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company Sir Roger Twysden's "Vindication of the Church of England," which bas lately been republished. The references have been verified, and additional authorities given, and a brief memoir of the author prefixed. The subject of Papal authority is copiously treated, and the editorship appears to be diligent. Perhaps the title is too grandiloquent, but the book was composed in an age when such titles were in vogue. We would here suggest that a translation of that part of Maimbourg's work on the "Church of Rome," in which he contends against the higher Papal pretensions, is very desirable, at least as an appendix to any other voJume on the subject.
An Explication of the Hundred and Teath Psalm. By Edward Reynolds, D.D. afterwards Bishop of Norwich. Post 8vo. pp. 392.-It is rather surprising that Mr. Orme has made no mention of this work in his valuable" Bibliotheca Biblica," though he notices the fact, that the author furnished the commentary on Ecclesiastes to the "Assembly's Annotations." as they are called with some inexactitude. It is however included by Mr. Bickersteth in his "Christian Student," in the list of works on particular Psalms; and he describes the author's works in general, as remarkably sententious, full of meaning and sound evangelical doctrine." (p. 445, 4th edit.) It forms the second volume of the edition of the Bishop's entire works, which was published in 1826, with a memoir by the late Alexander Chalmers. But separate editions of valuable treatises are desirable, and therefore we are glad that this exposition is brought more generally within the reach of students or others. It has all the copiousness, not to say the prolixity, of the school to which the author belonged; but the best way of reading such treatises is to consider them as a collection of essays on the various subjects which come under the general head. Of such essays this work is full, so as to form in some respects a body of theology. We quote the ope ing sentence. "Christ Jesus, the Lord, is the sum and centre of all divine revealed truth; neither is any thing to be preached unto men as an object of their faith, or necessary element of their salvation, which doth not, some way or other, either meet in him, or refer to him.' (p. 1.) There is one explanation to which we must demur, at p. 382, on verse 7, which he understands of afflictions like Matt. xx. 22. But we are rather inclined with Bishop Wilson (as quoted in Mr. Cobbin's Condensed Commentary), to understand it of a conqueror, who, faint GENT. MAG. VOL. XXXII.
and thirsty in the battle, refreshes himself at the stream he passes, and pursues the enemy with renewed vigour. Still the remarks which are made in this place, though not to our mind the precise expla nation, contain many solemn truths. As
a whole, this volume belongs to a class which has few successors, and the student who devotes his days and nights to it will find the labour well repaid.
Discourses upon the Existence and Attributes of God. By S. Charnock, B.D. Post 8vo. 2 vols. pp. x. 781, 687.The work now republished possesses great merit in a department by no means crowded. It is reprinted from the edition of 1684, edited by Messrs. Veel and Adams, in whose words we may describe it: "In the doctrinal part of his discourses thou wilt find the depth of polemical divinity, and in his inferences from thence the sweetness of the practical. . . . His business is to show how the Divine attributes are not only excellent in themselves, but a grand foundation for all true Divine worship, and should be the great motives to persuade men to the exercise of faith, and love, and fear, and humility, and all that holy obedience they are called to under the Gospel." (pp. vi. vii.) With reference to other writers on these topics, they mention that" what Dr. Jackson did (to whom our author gave all due respect) was more brief, and in another way Dr. Preston did worthily upon the attributes in his day, but his discourses likewise are more succinct, when this author's are more full and large. Mr. Bickersteth, in his Christian Student," terms Charnock "a deep, searching, often sublime, and powerful writer." Mr. Orme, in his "Bibliotheca Biblica," speaks of these discourses as elaborate, by which we suppose he means not merely laboured, but copious and solid. "His style (he adds) is generally chaste and easy, remarkably free of that verbosity and clumsiness which so generally belonged to the writers of his class and period." The principal attributes considered are, Spirituality, Eternity, Immutability, Omnipresence, Knowledge, Wisdom, Power, Holiness, Goodness, Dominion, and Patience. We give an extract from the discourse on Power (vol. ii.) "It is contemned by trusting in ourselves, in means, in man, more than in God. . . It is also contemned when we ascribe what we receive to the
*This is a Scotism. Burnet describes the Earl of Argyle as "free of all scandalous vices," on which Swift sarcastically remarks, "As a man is free of a corporation, he means."
