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to the comments of the Chief of Staff, commencing on page 31 and extending to the top of page 34 of the hearings. They contain much food for thought.
Briefly, the supplemental estimate will permit of doing these things:
(a) Practically eliminate shortage of mobile antiaircraft searchlight units required by the four mobile antiaircraft regiments of the Regular Army in the United States.
(6) Shorten time to get into quantity production of machine guns, smokeless powder, small-arms ammunition, and gas masks through immediate provision of certain requisite machinery and equipment.
(c) Supply, in conjunction with an amount in the regular estimates, all critical items of ordnance antiaircraft equipment for 7 National Guard regiments and the training equipment for the remaining 3, and a relatively small portion of critical items of equipment for the 20 inactive antiaircraft regiments of the Regular Army.
(d) Complete or provide toward completion of portable searcblights required for antiaircraft defenses of west coast and Hawaii, and complete mobile antiaircraft-gun program for the harbor defenses of the west coast.
(e) Partly supply deficiency in ammunition.
The Department's defense of the estimates to accomplish the foregoing, to the extent that publicity permits, will be found on pages 520-533 of the hearings.
PROTECTIVE MOBILIZATION PLAN In its report on the 1938 appropriation bill, the committee called attention to studies then under way in the War Department looking to a revision of war reserve requirements. The studies have been completed and a plan evolved, which best can be explained in the words of the Chief of Staff, viz:
“When I appeared before your committee last year I made the following statement with reference to the subject of war reserves:
""The policy in the past regarding the augmentation of war reserves has been the gradual accumulation of essential items to meet the requirements in active operations of two field armies or 1,000,000 men to bridge the gap between the beginning of an emergency and the time production can supply the needed requirements. I have recently directed that, as a basis for mobilization, the present plan be replaced by one designated as a Protective Mobilization Plan. As a basis for mobilization this plan will result in a very considerable reduction in war-reserve requirements.'
“The plan to which I referred has been completed. Its general provisions and the resulting requirements in war reserves are as follows:
"The first objective of the plan is the immediate mobilization of a force of approximately 400,000. This force will consist of existing Regular Army and National Guard organizations, with limited recruit augmentation, and is designated as the initial protective force.
"The second objective is the augmentation of the initial protective force to a balanced all-purpose force of approximately 730,000 in units and an additional strength of 270,000 unassigned enlisted men who will be used as replacements or for the formation of additional units. Because of our limited stocks of war reserves the augmentation can be effected under present conditions only over a considerable
period. As these stocks are increased this period will be shortened correspondingly.
"The third objective is the further increase of this force to a total of 1,550,000, if the situation indicates the advisability of such action.
"As a basis for the establishment of war-reserve requirements all munitions of war physically present within the United States, in depots, in the hands of troops, and in local storage at posts, camps, and stations are considered as war reserves.
Commercial stocks that are immediately available are also considered as potential reserves. In time of peace it is believed to be unwise and economically impracticable to attempt to maintain in reserve all of the items necessary for a wartime force. Peacetime procurement of munitions of war should include only those 'critical items for which suitable substitutes do not exist and which are unobtainable from any source in the time and quantity required.
"The immediate peacetime procurement objective therefore is to provide such 'critical' items for the initial protective force
"The ultimate peacetime objective is to provide the 'critical' items required for the augmented force which I have described as the second objective in mobilization of personnel.
“Peacetime procurement planning will provide for the coordinated production, after the outbreak of an emergency, of additional material required for larger forces, and for prolonged war consumption.
"As I have stated, the war reserves to be procured in time of peace will consist only of those items which, otherwise, could not be obtained in the quantity and within the time required. General priorities may be classified as follows: A reasonable amount of ammunition for weapons on hand to be used by the force under consideration, weapons for which there is no substitute, other critical items.
"The results which have been accomplished by the establishment of the present plan may be summarized as follows:
"While the strength of the ultimate force for which reserves are to be established in time of peace remains at approximately 1,000,000 men, the requirements in war reserves have been reduced in cost by approximately $1,000,000,000.
“Objectives in personnel and matériel are progressive and in harmony with each other.
"War reserve requirements are definite and reasonable.
“This study has only recently been completed. Further adjustments and corrections and the establishment of priorities will of course be necessary as appropriations are made and as conditions change. Such changes will be incorporated in an annual revision of the mobilization plan and of war reserve objectives. Projects carried in the annual estimates will be determined by priorities so established.”
In the judgment of the committee, this is a very signal accomplishment and reflects great credit upon the present incumbent of the office of the Chief of Staff. We now have, practically for the first time, both definite personnel and matériel peacetime objectives and in harmony with each other.
MODIFICATIONS EFFECTED BY COMMITTEE
There follows an itemization of every money change effected by the committee in the Budget estimates in the order in which the appropriations appear in the accompanying bill, omitting, however, substitutions of contractual authority and reappropriations.
Army War College: Purchase of chairs for auditorium.
prior year expenditures... Army transportation:
Lesser amount for transportation of new motor
vehicles, justified by prior year expenditures...
Excessive estimate of cost of gasoline..
stead of 39, stallions. Military posts:
Disallow runways, Fort Leavenworth, Kans..---
struction ($1,000), Fort Sill, Okla...
telephone construction ($2,000), Fort Barran
Quarters ($34,000) and telephone construction
($1,000), Army and Navy General Hospital,
Hot Springs, Ark.
mediate station, Connellsville, Pa... Barracks and quarters:
Rents, China, owing to withdrawal of forces..
