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against it, 19. The Bill was then read 3° and passed. June 18. The third reading of the Bill introduced by Lord Campbell for converting perpetual LEASEHOLDS in IRELAND into freeholds, was opposed by Lord Redesdale, who moved that the Bill should be read a second time on that day six months. Their lordships divided-For the Bill, 38; against it, 35. The Bill was then read a third time and passed.

June 19. Lord Brougham brought the state of CANADA before the House, and moved resolutions condemnatory of the Act passed by the Colonial Legislature for indemnification of losses sustained in the rebellions of 1837 and 1838 (see June, p. 641). The House divided-For the motion, 96; against it, 99.

June 22. Lord Denman moved the second reading of the AFFIRMATION Bill, which had passed the Commons, to allow persons who might entertain conscientious objections against taking an oath, to make an affirmation instead.-Lord Brougham and Lord Abinger opposed the Bill. -The Earl of Wicklow said the effect of the measure would be to abolish oaths altogether in judicial proceedings, and he therefore moved that the Bill be read a second time that day six months. Their lordships divided For the Bill, 10; against it, 34.


May 31. Mr. Slaney observed that, some years ago, 10,0007. had been voted by Parliament to promote the opening of PUBLIC PARKS in the vicinity of large towns, and he wished to know in what way that money had been appropriated? -Mr. Hayter said the sum of 10,000l. had been voted in 1841 for the purposes stated by the hon. Member. Between 4,000l. and 5,000. of that money had already been appropriated for the purpose of promoting the formation of public parks, and applications were now before the Treasury to the amount of 3,0001. The regulations under which these advances were made were, that the parties applying were to raise a sum at least equal in amount to that which they required to be advanced. The principal towns which had already obtained assistance from the grant were Dundee, Arbroath, Manchester, Portsmouth, and Preston; and the places from which applications were now pending were Leicester, Harrogate, Stockport, Sunderland, and Oldham.

June 4. On the motion for the third reading of the Bill for facilitating the SALE OF ESTATES IN IRELAND, Sir L. O'Brien moved that it should be read a third time on that day six months. The House di

vided, and the numbers were-for the third reading, 117; against it, 12; majority for the Bill, 105. The Bill was then read the third time and passed.

Mr. Hawes moved for leave to bring in a Bill for the better government of the AUSTRALIAN COLONIES; and explained the new constitution it was intended to grant to these dependencies, which was framed on the model of that now existing in New South Wales. It consisted of a governor and legislative council, of which one half of the members were appointed by the governor, and the other half elected by the people. Port Philip was to be sepa rated from New South Wales, and erected into a province to be henceforth called Victoria. A constitution would be granted to New South Wales, Victoria, Van Diemen's Land, South Australia, and (conditionally) to Western Australia, until it was in a position to defray the expenses of its own government. Another great object of the Bill was to create a federal union of these colonies for certain general purposes. It was intended that, having separate and independent legislatures, they should be empowered to elect certain members to form a general assembly. This assembly would form a supreme court, which would have the regulation and management of weights and measures-of the post-office within the colonies; would legislate on roads, canals, and railways, superintend beacons and lighthouses, and would generally have the regulation of all matters mutually affecting the various colonies. A civil list was to be established over which the colonial legislature would have control, excepting the salaries of the governor and the judges, any alteration in which would require the sanction of the Crown. The Bill would also re-adjust the religious revenues of these colonies. By the exist ing Act, a sum of 30,000l. was set aside for this purpose. He proposed to retain the sum of 28,0001. for New South Wales, and to aportion a sum of 6,000l. for Victoria. In Van Diemen's Land 14,000ĺ. or 15,000l. was devoted to a similar pur pose. The measure provided further for the creation of municipal bodies, and contained a provision empowering the colonists, when they saw fit, to adopt two chambers instead of one, or to make such other changes in their constitution as might not be incompatible with the general ar rangement.