power of instruments, and not to the power of God. Men, in whatever they do for us, are but the tools whereby the Creatorworks. Is it not a disgrace to the limner to admire his pencil, and not himself? to the artificer, to admire his file and engines, and not his power? It is not I, saith Paul, that labour, but the grace, the efficacious grace, of God which is in me. Whatever
good we do is from him, not from ourselves to ascribe it to ourselves, or to instruments, is to overlook and contemn his power." (p. 120). An index of subjects professedly or incidentally treated is
A few Remarks upon the Construction and Principles of Action of the Aneroid Barometer. By Charles Frodsham, F.R.A.S., Associate I. C. E., Chronometer, Clock, and Watchmaker. 8vo.-The author of this little work is Mr. Charles Frodsham, the eminent chronometer maker of the Strand, who is celebrated for his double-seconds and lever watches, which are adjusted in so peculiar a manner, and upon such scientific principles, that he has been able to make them capable of rivalling in their performance even perfect chronometers. The work before us contains a very clear and comprehensive account of the construction and uses of the Aneroid barometer, together with some very interesting remarks upon the other barometers which have been hitherto alone employed. There are engravings also of the different parts of the instrument, enabling the reader to understand its mode of action. One of the most curious portions of the work is the table which Mr. Frodsham has given showing the effects of temperature upon this barometer. This table gives the results furnished by five of these instruments, which were simultaneously subjected to different temperatures, and tested in the same manner as the best watches when
under trial for compensation, by placing them, for the high temperatures, in an
oven provided with the means of regulating the heat, and for the low temperatures, in an ice chamber.
The Life of Archbishop Browne, and the Life of Bishop Bedell. 18mo. pp. 72.George Browne, the subject of the former of these biographies, was the first protestant bishop in Ireland, and the memoir furnishes some curious details concerning the obstacles which the Reformation had to encounter in that country. He is also remarkable for a sermon preached in 1551, in which he mentions "a new fraternity of late springing up, who call themselves Jesuits (p. 17), and takes a survey of their career, prosperity, and suppression, which has proved almost prophetic. The second memoir is the Life of Bishop Bedell, abridged from Burnet. Few pieces of biography are more valuable for example, or more interesting for incident, than this account of an English bishop, to whose memory honours were rendered by the Irish at his burial.
The Life of the Rev. John Brown of Haddington. 18mo. pp. 72.-This little volume might rather have been entitled "Some passages in the life," as it is not a continuous memoir, but is chiefly occupied with Mr. Brown's character, and the account of his death, which occurred in 1787. The character is one from which ministers of religion, in every communion, may submit to learn. We would refer particularly to an anecdote at p. 23, which exhibits a remarkable combination of faithfulness and judgment. Hearing with pain a Highland gentleman frequently swearing in a ferry-boat, he forbore to say anything at the time, for fear of irritating him, but took an opportunity after landing of remonstrating with him privately. The gentleman thanked him for the reproof, and promised to attend to it, but added, "If you had said this in the boat, I believe I should have run you through."
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.
June 8. The trustees of the Eldon Scholarship have elected John Conington, B.A. Fellow of University college, to be the Eldon Scholar for the ensuing three years, in the room of Mr. Lingen, of Balliol, whose term had expired. Mr. Conington obtained the Ireland Scholarship in 1844, and the Hertford Latin Scholarship in the same year. He gained the First Class in Classics in 1846, the
prize for Latin Verse 1847, and the English Essay in 1848.
June 9. The prize for the Ellerton Theological Essayis awarded to Stephen Edwardes, B.A. late Post-master of Merton.