Additional amount for repairs and improvements Signal Service: Substitution of radio meteorographs
for airplanes for making weather observations Chemical Warfare Service: Restore reduction pro
posed in Budget in research project..... Infantry School, Fort Benning, Ga.: Air-conditioning
system for reproduction plant.---
planes, instead of 75 percent... Reserve Officers' Training Corps:
Reduced allowance to meet increased cost of
clothing supplied in kind...
Disallow purchase of horses...
instead of 14,250 trainees....
store reduction proposed in Budget...
1, 173, 977
3, 534, 373
2, 360, 396
As previously indicated herein, the net increase has been more than offset by the substitution of contractual authority for direct appropriations.
The Budget and accompanying bill carry an increase of $32,129 for the conduct of various maneuvers and exercises. The total amount is $672,195, including $200,000 under the National Guard. The increase results from changes in character and locale. Next year the Third Army has the call for major maneuvers, in which four divisions of the National Guard will participate. These will be held at the following five places: DeSoto National Forest, Miss.; Camp Bullis, Tex.; vicinity of Fort Bliss, Tex.; Fort Huachuca, Ariz.; and Pole Mountain, Wyo.
ARMY WAR COLLEGE
The increase of $648 proposed by the committee for this establishment is to permit of the complete replacement of chairs in the auditorium. The Budget contemplates spreading the replacement over 2 fiscal years. By doing the whole job at once the committee is advised a saving of $256 would ensue. The total amount involved, with the saving off, is $2,300.
Pay of the Army.-The Budget carries an increase of $3,490,576, which the committee has not disturbed. The personnel upon which the estimate is based is detailed on page 113 of the hearings. The major portion of the increase covers the following items: Increase of 50 second lieutenants, $81,000; to provide pay for a full year for the increase of 75 first lieutenants of the Medical and Dental Corps for whom 9 months' pay was provided in 1938, $37,500; additional grades and ratings, $644,415; subsistence allowances, officers, $425,231; allowance for quarters for enlisted men on duty where public quarters are not available, $302,220; longevity pay, enlisted men, $266,885; longevity pay, officers and warrant officers, $664,596; aviation increase, officers, $142,137; additional retired officers, warrant officers and nurses, $124,151; additional retired enlisted men, $203,350; step up in pay periods of officers, $201,100; additional air mechanic $117,723; and additional flying cadets, $213,192.
Travel of the Army.-- Of the Budget increase of $250,000, more than 80 percent is owing to the increased number of enlisted men who will be entitled to travel allowances upon discharge. This is a sequence to the increase in enlisted strength, initiated in the fiscal year 1936.
Subsistence. Although increases were approved by the Budget Bureau for the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard to meet a larger ration cost, the Army budget holds to the present year rate of 45 cents. It is true costs have lowered since the Budget was prepared. The components of the ration are fixed by law and if the rate should prove to be too low, the appropriation will need to be supplemented.
The increase of $200,850 (net) is responsive to several factors, but is more than accounted for by a larger number of flying cadets (549 as
against 220), and by an expected increase in the number of enlisted men who will be on detached duty.
Regular supplies.-Of the increase of $254,520 included in the Budget, approximately 60 percent flows from an allowance for forage more nearly approaching costs. The remainder divides about 25 percent for a miscellaneous lot of material, including demands of the new Sacramento air depot and Hickam Field, in Hawaii, and 15 percent on account of increased costs of various commodities.'
Clothing and equipage.—There are two major factors contributing to the increase of $1,519,580 proposed in the Budget under this head, namely, (a) a larger number of men who will be entitled to payment of amounts representing the difference between their clothing allowances and the value of clothing actually drawn ($49.21 average per capita), which will impose an additional charge of $573,124, and (6) $885,722 required partly to restore depleted stocks.
The question arose during the course of the committee's hearings as to the amount of manufacture engaged in under this head at the Philadelphia clothing depot, occasioned, no doubt, by a falling off of private orders with commercial clothing manufacturers. The matter is one within the control of the War Department, subject, however. to the provisions of section 5-a of the National Defense Act, as amended. It is the judgment of the committee, justified by the testimony of officials of the Department, that the division of work now obtaining rather favors commercial interests; in fact, to an extent that is not conducive to the most efficient and economical operation of the Army's depot. Since we have this establishment, it should be operated to capacity on a full normal workday schedule, particularly when there is work to be done of a character that can be turned out at less cost or no greater cost than by private manufacturers. Any other course would not seem to be in the public interest. The law provides for the manufacture or production at the Government arsenals or Government-owned factories of the United States of such supplies or articles needed by the War Department as said arsenals or Government-owned factories are capable of manufacturing or producing upon an economical basis."
Army transportation.--The Budget proposes an increase under this head of $547,300. The committee has approved $328,265 of that amount, more than accounted for by 3 factors, namely: (a) $140,567 for wage adjustments in consequence of the 1936–37 seamen's strike; (6) $131,565 because of the increased cost of fuel oil and lubricating oil, and (c) $197,820 for the transportation of ordnance material,
The reduction of $219,035 proposed by the committee is accounted for in the table on page 7 hereof. In connection with the reduction applying to gasoline, the estimates are based upon an average cost of 11.5 cents per gallon, to be procured under Procurement Division (Treasury Department) contracts. The committee got the Quartermaster Corps and the Procurement Division together, with the result that an average unit price of 8.5 cents per gallon was determined upon as a better est mate.
Motor-vehicle procurements are financed out of this appropriation. The Budget includes $1,000,000, which is in agreement with appropriations made for both the fiscal years 1936 and 1937. That amount will be applied to the purchase of 320 cars, 198 motorcycles, 70 ambulances, 426 trucks, and 30 truck-tractors with 30 semitrailers. The Chief of