June 5. Mr. Hume moved for leave to bring in a Bill to amend the NATIONAL REPRESENTATION by extending the elective franchise so as to include all householders, by enacting that votes shall be taken by ballot, that the duration of parliaments shall not exceed three years, and

that the apportionment of representatives be rendered more equal to the population. -Lord J. Russell, as regarded the proportion of members to population, preferred the existing arrangement, as giving a more varied and a better representation of all classes in the country than they would have if they had only two sets of men in this House, representing two antagonistic sets of opinions. He believed that from time to time they might enlarge the suffrage; but if, at the present time, the whole country was divided into districts, and a right to vote was given indiscriminately to all men, they would be likely to be misled by artful and designing demagogues.-The House divided for the motion, 82; against it, 268.

June 6. The second reading of the INSOLVENT MEMBERS BILL was moved by Mr. Mffatt. He stated that it was mainly the same as the Bill which had been fully discussed in the early part of the Session, and rejected at nearly its last stage. The alterations were: first, it was proposed that members who became insolvent should be placed in exactly the same position as bankrupt members, thus removing the invidious distinction between members in trade and members not in trade; secondly, he proposed that an insolvent member should be re-eligible, provided he obtained his discharge from the court, while, by the former Bill, he was precluded from reelection.-Sir W. Clay moved that the Bill should be read a second time on that day six months.-The House divided for the second reading, 55; against it, 45.

The third reading of the AFFIRMATIONS BILL was opposed by Mr. Law. The numbers were-for the third reading, 73; against it, 51. On the question "that the Bill do pass," Mr. Newdegate renewed the opposition, and the House divided: for the Bill, 77; against it, 73.

The second reading of a Bill for facilitating the ENFRANCHISEMENT OF COPYHOLD ESTATES was moved by Mr. Aylonby. Since the appointment of the existing commission for the enfranchisement of copyhold very little property had been set free, and it was intended by the present Bill to make enfranchisement general and compulsory, after a reasonable time had been allowed for voluntary commutation. The Bill as it stood was only compulsory upon the landlord, and he should think it a great hardship upon the poorer tenants to make it compulsory upon the tenants also; but if the House chose to make it compulsory alike on both parties, he would, however unwillingly, accept the modification.-Mr. Heathcote objected that the Bill should be brought in on the responsibility of Government, and

he divided the House. The numbers were -for the second reading, 72; against it, 37.

June 8. On the motion for going into committee on the Bill for the amendment of the POOR LAW in Ireland, Sir H. W. Barron moved an amendment to the effect that the property at present rated to the support of the poor in Ireland was totally inadequate to the purpose, and that it was necessary to provide further means in order to remove the pressure which was crushing the rate-payers in that country.-Sir IV. Somerville opposed Sir H. Barron's motion as practically going to repeal the poor law. The House divided,—for the original motion, 144; against it, 30.

June 11. On the motion for the third reading of the PARLIAMENTARY OATHS Bill, the main objeet of which is to admit Jews to seats in Parliament, Mr. Law moved as an amendment that the Bill should be read a third time on that day six months. His chief argument was that the Jews had been always treated as aliens by the law of England. -The House divided for the third reading, 272; against it, 206. The Bill was then read a third time and passed.

Lord D. C. Stuart moved for leave to bring in a Bill for giving persons sued in the PALACE COURT, Westminster, a right of election to be sued in the County Court of the district in which they might reside. The Palace Court was made an instrument of great oppression to the poor. The fees charged were ten times the amount of any other court.-Leave given.

June 12. Mr. Cobden moved a resolution for the substitution of ARBITRATION in lieu of WAR, in the following terms :"That an humble address be presented to her Majesty, praying she will be graciously pleased to direct her principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to enter into communication with foreign powers, inviting them to concur in treaties, binding the respective parties, in the event of any future misunderstanding which cannot be arranged by amicable negociation, to refer the matter in dispute to the decision of arbitrators."-Viscount Palmerston replied to his arguments at considerable length, maintaining that the proposal was erroneous in principle, and also impracticable, and moved the previous question. -The House then divided,-for putting Mr. Cobden's motion, 79; against it, 176.