June 12. A Convocation was holden for electing a Professor of Anglo-Saxon on the Foundation of Dr. Rawlinson, in the room of Mr. Buckley, Fellow of Brasenose college, whose period of office had expired.
The candidates were the Rev. John Earle, M.A. Fellow of Oriel, and the Rev. Henry Wilkins Norman, M.A. Fellow of New college. The former was chosen, having 142 votes, and the latter 78.
June 13. The annual prizes were decided as follows:
Latin Verse.-" Etruscorum Sepulchra nuper reperta."-Alexander John Wallace, late Commoner of Trinity college, now Post-master of Merton college.
English Essay.-" Literature and Science, compared in their effects upon a nation."-Edward St. John Parry, B.A. Balliol college.
Latin Essay.-"Quænam fuerit Platonis Idea in Politia sua conscribenda ?"-John Conington, B.A. Fellow of University college, formerly Demy of Magdalen college. Newdigate English Verse.-Not awarded. Mrs. Denyer's Theological Prize (subject, "On Original, or Birth Sin,") has been awarded to the Rev. Edward Walford, M.A. of Balliol college. Mr. Walford gained one of Mrs. Denyer's prizes last year, and the prize for Latin Verse in 1843. June 14. A Convocation was holden for electing a Prælector of Logic, in the room of Mr. Michell, Vice-Principal of Magdalen hall, whose period of office had expired. The candidates were the Rev. Henry Wall, M.A. Fellow of Balliol and Vice-Principal of St. Alban hall; the Rev. William Thompson, M.A. Fellow of Queen's; and the Rev. Henry Longueville Mansell, M.A. Fellow of St. John's. After a very severe contest, the numbers were-For Mr. Wall, 291; Mr. Mansel, 258; Mr. Thompson, 192.
The Commemoration took place in the week beginning on Sunday June 17, when the University Sermon was preached at Christ Church by the Rev. Dr. Pusey; sermons in the morning and evening at Carfax church by the Rev. Hugh Mc Neile, D.D. on behalf of the Church Pastoral Aid Society; and the Right Rev. George Smith, Bishop of Victoria, preached in St. Peter's in the East in aid of his
missionary plans in China. On Tuesday the anniversary sermon for the Radcliffe Infirmary was preached at St. Mary's by the Very Rev. the Dean of Lincoln, late Fellow of New college. The show of the Oxfordshire Horticultural Society took place on this and the following day in Magdalen college Grove.-At two o'clock an Exercise composed by Sir Frederick Oaseley, Bart. for the degree of Bachelor of Music, was performed in New college Hall, before a crowded audience.-A meeting of several of the Heads of Houses and Graduate members was the same day held in the Theatre to consider the propriety of forming a General Museum for the
University, with distinct apartments and lecture rooms, pursuant to the vote of Convocation on the recently enacted statute, which provides that a School of Natural Science be established in connection with the system of education pursued at the University. The Rev. the ViceChancellor introduced the subject, and various resolutions to carry it out were recommended to the meeting in speeches from the Master of Pembroke, Dr. Daybeny, Mr. Baden Powell, the Rev. W. Sewell, and others.-At the Commemoration, which took place on Thursday the 21st, the following gentlemen were presented for the Hon. degree of D.C.L. :the Hon. Mr. Bancroft, the American minister; James Heywood Markland, esq. F.R.S. formerly Director of the Society of Antiquaries, and during the greater part of his life an active member of the two societies for Promoting Christian Knowledge and for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts; and Capt. Fletcher Hayes, of the Indian army, and gentleman commoner of Magdalen hall; and to ad eundem degrees, George Matcham, esq. D.C.L. of St. John's college, Cambridge; and the Rev. Philip Freeman, M.A. of St. Peter's college, Cambridge. The Public Orator delivered the Creweian Oration, and the Latin and English Essays and Latin Poem were read by their respective authors.
June 20. The vacant Hebrew scholarship, on the Pusey and Ellerton foundation, was awarded to Mr. William Wright, Andrews' Law Exhibitioner, and Commoner of St. John's college.
