the divine wrath upon his head, which extorted from him the dying exclamation, Matt. xxvii. 46. "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" Lastly, he was detained in the grave three days after death; 1 Cor. xv. 4. And here may be found the solution of the difficulty respecting the descent into hell," which has occasioned so much acrimonious controversy among divines; for if Christ's death was real, his soul must have died on the same day with his body, as was above shewn. There is another question which seems less easy of solution; namely, whether he yielded to death in his divine nature likewise. For not a few passages of Scripture intimate that his divine nature was subjected to death conjointly with his human; passages too clear to be explained away by the supposition of idiomatic language. Rom. x. 9. "if thou shalt confess with thy mouth
2 It has not been questioned whether the soul of Christ descended into hell, (as seems to be implied in the words of Milton) which 'none but an infidel will deny,' says St. Augustin, it is so clearly delivered in this prophecy of the Psalmist (Psal. xvi. 8-10.) and application of the apostle (Acts ii. 25.);' but the controverted point has been, what that hell was into which he descended. See the various opinions stated at large, in Burnet and Beveridge On the Third Article; Pearson On the Creed, Fifth Article; see also Bp. Horsley's Sermon on 1 Pet. iii. 18-20, Vol. II 145. Hey's Lectures, Book II. Art. 3.