June 14. Mr. Herries raised a discussion upon CANADA, by moving that an Address should be presented to Her Majesty, praying her to withhold her assent to the Indemnification Act of the Canadian Legislature. The debate was adjourned

to the following day, when a division took place, Ayes 291, Noes 150.

June 18. Sir G. Grey then moved the second reading of a Bill, which passed the House of Lords on the previous Friday, for removing all doubt as to the right of the Crown to commute the sentence of capital punishment for TREASON in Ireland, on the usual condition of transportation for life. The Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland had mercifully decided to spare the lives of Messrs. Smith O'Brien, Meagher, M'Manus, and O'Donoghoe, and these persons had refused to accept the accompanying condition, urging its illegality.Mr. Napier moved, as an amendment, that counsel should be heard against the Bill at the bar of the House.-The Attorney-General, in resisting the amendment, explained the points of doubt. It had been contended in Ireland that the statute 12 Geo. I. c. 8, under which it was proposed to commute the sentence, referred to persons under sentence of death for felony, and therefore it was not applicable to cases of treason. He showed from authorities, and even from the statute 25 Edward III. that all treasons were felonies, though all felonies were not treasons. In this case there had been no pardon; but, if there had been the pardon would be conditional, and if the condition was refused the pardon became void. The argument that this was an ex post facto law was fallacious.-The House divided-For the amendment, 31; against it, 178.-On the question that the Bill be now read a second time-the numbers were, Ayes 175, Noes 19.

June 20. The debate adjourned from the 4th May on the MARRIAGES Bill (see June, p. 637) was proceeded with; and the House divided-For the second reading, 177; against it, 143.

June 21. Lord Nugent moved for a Select Committee-To inquire into the practicability of better provising for the maintenance of the indigent POOR of England and Wales, by an equal and general apportionment of the burden of the same.Negatived without a division.

Mr. G. A. Hamilton moved an address to the Crown praying for such a modification of the national system of EDUCATION IN IRELAND as would remove the conscientious objections entertained to it by many of the clergy and laity of the Estab.. lished Church; or for assistance to these elergymen in promoting scriptural education in Ireland. - The House divided: Ayes 102, Noes 162.

June 22. The Chancellor of the Exchequer opened his BUDGET. Although circumstances had occurred to check the progress of prosperity, the statement he

had to make was, on the whole, satisfactory. The failure of the potato crop in Ireland, the convulsions abroad for more than a year, and lastly the blockade of northern Europe, had operated injuriously on our commerce and revenue. He had estimated the revenue (without the corn duties, of which no calculation could be formed) at 51,550,000l. There had been a falling off in several of the ordinary items, but still the receipts, including the corn duties, amounted to 53,017,732/. The expenditure, which considerably exceeded the estimate, amounted to 53,287,1107. or about 250,000l. over the income. But in that were included 389,920/. for Irish distress and Canadian emigration, and 323,7877. the naval excess of the preceding year. Thus, excluding the extraordinary and unexpected items of expense, the ordinary expenditure was exceeded by the revenue, and so far he had kept his promise for the last year. The customs, including 950,000l. received for corn, returned 21,170,8597. He estimated, after making every allowance for the embarrassed position of commerce, that the customs, without the corn duties, would this year return 20,200,000. He took the excise at 13,700,000l. being nearly 250,0001. less than the amount produced last year, The other items of the revenue he treated in the same manner, making the estimate of the total revenue 52,252,000. The expenditure, which had been already laid in detail before the House, and included the charge on the consolidated fund, 31,750,0837.; the navy, including the packet service, 7,210,7247.; army and commissariat, 6,760,0837; and ordnance, 2,154,2077. would amount in the whole to 52,173,000l. If the excesses charged from former years were deducted from the expenditure, the surplus would be 737,000. This year, for the first time, the entire expense to be incurred was stated, and if the accounts had been made up in the old way, the expenditure would appear at least half a million less than it is. revenue had improved, on the whole, since the commencement of the present financial year, and he looked forward with confidence. There was a great improvement in the manufacturing districts, money was easy, there was a large reserve of bullion in the Bank, and confidence was reviving in the commercial world. The Treasury was revising all the branches of the public service, with a view to secure economy and efficiency. By the union of the stamps and excise into one board, a saving of nearly a quarter of a million had been effected, and similar reforms were in progress. This was not a time for rash experiments which might disturb the gradual