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.
May 24. To the vacant Tyrwhitt Scho. larships were elected-F. B. D. Ramadge, B.A. Caius college; and C. A. Stuart, B.A. St. John's college.
May 30. Sir William Browne's medals have been adjudged as follows:-For Greek Ode-J. D. Williams, Trinity college. For Latin Ode-D'Arcy W. Thompson, Pembroke college. For EpigramsJ. D. Williams, Trinity college.
Andrew Amos, esq. M.A. formerly Fellow of Trinity college, has been unanimously selected as the successor of the late lamented Professor Starkie, in the Downing Professorship of the Laws of England.
The medal given annually by the Marquess Camden, for the best exercise in Latin hexameter verse, has been awarded to W. Owen, of St. John's college. Subject:
"Coorta est Seditio, sævitque animis ignobile vulgus,”
ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.
May 28. At the Anniversary Meeting, W. J. Hamilton, esq. the retiring President, was in the chair. The report of the Council, under the head of finances, contained an expression of regret that they had been obliged to order the sale of a small portion of their funded property, in order to liquidate all debts. The Society consisted of 670 members, a large proportion of whom were, however, life compounders. Owing to the difficulty experienced in the collection of arrears, a more stringent rule than that at present in action was adopted. During the past year upwards of 1507. had been expended in improving the library, including the large collection of maps and charts. The accessions to the library during the past year amounted to 194 books and pamplets, 272 sheets of maps and charts, 8 atlases, and 1 planisphere. Many of these presents are from the Governments of various countries, and are of great value, particularly those illustrative of Captain Wilkes's Exploring Expedition, and the important Coast Survey of the United
States, presented by the government of the same. The Council had, during the past year, made various grants of books and instruments to travellers, and entertained hopes of receiving a favourable reply from Government to their application for apartments in which to preserve and render useful the property placed under their care. The gold medals were awarded to A. H. Layard, esq. D.C.L. and to Baron C. von Hügel, the Austrian traveller. In the absence of the former (at present at Constantinople) the founder's gold medal was received by his uncle and adopted father, B. Austen, esq. for Dr. Layard's important contributions to Asiatic geography, published in the "Journal of the Royal Geographical Society;" for his interesting researches in Mesopotamia; as well as for the valuable works in which he has recorded his discovery of the remains of Nineveh, and described the relics of Assyrian art. The Patron's or Victoria medal was received by Sir R. I. Murchison, in the absence of Baron von Hügel, for his enterprising and successful exploration of Cashmere and the surrounding countries, as communicated to the public in his work entitled "Kashmir und das Reich der Siek," and also for the zeal and ability with which he formed those collections of plants and animals in Australia, as well as in Upper India, which have enriched European Mu. seums, and particularly those of Vienna.
The annual address of the President upon the progress of Geography during the present year was next read, and desired to be printed in the Journal of the Society. The Anniversary Dinner was celebrated at the Thatched House Tavern, the newly elected President, Capt. W. H. Smyth, R.N. in the chair.
ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.
May 12. The Earl of Ellesmere, President, in the chair. The annual report of the Council commenced with a statement of the losses which the Society had sustained from death amongst its members in the course of the last year; and gave succinct biographical notices of some of the most distinguished. Of these, the Earl of Auckland, the late President of the Society, held the first place. The zealous and active support which the late Sir Alexander Johnston, Vice-President, and chairman of the committee of correspondence, had given to the Society for a long series of years, was gratefully commemorated. By the decease of Mr. J. Alexander, the treasurer, the Society had lost one of its most munificent supporters. J. R. Steuart, esq. known for
his numismatic researches-and M. Ferrao de Castelbranco, a patron of Oriental research, were also mentioned. The report then noticed the donation by Sir G. Staunton of a cast of the Nineveh Obelisk brought home by Mr. Layard, and gave a brief account of the progress made in Babylonian and Assyrian investigationsexpressing a confident hope that the labours of Major Rawlinson would in the course of the year enable us to read these relics of the earliest times. A continuation of the Major's Vocabulary of the Persepolitan language on the so-called Median cuneiform inscriptions was expected. Some valuable donations to the library, from J. Romer, esq. Sir C. Wade and Baron Hügel, consisting principally of Oriental MSS. were noticed. report next referred to an edition of a code of laws in the Pali language, which was preparing for the press by Dr. Rost, under the auspices and at the expense of the President of the Society; and gave a short account of the work and its contents.
