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ment, a book, &c. the said writing ought to be made upon. The use 'hereof will be very great to lawyers and scriveners, for making of indentures, and all kinds of counterparts; to merchants, &c. for copying of letters, accounts, invoices, entering of war. rants, and other records; to scholars for transcribing of rare manuscripts, and preserving originals from falsification, and other injuries of time.

"It lesseneth the labour of examination, serveth to discover forgeries and surreptitious copies, and to the transacting of all business of writing, as with ease and speed, so with privacy also."

It appears that this useful instrument of his had been made some years before, and was the result of that

application to mathematical and mecha

nical studies which formed the amusement of his boyish days: from which youths may learn this valuable and encouraging lesson,-that early acquire ments in learning and science, by taking deep root in the mind, may at a future period prove beneficial to the production of important discoveries.

The year following, Mr. Petty published a very valuable work on practical education, in which he recommended seminaries, wherein children should be taught to do something toward their living, as well as to read and write. Experience had convinced him of this important truth, that knowledge is only to be valued when it is applied to useful purposes, and becomes an assistant to industry. He was also of opinion, that children of the highest rank should be taught some genteel occu

pation, such as turning curious figures, the construction of mathematical instruments, and particularly the art of building small ships, with the manner of rigging and sailing them. Certainly nothing can be conceived more pleasing than such employments, by which, while young persons are amused, they acquire a habit of industrious application, the right use of time, and lay the foundation of principles, which at a future period may render them eminently serviceable to their country.

About this time Mr. Petty went to the university of Oxford, where he taught anatomy with great reputation, and was created Doctor of Physic. He was also one of those ingenious persons who met occasionally for the purpose of making philosophical experiments,

which laid the foundation of that famous institution, afterwards formed by charter from king Charles the Second, under the name of the Royal Society. In 1651, Mr. Petty was appointed professor of anatomy at Oxford, and the year following he went to Ireland, as physician to the army.

While in that kingdom he made some valuable purchases of lands,' which had been forfeited in the great rebellion.

After the restoration of Charles the Second he was knighted and made surveyor-general of Ireland, where he engaged in mercantile concerns, which turned to a very profitable account. But he was still indefatigable in his scientific pursuits; and paid particular attention to ship-building, in which

he made several improvements. died in Westminster, in 1687.


This remarkable person, who was of strict integrity and of irreproachable morals, left behind him an estate worth more than 10,000l. a-year, all acquired by his own industry.


THIS great mathematician was born of an ancient family, in Argyleshire, in Scotland, in 1698. Six weeks after his birth he had the misfortune to lose his father; but this loss was compensated by the tender care and affection of his mother.

At the age of nine years, however, by her death, the guardianship of him devolved to his uncle, who paid parti

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