improvement of the industry of the country. -Mr. Cobden thought the budget would be in some respects satisfactory to the country; but, after all, it was only calcu

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lated to make both ends meet. vote of 3,000,000l. was agreed to, and the House resumed.



The election of the President of the Legislative Assembly took place on the 31st May, when M. Dupin, the candidate of the government and of the moderate party, was elected by a majority of 336 over M. Ledru Rollin, who had 182 votes, and Lamoricière 76.

On the 2nd of June a new ministry was announced by M. Odillon Barrot in the National Assembly, as follows:-M. Odillon Barrot, Justice; M. Passy, Finances; M. de Falloux, Public Instruction; General Rulhieres, War; M. de Tracy, Marine; M. Lacrosse, Public Works. The above were all members of the late Cabinet. The new ministers are:- - M. Dufaure, Interior (vice M. Leon Faucher); M. de Tocqueville, Foreign Affairs (vice M. Drouyn de Lhuys); M. Lanjuinais, Agriculture and Commerce (vice M. Buffet).

On the 13th of June Paris presented once again the aspect of émeute and rebellion; the disturbances originating in a demonstration got up by the Red Republicans, as a protest against the vote of the Assembly on the subject of Rome. Bloodshed, however, was avoided. By the close of the day the capital was declared in a state of siege, and occupied in every quarter by an army of at least 70,000 men. One result of these disturbances has been the restoration of General Changarnier to his double command of the National Guard and the First Military Division. The Socialist papers have been seized, and several of the Red Republican deputies-among them, Felix Pyat, Theodore Bac, Forrestier, Etienne Arago, and others, have been arrested. Ledru-Rollin escaped, having succeeded in crossing the Belgian frontier near Courtrai. The Moniteur on the 19th published a decree, signed by the President of the Republic, suspending the publication of La Peuple, La République Démocratique et Social, La Vraie République, La Démocratie Pacifique, La Réforme, and La Tribune.

At the same time the cholera almost divided public attention with the impending perils of revolution. The daily amount of deaths were as high as 700. By the 17th the daily returns had diminished to 211, and on the 19th were only 103.

Marshal Bugeaud, Madame Cavaignac, the mother of the general and widow of the notorious Conventionalist, Madame Marrast, wife of the late President of the National Assembly, General Donadieu, who filled a prominent part in politics under Louis XVIII. and Charles X., have died of cholera, as have the aged songstress Madame Catalani, and Baron Wallscourt, an Irish peer.



On the 31st May M. Lesseps, the envoy of the French republic, had concluded with the Roman authorities a convention, which he wished Gen. Oudinot to sign; but the latter alleged that military honour and his instructions forced him to refuse to sign an act which would prevent the entry of the French into Rome. The next day he threatened the Triumvirate with the renewal of hostilities, a threat which he carried into execution on the 3rd of June, when the Villa Pamfili, the Church of San Pancrazio, and the Villas Corsini and Valentini were successively taken. The Villa Pamfili was defended by numerous barricades and 2,000 men. Romans set fire to these positions with their mortars, and the French had to abandon them, but they were immediately retaken. The fighting continued for three days with considerable loss of life. Subsequently, the French general has chiefly employed himself in carrying on his siege works and he has now been before the city seven weeks without effecting his object. After the first and second parallels were completed, it was found that, from the nature of the ground outside the Porta S. Pancrazio, the cannon could not be pointed at the base of the walls, but served only to clear the bastions, and chip the upper stonework. The Romans stand to their guns with the greatest spirit.