The Report of the Oriental Translation Fund noticed the publication of "The Apostolic Constitutions or Canons of the Apostles," in Coptic, with a translation into English by Dr. Tattam; and stated that an offer had been accepted from the Rev. W. Cureton of a translation of a work to be entitled "Analecta Biographica Syriace," or "Lives of Eminent Bishops and Othe s;" illustrative of the history of the Church in the East during the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries. fifth volume of " Haji Khalfa Lexicon Encyclopædicum et Biographicum," by Prof. Flügel, is advancing, and the publication of it may be expected in the course of the year.
The Oriental Texts Fund Report stated that more had been done during the last year in completing works already begun than in bringing out new ones. The new undertakings are chiefly in Persian. Mr. Morley is engaged on an edition of Baibaki's rare and valuable history of Sultan Musaud of Ghazni. Prof. Falconer is proceeding with his editions of the poems composing the Khamseh of Jánú,-as also with the Nigaristán, or "Picture Gallery" of Juwaini. An edition of a rare Persian work, the "Makamat-i-Hamidi," is proposed by Mr. Bland; and the same gentleman has also undertaken the Diwan of the Turkish poet Baki,thus making a beginning towards removing the reproach upon English scholars of having neglected the polished language of Turkey.
A ballot was held for the officers and council for the ensuing year, when the officers were all declared re-elected-and
the following gentlemen were chosen into council in the place of those retiring by rotation :-S. Ball, esq. N. Bland, esq. Major-Gen. Briggs, J. Fergusson, esq. J. M. Macleod, esq. Major J. A. Moore, Sir W. Morison, and W. S. W. Vaux, esq.
ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.
Feb. 9. At the anniversary meeting, Sir John Herschel, the President, took the chair; and, in so doing, acknowledged the present recently made by Miss Baily, of the bust of their late President, Francis Baily, esq. It is the work of Mr. Edw. Hodges Baily, R.A.
The annual report, after giving a satisfactory account of the state ofthe Society, proceeded to the obituaries of deceased Fellows, among whom Mr. T. G. Taylor, late astronomer of Madras, and the celebrated discoverer of comets, De Vico, were astronomically the most important. The medal was conferred on Mr. Lassell of Liverpool, who, in the words of the Council, having cast his own mirror, polished it by machinery of his own contrivance, mounted it equatorially in his own fashion, and placed it in an observatory of his own engineering, -with this instrument discovered the satellite of Neptune, the eighth satellite of Saturn, and re-observed the satellites of Uranus. "A private man of no large means, in a bad climate and with little leisure, he has anticipated, or rivalled, by the work of his hands, the contrivance of his own brain, and the outlay of his own pocket, the magnificent refractors with which the Emperor of Russia and the citizens of Boston have endowed the Observatories of Pulkowa and the Western Cambridge."
The following officers were elected for the ensuing year :-President, G. B. Airy, esq.-Vice Presidents, J. C. Adams, esq. E. Riddle, esq. Rev. R. Sheepshanks, Lieutenant W. Stratford.-Treasurer, G. Bishop, esq.—Secretaries, A. De Morgan, esq. Capt. R. H. Manners, R.N.-Foreign Secretary, J. R. Hind, esq.-Council, G. Dollond, esq. Rev. G. Fisher, Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Dr. J. Lee, Rev. R. Main, C. May, esq. Lieut. H. Raper, R.N., Dr. Rutherford, Capt. W. H. Smyth, R.N. and J. W. Woollgar, esq.