The last sitting of the German Parliament at Frankfort, took place on the 30th of May. None of the ministers were present. A motion that the house should withdraw from Frankfort, and continue its sittings at Stuttgardt, in Wurtemberg, was carried by 71 votes against 64.

An insurrection having broken out in Baden, the Grand Duke took refuge in Frankfort on the 26th of May. The insurgents were attacked by the Hessian troops, and forced to evacuate the city of Worms; and the Prussians have since been called in to aid in the suppression of the rebellion. By letters of the 23d of June it appears that the pacification of the Lower Necker is almost completed, the Prince of Prussia having beaten the insurgents in a pitched battle at Waghausel.


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Buda was taken by the Hungarians on the 20th of May. It appears that the Hungarian general, Georgey, advanced upon Buda on the 4th of that month, and summoned the Austrian officer in command of the place to surrender. officer, General Hentzi, refused to capitulate, and bombarded Pesth on the evening of the same day. From that time the struggle continued until the 20th, on which day General Hentzi was killed. On the 24th the Hungarians defeated the Austrians at Woefsdrunel, a league from Presburg; and they have also defeated the Russians under General Sass, who lost 2,000 killed and 20 pieces of cannon. The Hungarian army amounts to 396,000


They have 408 pieces of cannon. Count Ladislas Teleki, the envoy of the Hungarian government to the French Republic, has addressed a letter to M. Drouyn de Lhuys, announcing the deposition of the House of Hapsburg Lorraine by the Hungarian National Assembly, and the declaration of independence of Hungary, with the states attached to it.

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mense number of prisoners, captured 160 cannon, and then got off and dispersed after doing considerable mischief.


A very serious riot occurred at New York on the 10th of May, arising from the jealousy with which the friends of Forrest, the American tragedian, entertained the performances of Mr. Macready at the Astor-place Opera-house. His first performance on the 7th of May was attended with gross insults; but by the persuasions of Mr. Washington Irving, Judge Kent, and other friends, he was encouraged to appear again. His opponents made every preparation to drive him with violence from the stage. They gave away tickets to ruffians, and an immense crowd, beyond what the theatre could contain, was gathered round its walls, who were ap. pealed to by every misrepresentation that could inflame them against the Britishers, the" Anglo-Americans," or " aristocrats." The police authorities were well-prepared, and certain of the rioters were arrested, some of whom madly attempted to set fire to the room in which they were confined. Meanwhile, the mob outside commenced an attack upon the theatre with paving-stones. At length the soldiers were called in, and a street-fight took place, during which fifteen persons were killed. The conduct of Mr. Macready was dignified and honourable throughout. The tragedy of Macbeth was entirely performed, and he never acted better. left the theatre in disguise, and left New York for Boston at 4 the next morning.


At St. Louis, the great capital of the south-west, a most disastrous fire on the 18th of May swept over the principal business portion of the city, extending for nearly a mile along the Mississippi, and consumed goods, warehouses, and steamboats-27 of the latter, several of them with cargoes on board-to the value, as estimated, of between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 dollars.



May 16. A large and very interesting meeting was held at the Hanover-square rooms on behalf of the Servants' Provident and Benevolent Society, at which H.R.H. Prince Albert, Lord John Russell, the Bishop of Oxford, and others, advocated the claims of the institution in very eloquent and persuasive terms. The financial scheme of this society is based upon

the credit of the Government, being regulated by the Deferred Annuities Act, which was passed in the 3d William IV. but of which only 700 persons have hitherto availed themselves. It is also intended to establish a home for female servants out of place, a model lodging-house for male servants, and to establish a registry. It is estimated that the class of domestic servants in England and Wales now ex

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